Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Mondiale, Ideologia liberal, Ong - Ngo

Ngo (Ong) e le guerre ibride.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-05-16.

Macbeth__011

von Clausewitz aveva argutamente detto come la guerra altro non sia che la prosecuzione dell’attività politica con metodi cruenti. Nella sua ottica, guerra e pace altro non sarebbero che due aspetti complementari di una stessa realtà.

Il postulato implicito sarebbe che tutta la realtà diviene nel tempo, muta sé stessa e le sue intercorrelazioni, determina la formazione di nuovi equilibri sottominando quelli vecchi. Quasi invariabilmente è in gioco l’acceso e la gestione del potere. Talora il vecchio potere collassa, e quello nuovo ne prende il posto quasi senza colpo ferire, almeno senza troppo spargimento di sangue, ma ciò non è la norma: queste evenienze sono storicamente rare.

Usualmente sono le armi a rimuovere il vecchio ed instaurare il nuovo.

In fondo, a ben pensarci, la guerra altro non sarebbe che il mezzo per addivenire ad una nuova pace ragionevolmente stabile, che sancisca i nuovi equilibri.

In questa ottica, le Coalizioni Europee anti-napoleoniche altro non sarebbero state che lo strumento bellico per lasciare una Francia grande, ma non immensa, in una Europa abbastanza equilibrata. Tranne poche guerra locali, questa realtà restò in piedi fino alla fine dell’ottocento. Servirono poi due guerre mondiali per affermare la nascita di nuovi equilibri.

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Ma adesso lo scenario mondiale sembrerebbe essere mutato.

Se negli anni sessanta l’Occidente rendeva ragione di quasi il novanta percento del pil mondiale, nelle proiezioni dell’IMF al 2023 i paesi del G7 renderanno conto del 27.06% del pil ppa mondiale, mentre i Brics garantiranno il 35.90% dello stesso.

Governare l’Occidente non significa più governare il mondo, ed il mondo inizia a manifestare ampi segni di intolleranza verso l’Occidente.

Ma sarebbe severo errore estinguere il confronto nel mero comparto economico: la contrapposizione è invece tra due differenti Weltanschauung, tra due tradizioni di civiltà.

I paesi dell’est e del sud asiatico, e non solo loro, non condividono, ed avversano, i valori classici dell’Occidente. Non ne condividono etica e morale, e rigettano, perché alieno dalla loro tradizione culturale, il concetto di ‘democrazia’ che si estingua in un suffragio universale. La Cina è diventata un grande impero proprio perché non ha adottato questo sistema.

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Cercando di andare alla radice, non sono tanto in discussione le radici religiose, culturali, sociali, artistiche e politiche dell’Occidente, quando piuttosto la sua deriva illuministica, sfociata quindi nel giacobinismo, nell’idealismo dialettico e storico, ed infine, attraverso molte tappe, nel’attuale ideologia liberal. È questa ultima che sta crollando e che cerca disperatamente di sopravvivere.

Impero Romano. Analogie con l’attuale Occidente.

Tramonto non dell’Occidente ma della dottrina illuminista.

Davvero Autori quali Dostoevskij, Solov’ëv, Benson, Spengler ed Orwell avevano saputo guardare ben lontano.

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Le ngo, ogn, non sono dei fini, bensì dei mezzi, e come tale possono essere usate in situazioni pacifiche così come in situazioni belliche. Hanno il grande vantaggio che le loro azioni non coinvolgono in orima persona gli stati che le finanziano, potendo quindi svolgere guerre per procura.

Soros George. Uno stato negli stati. Ecco i suoi principali voivodati.

Soros, ngo e debito studentesco. 50 milioni di americani resi schiavi.

Guerra civile americana. Si avvicina lo scontro finale.

Trump vs Liberal. Ultima battaglia per la vita o la morte nel generale silenzio.

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Ciò premesso, riproponiamo alla lettura questo articolo datato tre anni or sono: molti dei suoi contenuti si sono dimostrati essere fatti reali.

«Foreign-linked NGOs all across the world play an irreplaceable role in fomenting Hybrid Wars»

Siamo chiari.

Al momento attuale, per moltissimi ambienti e persone, le guerre, ancorché pudicamente denominate ‘ibride’, sono di grande utilità, e quindi le attizzano e le fomentano con la massima cura possibile. Non potendo o volendo farle in prima persona, utilizzano l’esercito delle ngo.

Tuttavia la guerra è l’ultima ratio: non si sa mai come possa finire, ed il destino è spesso beffardo.

È una realtà della quale occorrerebbe prenderne atto.


Oriental Review. 2016-09-29. NGOs And The Mechanics Of Hybrid War

Foreign-linked NGOs all across the world play an irreplaceable role in fomenting Hybrid Wars. The Law of Hybrid War states that these sorts of conflicts are manufactured identity clashes predicated on disrupting, controlling, or influencing multipolar transnational connective infrastructure projects in key transit states by means of enacting Regime Tweaking, Regime Change, or Regime Rebooting (R-TCR). These three tactics could also be described as political concessions, a ‘peaceful’ or violent leadership transition, or a fundamentally altering of the state through such means as its pressured devolution into an easily manipulatable Identity Federation.

As for the sorts of identity conflicts that are expected to comprise Hybrid Wars, they can be categorized as being historical, ethnic, religious, socio-economic, and geographical (both in terms of political administrative and regional belonging). The catalyst for Hybrid War could be premeditated or happenstance, but in both instances, conflict scenarios are driven forward by the crucial public or discrete participation of foreign-linked (as in funded, managed, allied, etc.) NGOs, thereby justifying the reason why they’re being studied in this analysis alongside the latest trends in warfare.

Preconditioning

Just about all foreign-linked NGOs (hereby referred to simply as NGOs) aside from those engaged purely in humanitarian work with the explicit permission and supervision of the host state engage in preconditioning the target population to accept constructed political narratives. These mostly focus on historical, social, and/or political themes which aim to shape the mindset of the audience and contribute to the formation of absolutely new identities (e.g. “Kosovars”) or reformat existing ones (e.g. from patriotism to nationalism, or inclusive citizenship to exclusive separatist longings).

NGOs work alongside new and traditional media outlets in disseminating these ideas and multiplying the effect that they have in altering their audience’s consciousness so as to promote the organization and its patrons’ predetermined objectives in fostering weaponized identity separateness. False, disreputable, and/or questionable “facts” are usually circulated among the information-media-academia triangle of communities and sympathetic operatives in order to spread new mythologies that resultantly socio-engineer the targeted demographics’ mentalities through the crafted illusion that “authoritative voices” are endorsing them.

The seeds of new and/or historically debunked ideologies such as Liberalism and Nazism are planted in the minds of the audience and watered with a steady stream of supportive information designed to increase their appeal and build the foundation for the forthcoming anti-government gambit. After becoming indoctrinated with Liberalism, for example, one might become more susceptible to playing the role of a “useful idiot” and aggressively demonstrating against their government, while believers in Nazism and World War II-era “nationalism” might become emboldened to carry out hateful provocations against their historical ‘enemies’.

Both categories of ideological imprinting are thus equally useful in promoting set political objectives within the targeted state, with the promoted foundation being dependent on what the exact end game conflict is envisioned to be. Liberalism is more amenable to the formation of new identities for separatist purposes, whereas Nazism (or “extreme nationalism” to generalize) has a role to play in generating furious anti-government hate and provoking interstate conflict (e.g. Croatian Ustasha obsessively trying to destabilize Bosnia and the Serbian Province of Vojvodina).

Funding

NGOs must receive their money somehow, and aside from panhandling (or “canvassing for donations” as they term it) in the streets for some extra pocket cash, most of them receive the bulk of their funding from one of three main sources:

Governments:

The US government funds organizations such as the “National Endowment For Democracy” (self-described in 1991 as openly doing what the CIA used to covertly pull off 25 years before then) in order to behave as public-private intelligence fronts abroad, blending professional operative experience with a civilian “plausible deniability”.

Corporations:

Certain companies may have an interest in independently deploying their own NGOs, whether to lobby on behalf of their commercial interests or to agitate against their opponents, with this potentially escalating to the level of putting R-TCR (Regime – Tweaking, Change, Reboot) pressure on one or another government for these purposes.

“Philanthropies”:

“Private” donors such as George Soros and the Saudi Princes operate the Soros Foundation and “Islamic charities” respectively (the latter being the first large-scale weaponized worldwide NGO network during the 1980s Afghan War period), with their organizations having spread all across the globe by this point and sometimes working to promote their shadowy interests hand-in-hand with selected government clients.

Each of these three different sources provide seed funding and training to their on-the-ground proxies, with the desire being that they’ll succeed in cultivating a community of fifth and sixth columnists to aid with their goals. Organizational training and organizing techniques are pivotal because of how strongly they influence a group’s effectiveness, since at the end of the day, it’s usually just the small core membership that truly counts since their affiliated cohorts and civilians are either volunteers or low-cost temporary expenses.

NGOs are also very useful to their patrons because they function as middlemen facilitators in giving bribes and conveying blackmail to different private individuals (e.g. journalists) and political figures, and if they operate in a ‘laissez faire’ environment, then they could also valuably partake in different scales of money laundering activities to these ends or in support of their backers’ pecuniary interests. Even if they get caught, the single degree of separation that they “plausibly” enjoy from their sponsors due to their allegedly “independent” status is enough to insulate their supporters from any “official” blame.

Figureheads

NGOs have learned to employ local faces and personnel for staffing their foreign offices, understanding that this helps to deflect any immediate criticism of their foreign ties as well as confuse naïve ‘investigative reporters’ who only superficially look at the passports of the people working there in drawing their determinations. In reality though, this policy is actually less about obscuring the said NGOs links to abroad than it is about duping the populace that they plan on interacting with, since dedicated sleuths are usually successful at uncovering the financial, communication, and personal connections that link an investigated organization to a foreign entity.

Regular individuals on the street, however, might not have any idea that their fellow citizen passing out anti-government fliers and encouraging them to join a protest might be in the employ of foreign entities, even if some of the group’s staff themselves aren’t even aware of this. The disingenuity that comes with tricking people into joining an activity or organization due to the fact that the foreign ties behind it are deliberately obscured proves that the initiative’s backers knowingly accept that locals would likely shy away from these sorts of things if they knew that they were sponsored from abroad. Because many of them otherwise have no idea about this, however, they’re more susceptible to being misled into participating.

Along the lines of NGO figureheads, it should relatedly be mentioned that the leaders of the eventual anti-government government are sometimes pastors (Zimbabwe), monks (Myanmar, the Tibet Autonomous Region), or students (‘traditional’ Color Revolutions), all of which have an international reputation as being seemingly innocuous and harmless. No matter if this was actually true before The Event (the specifics of which will be described soon) or not, the fact is that the moment that these purportedly peaceful actors begin aggressively demonstrating against the government, provoking conflict with the police and military, and sometimes even attacking law enforcement officers and public & private property, they’ve forfeited their right to be responded to in a non-violent fashion, thus justifying the authorities’ decisive (and sometimes heavy-handed) crowd control techniques.

These figureheads also play another complementary role as well, and it’s to promote their presumably peaceful reputations through collusive media channels that have an interest in portraying these individuals as “calm pro-democracy protesters” so as to selectively edit and deliberately misreport their provoked clashes with the authorities as being the result of an “unpopular and power-hungry dictatorship killing its own people”. Never mind that none of this is factually true, but it’s the purposeful misperception that counts because of the ease with which such manufactured narratives can quickly blow a local, regional, or national event completely out of proportion in order to rapidly turn it into an “international crisis” that prompts foreign governments to put much-publicized pressure on the targeted state.

Demanding “Democracy”

The one tactic that all politically affiliated NGOs (whether openly stated or secretly of this disposition) end up pursuing is to eventually put pressure on their host government in a bid to make it more “democratic”. The reason why “democracy” is such an obsession for these organizations and their backers doesn’t necessarily have anything to do with its inherent ‘normative’ qualities (most often of the Western iteration of this ideology), but with its convenient structure in regularly phasing out leadership cycles. Western-influenced ‘democracies’ have predictable election cycles which are understood in the Theory of Hybrid War as representing nothing more than ‘peaceful’ opportunities for regime change, ergo the frantic activity that NGOs engage in before, during, and immediately after this time. Western ‘democracy’ is also marked by the inseparable political culture of lobbyists (legal bribers) and commercially driven mainstream media outlets, which makes it all the much easier for foreign actors and their local NGO pawns to interfere with the ‘democratic’ process and hijack it in the direction of their aims.

If elections don’t result in the desired outcome that the NGOs and their international backers are seeking, or if the next electoral cycle isn’t for a few years and these actors grow impatient and/or believe that the window for achieving their political ends might close by that time, then they’ll conspire to engineer an Event that puts pressure on the government to embark on R-TCR under the omnipresent threat of Hybrid War. Examples of the type of pressure that could be brought to bear against the authorities are election-related drama, corruption scandals (possibly sparked by NSA-‘leaked’ wiretaps and/or documents like Brazil’s ‘Constitutional Coup’ and the failed Macedonian Hybrid War attempt), disruptive ‘civil society’ movements (e.g. Armenia’s “Electric Yerevan”), and the politicization of controversial deals (e.g. Ukraine’s EU Association Agreement) that attempt to force a new or early round of elections.

If the government doesn’t tweak, change, or reboot after experiencing the ‘peaceful’ Color Revolution coercion that the foreign interests and their NGO foot soldiers try to ‘democratically’ force upon it, then the foreign government(s) behind the charade might take the decision to commence Hybrid War by transitioning the Color Revolution to an Unconventional War. It’s not always guaranteed that this will be the case, since sometimes certain Color Revolution disturbances aren’t fully backed up by their foreign sponsors and NGO network and are instead test probes for assessing structural vulnerabilities, responses, and other sorts of valuable intelligence that could come in handy in a future R-TCR scenario that’s more determinately supported for these purposes. After all, if the state is strong enough to defend against this asymmetrical attack using Democratic Security measures and/or the future insurgency lacks the long-term viability to sustain a successful R-TCR Hybrid War campaign (perhaps if an effective “Lead From Behind” regional arrangement can’t be constructed in time), then the foreign backers might pull out their support for the unrest and wait until another future opportunity could be engineered at a more decisive moment.

Making The Leap

When the Color Revolution undergoes the phased transition into Hybrid War by evolving into an Unconventional War, there’s a lot of the former behind-the-scenes structural arrangement that simply stays the same but under a different name. Many of the NGO networks and their personnel transition into armed insurgents or provide the fighters with informational, organizational, logistical, and/or material support.

Although the tactics of R-TCR have changed, the principle still remains the same, though with a noticeable and less covert influx of foreign assistance (insurgents, weapons) in pursuit of these ends.

Not all foreign-linked NGOs and their workers might partake in these openly seditious activities, but it’s a fair bet that many of them will to some extent or another, since after all, the only difference between the Color Revolutionaries and their Unconventional Warfare counterparts are the means which they’re willing to employ in achieving their shared goal, with ‘each hand washing the other’ in carrying out complementary tasks to this end.

Concluding Thoughts

Hybrid War is the latest form of aggression being waged by unipolar forces against the emerging Multipolar World Order, and the indirect way in which it’s practiced shields the perpetrator from immediate repercussions and thus increases the attractiveness of this stratagem. Seeing as how the reliance on Hybrid War as a foreign policy instrument shows no signs of realistically abating for the foreseeable future due to the novel and cost-effective nature in which it’s applied, there’s a pressing urgency to understand every facet in which it’s fought, ergo the pertinence in exposing the pivotal role that NGOs play in this process.

Remembering that Hybrid Wars are premised on the outside instigation and subsequent manipulation of identity conflict in a targeted transit state along the route of a prominent multipolar transnational connective infrastructure project, then it’s much easier to conceptualize the function that hostile foreign-linked NGOs have in putting this sequence of ‘controlled chaos’ into motion. These groups are tasked with provoking a sense of identity separateness among the population, a socially engineered sentiment which the organizers envision will eventually turn patriotic citizens into anti-government sympathizers.

The NGO networks and local personnel that participate in this foreign-assisted scheme and aspire to disrupt, control, or influence these aforementioned infrastructure projects through varying degrees of R-TCR pressure against the authorities usually transition into insurgents and other forms of asymmetrical threats when their failed Color Revolution tactics begin phasing into an enhanced Unconventional Warfare form. Since foreign-linked NGOs are the vanguard forces spearheading the latest iteration of Hybrid War all across the world, it’s in the best interests of every responsible government to place supervisory checks and operative restrictions on these groups in order to neuter their offensive capabilities and ensure national security.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Mondiale, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Import petrolifero salito a 10.68 milioni di barili al giorno.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-05-12.

Escher__Il_Cubo_

Lo sviluppo economico cinese non sarebbe stato possibile senza la possibilità di acquisire prodotti energetici a costi contenuti.

Se questa affermazione è vera per il passato, altrettanto lo sarebbe per il futuro: senza energia a basso costo sarebbe impossibile ogni qualsivoglia produzione industriale, tanto meno poi incrementarla.

Sarebbe impossibile comprendere la complessa politica estera cinese senza tener presente quanto ambisca a mantenere rapporti cordiali con i paesi produttori di petrolio.

«China imported 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day»

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«That’s the most in figures going back to 2010»

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«The record purchases are mostly due to large volumes of Iranian oil arriving in China before the expiration of the waivers»

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«An estimated 1.7 million barrels a day of refining capacity was taken offline for maintenance in April, the most during the March-May peak season»

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«While no country-by-country breakdown of the Chinese figures for April is available yet, observed crude exports from Iran to China rose to 806,452 barrels a day in March»

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«It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March»

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Al di à delle frasi di rito su clima ed alternative, superenfatizzate dai media occidentali, la Cina ha già approntato grandi piani energetici.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

«37 operating nuclear power reactors: 33,657 MWe»

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«60 nuclear reactors under construction: 68,7006 MWe»

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«179 nuclear reactors proposed: 205,000 MWe»

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Gli Usa costruiscono centrali nucleari. e la Cina esporta l’energia in Pakistan

«La Westinghouse Electric Corporation è una società leader nel settore dell’energia atomica con sede in Pennsylvania che ha ideato il reattore AP1000, l’unica unità nucleare al mondo di terza generazione ad acqua pressurizzata (PWR), il cui primo esemplare ha iniziato a funzionare nella provincia di Zhejiang, sita nella Cina orientale, e più precisamente a Sanmen.

Mercoledì 25 aprile [2018], infatti, è cominciato il caricamento del combustibile atomico del reattore numero 1 di quello che sarà un impianto rivoluzionario in quanto a dotazioni di sicurezza; caricamento che sarà completato entro l’estate e che porterà alla totale attivazione della centrale entro la fine di quest’anno.

La centrale di Sanmen avrà una potenza complessiva di 7,5 Gw e fa parte di un progetto della Spic, la State Power Investment Corporation ovvero una delle prime 5 compagnie cinesi nel campo delle costruzioni energetiche, che prevede la costruzione di altre 3 centrali di questo tipo: un’altra sempre nel distretto di Zhejiang, e due ad Haiyang, nella provincia di Shandong.»

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È in ogni caso evidente come lo sviluppo della motorizzazione, sia a scopi commerciali sia a scopi familiari, necessiti di derivati distillati dal petrolio, mentre il riscaldamento urbano dipende in larga quota dal gas naturale.

Fatti questi che dovrebbero rendere intelleggibile la geopolitica energetica mondiale cinesa, a partire dai suoi rapporti con l’Iran.


Bloomberg. 2019-05-08. Chinese Oil Imports Surge to Record as Iranian Crude Stockpiled

China’s crude imports climbed to a record last month as a drive to stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners.

– China imported 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most in figures going back to 2010.

Key Insights.

– The record purchases are mostly due to large volumes of Iranian oil arriving in China before the expiration of the waivers, according to Michal Meidan, an analyst with London-based industry consultant Energy Aspects Ltd. An estimated 1.7 million barrels a day of refining capacity was taken offline for maintenance in April, the most during the March-May peak season.

– The start-up of a mega refinery at Dalian by Hengli Group also boosted imports, according to Li Li, an analyst at Shanghai-based commodities researcher ICIS-China.

– While no country-by-country breakdown of the Chinese figures for April is available yet, observed crude exports from Iran to China rose to 806,452 barrels a day in March, the highest in six months, according to tanker-tracking data compiled by Bloomberg.

– It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio, Geopolitica Mondiale, Unione Europea

Cina. Nuova Via della Seta. 6,000 miliardi Usd in cinque anni.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-05-01.

Cina

«Nel 2018, l’economia cinese si è mantenuta complessivamente stabile, mostrando nel frattempo qualche miglioramento»

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«Il tasso di crescita è stato del 6,6% annuo, al primo posto tra le prime cinque economie del mondo, contribuendo per il 30% della crescita globale»

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«Il commercio estero cinese ha sfondato la soglia di 30 mila miliardi di renminbi, con un incremento relativo del 9,7%»

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«Sono stati 13 milioni e 600 mila i nuovi posti di lavoro creati e più di 13 milioni e 800 mila i residenti rurali usciti dalla soglia di povertà»

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«Da oltre cinque anni, la costruzione della nuova Via della Seta procede dal particolare al generale, avanzando nella pratica e crescendo con la cooperazione»

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«Ad oggi sono già 123 i paesi e 29 le organizzazioni internazionali che hanno sottoscritto con la Cina accordi di vario genere nell’ambito dell’iniziativa»

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«Gli scambi commerciali tra la Cina e i paesi lungo questa nuova arteria commerciale hanno superato la quota di 6000 miliardi di dollari.»

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«La Cina sostiene il principio della partecipazione di tutti alla discussione, alla realizzazione e alla condivisione della proposta nel promuovere la cooperazione internazionale sul tema, avanzando nello spirito della Via della Seta i concetti della cooperazione nella pace, dell’inclusione nell’apertura, nella vicendevole conoscenza e nel reciproco guadagno»

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«Lo scorso anno il valore degli scambi commerciali bilaterali [Cina – Italia] ha raggiunto quota 54 miliardi e 23 milioni di dollari, stabilendo un nuovo primato storico, mentre il complesso  degli investimenti nelle due direzioni ha superato il valore di 20 miliardi di dollari.»

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La Cina sta seguendo la direttiva di Realpolitik che le è connaturata e che a suo tempo Mr Deng Xiaoping aveva ribadito con forza: i rapporti commerciali non devono essere condizionati da visioni ideologiche e nessuno deve permettersi di sindacare la politica interna degli stati.

Negli ultimi cinque anni la Nuova Via della Seta ha comportato interscambi per 6,000 miliardi di dollari americani. Mentre nei confronti dell’Unione Europea la Cine sembrerebbe ricercare prevalentemente rapporti bilaterali, nei confronti dei paesi europei ex est l’approccio è rappresentato dal Ceec, ovvero il 16 + 1.

Cina. Ceec, un nome da imparare. Dazi ridotti dal 17.3% al 7.7%.

Cina. Ulteriore potenziamento del Ceec, Europa dell’est.

Asia alla conquista dell’Europa dell’Est.

Cina e Serbia. Belt and Road si approfonda nei Balcani.

Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern Countries.

Ceec, China and Central and Eastern European Countries

Cina. Sta colonizzando l’Europa dell’Est e l’Unione si strappa i capelli.

Eastern Europe cozies up to China

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«The 16+1 format is an initiative by the People’s Republic of China aimed at intensifying and expanding cooperation with 11 EU Member States and 5 Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia) in the fields of investments, transport, finance, science, education, and culture»

La attuale eurodirigenza uscente ha dei grandi problemi di rapporto diplomatico e politico con la Cina. Il giornale della confindustria tedesca ne ha recentemente preso atto in un lungo e dettagliato editoriale.

Cina. Grande Muraglia contro la Germania. – Handelsblatt.

«On paper there is nothing to stop German companies buying Chinese firms …. But the reality is very different»

Ue-Cina: Commissione, “Pechino partner strategico ma rivale sistemico che promuove modelli di governance alternativi”

«“L’Ue e la Cina sono partner economici strategici ma anche concorrenti.  …. parole del vicepresidente della Commissione Jyrki Katainen, …. “L’Unione europea e la Cina si sono impegnate a costruire un partenariato strategico globale, ma in Europa – si legge in un documento della Commissione – è sempre più diffusa la sensazione che l’equilibrio tra le sfide e le opportunità associate alla Cina si sia modificato”. La Cina “è al tempo stesso – vi si legge – un partner di cooperazione con obiettivi strettamente allineati a quelli dell’Ue, un partner di negoziato con cui l’Unione deve trovare un equilibrio di interessi, un concorrente economico che ambisce alla leadership tecnologica e un rivale sistemico che promuove modelli di governance alternativi”.»

Cina: l’Europa alzi la voce contro il mancato rispetto dei diritti umani

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La posizione dell’attuale eurodirigenza uscente nei confronti della Cina è riassunto chiaramente dalla proposta di risoluzione del parlamento europeo          sullo stato delle relazioni UE-Cina, votata dal parlamento europeo il 2018-06-12:

«…. considerando che la situazione dei diritti umani in Cina ha continuato a peggiorare, con un’intensificazione dell’ostilità del governo nei confronti del dissenso pacifico, della libertà di espressione e di religione e dello Stato di diritto; che gli attivisti della società civile e i difensori dei diritti umani sono arrestati, processati e condannati sulla base di capi d’imputazione vaghi come quello di “sovvertire il potere dello Stato” e di “scatenare liti e provocare problemi”, e che spesso sono detenuti in isolamento in località ignote, senza alcun accesso a cure mediche o all’assistenza legale; che i difensori dei diritti umani e gli attivisti sono trattenuti, talvolta, in “sorveglianza residenziale in un luogo designato”, un sistema utilizzato per impedire a queste persone qualsiasi contatto, e che durante tale detenzione sono spesso segnalati torture e maltrattamenti; che la Cina continua a negare la libertà di espressione e la libertà di informazione, e sono stati incarcerati molti giornalisti, blogger e voci indipendenti; che, nel suo quadro strategico sui diritti umani e la democrazia, l’UE si è impegnata a far sì che i diritti umani, la democrazia e lo Stato di diritto siano promossi in tutti i settori della sua azione esterna, senza eccezioni, ponendo i diritti umani al centro delle sue relazioni con tutti i paesi terzi, ivi compresi i suoi partner strategici; che i vertici UE-Cina devono essere impiegati per ottenere risultati concreti nell’ambito dei diritti umani, segnatamente il rilascio dei difensori dei diritti umani, degli avvocati e degli attivisti incarcerati;»

Concludendo.

Vedremo come la nuova Commissione Europea si relazionerà con la Cina: quella uscente avrebbe voluto imporre alla Cina condizioni di interferenza con i suoi problemi politici interni, cosa che la Cina né vuole né può accettare. Di qui lo stallo delle trattative.


Sole 24 Ore. 2019-04-21. L’economia cinese cerca il progresso nella stabilità: prospettiva luminosa per la cooperazione italo-cinese

Qualche tempo fa, con l’avvenuta apertura delle Due Sessioni cinesi, lo sguardo di tutto il mondo si è concentrato su Pechino. Ho visto che anche la stampa italiana ha dedicato ampio spazio a questo evento. Non sono mancati dell’evento resoconti accurati e bene illustrati, ma allo stesso tempo c’è stato chi ha espresso preoccupazione per l’andamento dell’economia cinese, sollevando obiezioni nel merito della cooperazione sino-italiana, soprattutto per quanto riguarda l’iniziativa OBOR (One Belt One Road).

Nel merito di ciò, vorrei esprimere alcune opinioni personali. Alcune sfide attendono l’economia cinese, ma il suo andamento positivo sul lungo periodo non cambia. Nel 2018, l’economia cinese si è mantenuta complessivamente stabile, mostrando nel frattempo qualche miglioramento. Il tasso di crescita è stato del 6,6% annuo, al primo posto tra le prime cinque economie del mondo, contribuendo per il 30% della crescita globale. Il commercio estero cinese ha sfondato la soglia di 30 mila miliardi di renminbi, con un incremento relativo del 9,7%. Sono stati 13 milioni e 600 mila i nuovi posti di lavoro creati e più di 13 milioni e 800 mila i residenti rurali usciti dalla soglia di povertà. Sullo sfondo di un’economia globale complessivamente priva di vigore, questi risultati ottenuti dalla Cina non possono mutare. Nella relazione di governo delle due Assemblee, l’obiettivo di crescita per quest’anno è stato fissato al 6,0–6,5%. Trovo che si tratti di una decisione oggettiva, basata sull’attuale congiuntura economica interna ed esterna al Paese, oltre che di una scelta obbligata per un’economia cinese che punta verso alti standard di sviluppo.

L’economia cinese è vasta, solida e sta sviluppando in fretta nuovi processi e nuovi modelli di gestione. Di fronte alla congiuntura di quest’anno, più complessa e severa, svilupperemo attivamente le nostre eccellenze, continuando ad intensificare le riforme strutturali sul lato della domanda e ad allargare la nostra apertura all’estero, a promuovere un modello di sviluppo guidato dall’innovazione, ad accelerare l’avvicendamento tra energie vecchie e nuove. Inoltre, il Governo spera di stimolare ancora la vitalità dell’economia e del mercato cinesi con misure concrete quali politiche finanziarie e monetarie ragionate, l’abbassamento delle imposte e il contenimento delle spese. Siamo certi di vincere queste sfide e queste difficoltà, realizzando gli obiettivi di crescita fissati e contribuendo ancora allo sviluppo stabile e salutare dell’economia globale.

La cooperazione sino-italiana è vantaggiosa per entrambi i paesi e le prospettive della Via della Seta ampie ed estese. L’iniziativa OBOR non è uno strumento geopolitico, ma un’importante occasione per promuovere l’integrazione regionale e realizzare lo sviluppo di tutti. Da oltre cinque anni, la costruzione della nuova Via della Seta procede dal particolare al generale, avanzando nella pratica e crescendo con la cooperazione. Ad oggi sono già 123 i paesi e 29 le organizzazioni internazionali che hanno sottoscritto con la Cina accordi di vario genere nell’ambito dell’iniziativa. Gli scambi commercia-li tra la Cina e i paesi lungo questa nuova arteria commerciale hanno superato la quota di 6000 miliardi di dollari. Una serie di progetti fondamentali dell’iniziativa OBOR è realizzata ed in funzione, giovando concretamente a diversi popoli. La Cina sostiene il principio della partecipazione di tutti alla discussione, alla realizzazione-ne e alla condivisione della proposta nel promuovere la cooperazione internazionale sul tema, avanzando nello spirito della Via della Seta i concetti della cooperazione nella pace, dell’inclusione nell’apertura, nella vicendevole conoscenza e nel reciproco guadagno. Tutto ciò ha poco o nulla a che fare con il “disegno egemonico” e la “trappola del debito” di cui qualcuno si diletta a parlare.

Attualmente l’andamento della cooperazione tra i nostri Paesi nell’ambito dell’iniziativa OBOR è molto positivo. Lo scorso anno il valore degli scambi commerciali bilaterali ha raggiunto quota 54 miliardi e 23 milioni di dollari, stabilendo-do un nuovo primato storico, mentre il complesso-so degli investimenti nelle due direzioni ha superato il valore di 20 miliardi di dollari. La cooperazione in settori come le infrastrutture portuali, le reti 5G, lo sviluppo di mercati in paesi terzi è in fase di ascesa. Il prossimo mese si terrà in Cina il secondo summit per la coopera-zione internazionale alla Via della Seta. Questo sarà un’altra ricca occasione per permettere ai diversi paesi di incontrarsi con le rispettive strategie e di intensificare la cooperazione effettiva. Poco tempo indietro, il premier Conte ha dichiarato che interverrà personalmente a questo evento in Cina, fatto che accogliamo con grande apprezzamento.

Quest’anno ricorre il quindicesimo anniversario del partenariato strategico tra i nostri Paesi, mentre il prossimo ricorreranno i cinquant’anni dallo stabilimento delle relazioni diplomatiche. Proprio in questo momento storico, il presidente Xi Jinping si appresta a compiere una visita di stato in Italia. Si tratterà del secondo viaggio in Italia di un Capo di Stato cinese in quasi dieci anni e della prima volta per Xi Jinping da quando ricopre questo incarico. Durante la visita, il Presidente discorrerà con i leader italiani dell’amicizia tra i nostri Paesi, per promuovere la cooperazione ed assistere alla firma di una serie di importanti accordi bilaterali. Inoltre, i due paesi rilasceranno una dichiarazione congiunta a stabilire le linee guida per lo sviluppo futuro delle relazioni sino-italiane, fissandone la direzione. Una visita storica che porterà con sé un’occasione storica. Spero che, con l’impegno condiviso delle Parti, esse riescano a coglierla, per approfondire la tradizionale amicizia sino-ita-liana, promuovendo a un livello più alto la cooperazione reciprocamente vantaggiosa tra i nostri Paesi ed arricchendo ancora e meglio i nostri Popoli.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Mondiale

Cina. Belt & Road. Testo statutario ufficiale. – Governo Cinese.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-04-11.

pechino-città-proibita-da-piazza-tiananmen

Si fa un gran parlare della Belt and Road Initiative, ma alquanto spesso essa è citata senza averne cognizione di causa.

Il Governo Cinese ha quindi rilasciato il testo qui riportato, che dettaglia in cosa questo piano consista.

A nostro sommesso avviso, questo documento dovrebbe essere riletto diverse volte.

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The State Council. The People’s Republic of China.

Full text: Action plan on the Belt and Road Initiative.

The following is the full text of an action plan on the China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China, with State Council authorization, on March 28.

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Preface

More than two millennia ago the diligent and courageous people of Eurasia explored and opened up several routes of trade and cultural exchanges that linked the major civilizations of Asia, Europe and Africa, collectively called the Silk Road by later generations. For thousands of years, the Silk Road Spirit-”peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit”-has been passed from generation to generation, promoted the progress of human civilization, and contributed greatly to the prosperity and development of the countries along the Silk Road. Symbolizing communication and cooperation between the East and the West, the Silk Road Spirit is a historic and cultural heritage shared by all countries around the world.

In the 21st century, a new era marked by the theme of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, it is all the more important for us to carry on the Silk Road Spirit in face of the weak recovery of the global economy, and complex international and regional situations.

When Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Central Asia and Southeast Asia in September and October of 2013, he raised the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road (hereinafter referred to as the Belt and Road), which have attracted close attention from all over the world. At the China-ASEAN Expo in 2013, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang emphasized the need to build the Maritime Silk Road oriented toward ASEAN, and to create strategic propellers for hinterland development. Accelerating the building of the Belt and Road can help promote the economic prosperity of the countries along the Belt and Road and regional economic cooperation, strengthen exchanges and mutual learning between different civilizations, and promote world peace and development. It is a great undertaking that will benefit people around the world.

The Belt and Road Initiative is a systematic project, which should be jointly built through consultation to meet the interests of all, and efforts should be made to integrate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road. The Chinese government has drafted and published the Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road to promote the implementation of the Initiative, instill vigor and vitality into the ancient Silk Road, connect Asian, European and African countries more closely and promote mutually beneficial cooperation to a new high and in new forms.

I.

Background

Complex and profound changes are taking place in the world. The underlying impact of the international financial crisis keeps emerging; the world economy is recovering slowly, and global development is uneven; the international trade and investment landscape and rules for multilateral trade and investment are undergoing major adjustments; and countries still face big challenges to their development.

The initiative to jointly build the Belt and Road, embracing the trend toward a multipolar world, economic globalization, cultural diversity and greater IT application, is designed to uphold the global free trade regime and the open world economy in the spirit of open regional cooperation. It is aimed at promoting orderly and free flow of economic factors, highly efficient allocation of resources and deep integration of markets; encouraging the countries along the Belt and Road to achieve economic policy coordination and carry out broader and more in-depth regional cooperation of higher standards; and jointly creating an open, inclusive and balanced regional economic cooperation architecture that benefits all. Jointly building the Belt and Road is in the interests of the world community. Reflecting the common ideals and pursuit of human societies, it is a positive endeavor to seek new models of international cooperation and global governance, and will inject new positive energy into world peace and development.

The Belt and Road Initiative aims to promote the connectivity of Asian, European and African continents and their adjacent seas, establish and strengthen partnerships among the countries along the Belt and Road, set up all-dimensional, multitiered and composite connectivity networks, and realize diversified, independent, balanced and sustainable development in these countries. The connectivity projects of the Initiative will help align and coordinate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road, tap market potential in this region, promote investment and consumption, create demands and job opportunities, enhance people-to-people and cultural exchanges, and mutual learning among the peoples of the relevant countries, and enable them to understand, trust and respect each other and live in harmony, peace and prosperity.

China’s economy is closely connected with the world economy. China will stay committed to the basic policy of opening-up, build a new pattern of all-around opening-up, and integrate itself deeper into the world economic system. The Initiative will enable China to further expand and deepen its opening-up, and to strengthen its mutually beneficial cooperation with countries in Asia, Europe and Africa and the rest of the world. China is committed to shouldering more responsibilities and obligations within its capabilities, and making greater contributions to the peace and development of mankind.

II.

Principles

The Belt and Road Initiative is in line with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. It upholds the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence: mutual respect for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.

The Initiative is open for cooperation. It covers, but is not limited to, the area of the ancient Silk Road. It is open to all countries, and international and regional organizations for engagement, so that the results of the concerted efforts will benefit wider areas.

The Initiative is harmonious and inclusive. It advocates tolerance among civilizations, respects the paths and modes of development chosen by different countries, and supports dialogues among different civilizations on the principles of seeking common ground while shelving differences and drawing on each other’s strengths, so that all countries can coexist in peace for common prosperity.

The Initiative follows market operation. It will abide by market rules and international norms, give play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation and the primary role of enterprises, and let the governments perform their due functions.

The Initiative seeks mutual benefit. It accommodates the interests and concerns of all parties involved, and seeks a conjunction of interests and the “biggest common denominator” for cooperation so as to give full play to the wisdom and creativity, strengths and potentials of all parties.

III.

Framework

The Belt and Road Initiative is a way for win-win cooperation that promotes common development and prosperity and a road toward peace and friendship by enhancing mutual understanding and trust, and strengthening all-around exchanges. The Chinese government advocates peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit. It promotes practical cooperation in all fields, and works to build a community of shared interests, destiny and responsibility featuring mutual political trust, economic integration and cultural inclusiveness.

The Belt and Road run through the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, connecting the vibrant East Asia economic circle at one end and developed European economic circle at the other, and encompassing countries with huge potential for economic development. The Silk Road Economic Belt focuses on bringing together China, Central Asia, Russia and Europe (the Baltic); linking China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea through Central Asia and West Asia; and connecting China with Southeast Asia, South Asia and the Indian Ocean. The 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road is designed to go from China’s coast to Europe through the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean in one route, and from China’s coast through the South China Sea to the South Pacific in the other.

On land, the Initiative will focus on jointly building a new Eurasian Land Bridge and developing China-Mongolia-Russia, China-Central Asia-West Asia and China-Indochina Peninsula economic corridors by taking advantage of international transport routes, relying on core cities along the Belt and Road and using key economic industrial parks as cooperation platforms. At sea, the Initiative will focus on jointly building smooth, secure and efficient transport routes connecting major sea ports along the Belt and Road. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor are closely related to the Belt and Road Initiative, and therefore require closer cooperation and greater progress.

The Initiative is an ambitious economic vision of the opening-up of and cooperation among the countries along the Belt and Road. Countries should work in concert and move toward the objectives of mutual benefit and common security. To be specific, they need to improve the region’s infrastructure, and put in place a secure and efficient network of land, sea and air passages, lifting their connectivity to a higher level; further enhance trade and investment facilitation, establish a network of free trade areas that meet high standards, maintain closer economic ties, and deepen political trust; enhance cultural exchanges; encourage different civilizations to learn from each other and flourish together; and promote mutual understanding, peace and friendship among people of all countries.

IV.

Cooperation Priorities

Countries along the Belt and Road have their own resource advantages and their economies are mutually complementary. Therefore, there is a great potential and space for cooperation. They should promote policy coordination, facilities connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration and people-to-people bonds as their five major goals, and strengthen cooperation in the following key areas:

Policy coordination

Enhancing policy coordination is an important guarantee for implementing the Initiative. We should promote intergovernmental cooperation, build a multilevel intergovernmental macro policy exchange and communication mechanism, expand shared interests, enhance mutual political trust, and reach new cooperation consensus. Countries along the Belt and Road may fully coordinate their economic development strategies and policies, work out plans and measures for regional cooperation, negotiate to solve cooperation-related issues, and jointly provide policy support for the implementation of practical cooperation and large-scale projects.

Facilities connectivity

Facilities connectivity is a priority area for implementing the Initiative. On the basis of respecting each other’s sovereignty and security concerns, countries along the Belt and Road should improve the connectivity of their infrastructure construction plans and technical standard systems, jointly push forward the construction of international trunk passageways, and form an infrastructure network connecting all subregions in Asia, and between Asia, Europe and Africa step by step. At the same time, efforts should be made to promote green and low-carbon infrastructure construction and operation management, taking into full account the impact of climate change on the construction.

With regard to transport infrastructure construction, we should focus on the key passageways, junctions and projects, and give priority to linking up unconnected road sections, removing transport bottlenecks, advancing road safety facilities and traffic management facilities and equipment, and improving road network connectivity. We should build a unified coordination mechanism for whole-course transportation, increase connectivity of customs clearance, reloading and multimodal transport between countries, and gradually formulate compatible and standard transport rules, so as to realize international transport facilitation. We should push forward port infrastructure construction, build smooth land-water transportation channels, and advance port cooperation; increase sea routes and the number of voyages, and enhance information technology cooperation in maritime logistics. We should expand and build platforms and mechanisms for comprehensive civil aviation cooperation, and quicken our pace in improving aviation infrastructure.

We should promote cooperation in the connectivity of energy infrastructure, work in concert to ensure the security of oil and gas pipelines and other transport routes, build cross-border power supply networks and power-transmission routes, and cooperate in regional power grid upgrading and transformation.

We should jointly advance the construction of cross-border optical cables and other communications trunk line networks, improve international communications connectivity, and create an Information Silk Road. We should build bilateral cross-border optical cable networks at a quicker pace, plan transcontinental submarine optical cable projects, and improve spatial (satellite) information passageways to expand information exchanges and cooperation.

Unimpeded trade

Investment and trade cooperation is a major task in building the Belt and Road. We should strive to improve investment and trade facilitation, and remove investment and trade barriers for the creation of a sound business environment within the region and in all related countries. We will discuss with countries and regions along the Belt and Road on opening free trade areas so as to unleash the potential for expanded cooperation.

Countries along the Belt and Road should enhance customs cooperation such as information exchange, mutual recognition of regulations, and mutual assistance in law enforcement; improve bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the fields of inspection and quarantine, certification and accreditation, standard measurement, and statistical information; and work to ensure that the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement takes effect and is implemented. We should improve the customs clearance facilities of border ports, establish a “single-window” in border ports, reduce customs clearance costs, and improve customs clearance capability. We should increase cooperation in supply chain safety and convenience, improve the coordination of cross-border supervision procedures, promote online checking of inspection and quarantine certificates, and facilitate mutual recognition of Authorized Economic Operators. We should lower non-tariff barriers, jointly improve the transparency of technical trade measures, and enhance trade liberalization and facilitation.

We should expand trading areas, improve trade structure, explore new growth areas of trade, and promote trade balance. We should make innovations in our forms of trade, and develop cross-border e-commerce and other modern business models. A service trade support system should be set up to consolidate and expand conventional trade, and efforts to develop modern service trade should be strengthened. We should integrate investment and trade, and promote trade through investment.

We should speed up investment facilitation, eliminate investment barriers, and push forward negotiations on bilateral investment protection agreements and double taxation avoidance agreements to protect the lawful rights and interests of investors.

We should expand mutual investment areas, deepen cooperation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, agricultural machinery manufacturing and farm produce processing, and promote cooperation in marine-product farming, deep-sea fishing, aquatic product processing, seawater desalination, marine biopharmacy, ocean engineering technology, environmental protection industries, marine tourism and other fields. We should increase cooperation in the exploration and development of coal, oil, gas, metal minerals and other conventional energy sources; advance cooperation in hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, solar power and other clean, renewable energy sources; and promote cooperation in the processing and conversion of energy and resources at or near places where they are exploited, so as to create an integrated industrial chain of energy and resource cooperation. We should enhance cooperation in deep-processing technology, equipment and engineering services in the fields of energy and resources.

We should push forward cooperation in emerging industries. In accordance with the principles of mutual complementarity and mutual benefit, we should promote in-depth cooperation with other countries along the Belt and Road in new-generation information technology, biotechnology, new energy technology, new materials and other emerging industries, and establish entrepreneurial and investment cooperation mechanisms.

We should improve the division of labor and distribution of industrial chains by encouraging the entire industrial chain and related industries to develop in concert; establish R & D, production and marketing systems; and improve industrial supporting capacity and the overall competitiveness of regional industries. We should increase the openness of our service industry to each other to accelerate the development of regional service industries. We should explore a new mode of investment cooperation, working together to build all forms of industrial parks such as overseas economic and trade cooperation zones and cross-border economic cooperation zones, and promote industrial cluster development. We should promote ecological progress in conducting investment and trade, increase cooperation in conserving eco-environment, protecting biodiversity, and tackling climate change, and join hands to make the Silk Road an environment-friendly one.

We welcome companies from all countries to invest in China, and encourage Chinese enterprises to participate in infrastructure construction in other countries along the Belt and Road, and make industrial investments there. We support localized operation and management of Chinese companies to boost the local economy, increase local employment, improve local livelihoods, and take social responsibilities in protecting local biodiversity and eco-environment.

Financial integration

Financial integration is an important underpinning for implementing the Belt and Road Initiative. We should deepen financial cooperation, and make more efforts in building a currency stability system, investment and financing system and credit information system in Asia. We should expand the scope and scale of bilateral currency swap and settlement with other countries along the Belt and Road, open and develop the bond market in Asia, make joint efforts to establish the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and BRICS New Development Bank, conduct negotiation among related parties on establishing Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) financing institution, and set up and put into operation the Silk Road Fund as early as possible. We should strengthen practical cooperation of China-ASEAN Interbank Association and SCO Interbank Association, and carry out multilateral financial cooperation in the form of syndicated loans and bank credit. We will support the efforts of governments of the countries along the Belt and Road and their companies and financial institutions with good credit-rating to issue Renminbi bonds in China. Qualified Chinese financial institutions and companies are encouraged to issue bonds in both Renminbi and foreign currencies outside China, and use the funds thus collected in countries along the Belt and Road.

We should strengthen financial regulation cooperation, encourage the signing of MOUs on cooperation in bilateral financial regulation, and establish an efficient regulation coordination mechanism in the region. We should improve the system of risk response and crisis management, build a regional financial risk early-warning system, and create an exchange and cooperation mechanism of addressing cross-border risks and crisis. We should increase cross-border exchange and cooperation between credit investigation regulators, credit investigation institutions and credit rating institutions. We should give full play to the role of the Silk Road Fund and that of sovereign wealth funds of countries along the Belt and Road, and encourage commercial equity investment funds and private funds to participate in the construction of key projects of the Initiative.

People-to-people bond

People-to-people bond provides the public support for implementing the Initiative. We should carry forward the spirit of friendly cooperation of the Silk Road by promoting extensive cultural and academic exchanges, personnel exchanges and cooperation, media cooperation, youth and women exchanges and volunteer services, so as to win public support for deepening bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

We should send more students to each other’s countries, and promote cooperation in jointly running schools. China provides 10,000 government scholarships to the countries along the Belt and Road every year. We should hold culture years, arts festivals, film festivals, TV weeks and book fairs in each other’s countries; cooperate on the production and translation of fine films, radio and TV programs; and jointly apply for and protect World Cultural Heritage sites. We should also increase personnel exchange and cooperation between countries along the Belt and Road.

We should enhance cooperation in and expand the scale of tourism; hold tourism promotion weeks and publicity months in each other’s countries; jointly create competitive international tourist routes and products with Silk Road features; and make it more convenient to apply for tourist visa in countries along the Belt and Road. We should push forward cooperation on the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road cruise tourism program. We should carry out sports exchanges and support countries along the Belt and Road in their bid for hosting major international sports events.

We should strengthen cooperation with neighboring countries on epidemic information sharing, the exchange of prevention and treatment technologies and the training of medical professionals, and improve our capability to jointly address public health emergencies. We will provide medical assistance and emergency medical aid to relevant countries, and carry out practical cooperation in maternal and child health, disability rehabilitation, and major infectious diseases including AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. We will also expand cooperation on traditional medicine.

We should increase our cooperation in science and technology, establish joint labs (or research centers), international technology transfer centers and maritime cooperation centers, promote sci-tech personnel exchanges, cooperate in tackling key sci-tech problems, and work together to improve sci-tech innovation capability.

We should integrate existing resources to expand and advance practical cooperation between countries along the Belt and Road on youth employment, entrepreneurship training, vocational skill development, social security management, public administration and management and in other areas of common interest.

We should give full play to the bridging role of communication between political parties and parliaments, and promote friendly exchanges between legislative bodies, major political parties and political organizations of countries along the Belt and Road. We should carry out exchanges and cooperation among cities, encourage major cities in these countries to become sister cities, focus on promoting practical cooperation, particularly cultural and people-to-people exchanges, and create more lively examples of cooperation. We welcome the think tanks in the countries along the Belt and Road to jointly conduct research and hold forums.

We should increase exchanges and cooperation between nongovernmental organizations of countries along the Belt and Road, organize public interest activities concerning education, healthcare, poverty reduction, biodiversity and ecological protection for the benefit of the general public, and improve the production and living conditions of poverty-stricken areas along the Belt and Road. We should enhance international exchanges and cooperation on culture and media, and leverage the positive role of the Internet and new media tools to foster harmonious and friendly cultural environment and public opinion.

V.

Cooperation Mechanisms

The world economic integration is accelerating and regional cooperation is on the upswing. China will take full advantage of the existing bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms to push forward the building of the Belt and Road and to promote the development of regional cooperation.

We should strengthen bilateral cooperation, and promote comprehensive development of bilateral relations through multilevel and multichannel communication and consultation. We should encourage the signing of cooperation MOUs or plans, and develop a number of bilateral cooperation pilot projects. We should establish and improve bilateral joint working mechanisms, and draw up implementation plans and road maps for advancing the Belt and Road Initiative. In addition, we should give full play to the existing bilateral mechanisms such as joint committee, mixed committee, coordinating committee, steering committee and management committee to coordinate and promote the implementation of cooperation projects.

We should enhance the role of multilateral cooperation mechanisms, make full use of existing mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), ASEAN Plus China (10+1), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), China-Arab States Cooperation Forum (CASCF), China-Gulf Cooperation Council Strategic Dialogue, Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Economic Cooperation, and Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) to strengthen communication with relevant countries, and attract more countries and regions to participate in the Belt and Road Initiative.

We should continue to encourage the constructive role of the international forums and exhibitions at regional and subregional levels hosted by countries along the Belt and Road, as well as such platforms as Boao Forum for Asia, China-ASEAN Expo, China-Eurasia Expo, Euro-Asia Economic Forum, China International Fair for Investment and Trade, China-South Asia Expo, China-Arab States Expo, Western China International Fair, China-Russia Expo, and Qianhai Cooperation Forum. We should support the local authorities and general public of countries along the Belt and Road to explore the historical and cultural heritage of the Belt and Road, jointly hold investment, trade and cultural exchange activities, and ensure the success of the Silk Road (Dunhuang) International Culture Expo, Silk Road International Film Festival and Silk Road International Book Fair. We propose to set up an international summit forum on the Belt and Road Initiative.

VI.

China’s Regions in Pursuing Opening-Up

In advancing the Belt and Road Initiative, China will fully leverage the comparative advantages of its various regions, adopt a proactive strategy of further opening-up, strengthen interaction and cooperation among the eastern, western and central regions, and comprehensively improve the openness of the Chinese economy.

Northwestern and northeastern regions. We should make good use of Xinjiang’s geographic advantages and its role as a window of westward opening-up to deepen communication and cooperation with Central, South and West Asian countries, make it a key transportation, trade, logistics, culture, science and education center, and a core area on the Silk Road Economic Belt. We should give full scope to the economic and cultural strengths of Shaanxi and Gansu provinces and the ethnic and cultural advantages of the Ningxia Hui autonomous region and Qinghai province, build Xi’an into a new focus of reform and opening-up in China’s interior, speed up the development and opening-up of cities such as Lanzhou and Xining, and advance the building of the Ningxia Inland Opening-up Pilot Economic Zone with the goal of creating strategic channels, trade and logistics hubs and key bases for industrial and cultural exchanges opening to Central, South and West Asian countries. We should give full play to Inner Mongolia’s proximity to Mongolia and Russia, improve the railway links connecting Heilongjiang province with Russia and the regional railway network, strengthen cooperation between China’s Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces and Russia’s Far East region on sea-land multimodal transport, and advance the construction of an Eurasian high-speed transport corridor linking Beijing and Moscow with the goal of building key windows opening to the north.

Southwestern region. We should give full play to the unique advantage of Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region as a neighbor of ASEAN countries, speed up the opening-up and development of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone and the Pearl River-Xijiang Economic Zone, build an international corridor opening to the ASEAN region, create new strategic anchors for the opening-up and development of the southwest and mid-south regions of China, and form an important gateway connecting the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. We should make good use of the geographic advantage of Yunnan province, advance the construction of an international transport corridor connecting China with neighboring countries, develop a new highlight of economic cooperation in the Greater Mekong Subregion, and make the region a pivot of China’s opening-up to South and Southeast Asia. We should promote the border trade and tourism and culture cooperation between Tibet autonomous region and neighboring countries such as Nepal.

Coastal regions, and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. We should leverage the strengths of the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, west coast of the Taiwan Straits, Bohai Rim, and other areas with economic zones boasting a high level of openness, robust economic strengths and strong catalytic role, speed up the development of the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, and support Fujian province in becoming a core area of the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. We should give full scope to the role of Qianhai (Shenzhen), Nansha (Guangzhou), Hengqin (Zhuhai) and Pingtan (Fujian) in opening-up and cooperation, deepen their cooperation with Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and help to build the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Big Bay Area. We should promote the development of the Zhejiang Marine Economy Development Demonstration Zone, Fujian Marine Economic Pilot Zone and Zhoushan Archipelago New Area, and further open Hainan province as an international tourism island. We should strengthen the port construction of coastal cities such as Shanghai, Tianjin, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang, Shantou, Qingdao, Yantai, Dalian, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Quanzhou, Haikou and Sanya, and strengthen the functions of international hub airports such as Shanghai and Guangzhou. We should use opening-up to motivate these areas to carry out deeper reform, create new systems and mechanisms of open economy, step up scientific and technological innovation, develop new advantages for participating in and leading international cooperation and competition, and become the pacesetter and main force in the Belt and Road Initiative, particularly the building of the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. We should leverage the unique role of overseas Chinese and the Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions, and encourage them to participate in and contribute to the Belt and Road Initiative. We should also make proper arrangements for the Taiwan region to be part of this effort.

Inland regions. We should make use of the advantages of inland regions, including a vast landmass, rich human resources and a strong industrial foundation, focus on such key regions as the city clusters along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, around Chengdu and Chongqing, in central Henan province, around Hohhot, Baotou, Erdos and Yulin, and around Harbin and Changchun to propel regional interaction and cooperation and industrial concentration. We should build Chongqing into an important pivot for developing and opening up the western region, and make Chengdu, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang and Hefei leading areas of opening-up in the inland regions. We should accelerate cooperation between regions on the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River and their counterparts along Russia’s Volga River. We should set up coordination mechanisms in terms of railway transport and port customs clearance for the China-Europe corridor, cultivate the brand of “China-Europe freight trains,” and construct a cross-border transport corridor connecting the eastern, central and western regions. We should support inland cities such as Zhengzhou and Xi’an in building airports and international land ports, strengthen customs clearance cooperation between inland ports and ports in the coastal and border regions, and launch pilot e-commerce services for cross-border trade. We should optimize the layout of special customs oversight areas, develop new models of processing trade, and deepen industrial cooperation with countries along the Belt and Road.

VII.

China in Action

For more than a year, the Chinese government has been actively promoting the building of the Belt and Road, enhancing communication and consultation and advancing practical cooperation with countries along the Belt and Road, and introduced a series of policies and measures for early outcomes.

High-level guidance and facilitation. President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang have visited over 20 countries, attended the Dialogue on Strengthening Connectivity Partnership and the sixth ministerial conference of the China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, and met with leaders of relevant countries to discuss bilateral relations and regional development issues. They have used these opportunities to explain the rich contents and positive implications of the Belt and Road Initiative, and their efforts have helped bring about a broad consensus on the Belt and Road Initiative.

Signing cooperation framework. China has signed MOUs of cooperation on the joint development of the Belt and Road with some countries, and on regional cooperation and border cooperation and mid-and long-term development plans for economic and trade cooperation with some neighboring countries. It has proposed outlines of regional cooperation plans with some adjacent countries.

Promoting project cooperation. China has enhanced communication and consultation with countries along the Belt and Road, and promoted a number of key cooperation projects in the fields of infrastructure connectivity, industrial investment, resource development, economic and trade cooperation, financial cooperation, cultural exchanges, ecological protection and maritime cooperation where the conditions are right.

Improving policies and measures. The Chinese government will integrate its domestic resources to provide stronger policy support for the Initiative. It will facilitate the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. China has proposed the Silk Road Fund, and the investment function of the China-Eurasia Economic Cooperation Fund will be reinforced. We will encourage bank card clearing institutions to conduct cross-border clearing operations, and payment institutions to conduct cross-border payment business. We will actively promote investment and trade facilitation, and accelerate the reform of integrated regional customs clearance.

Boosting the role of cooperation platforms. A number of international summits, forums, seminars and expos on the theme of the Belt and Road Initiative have been held, which have played an important role in increasing mutual understanding, reaching consensus and deepening cooperation.

VIII.

Embracing a Brighter Future Together

Though proposed by China, the Belt and Road Initiative is a common aspiration of all countries along their routes. China is ready to conduct equal-footed consultation with all countries along the Belt and Road to seize the opportunity provided by the Initiative, promote opening-up, communication and integration among countries in a larger scope, with higher standards and at deeper levels, while giving consideration to the interests and aspirations of all parties. The development of the Belt and Road is open and inclusive, and we welcome the active participation of all countries and international and regional organizations in this Initiative.

The development of the Belt and Road should mainly be conducted through policy communication and objectives coordination. It is a pluralistic and open process of cooperation which can be highly flexible, and does not seek conformity. China will join other countries along the Belt and Road to substantiate and improve the content and mode of the Belt and Road cooperation, work out relevant timetables and road maps, and align national development programs and regional cooperation plans.

China will work with countries along the Belt and Road to carry out joint research, forums and fairs, personnel training, exchanges and visits under the framework of existing bilateral, multilateral, regional and subregional cooperation mechanisms, so that they will gain a better understanding and recognition of the contents, objectives and tasks of the Belt and Road Initiative.

China will work with countries along the Belt and Road to steadily advance demonstration projects, jointly identify programs that accommodate bilateral and multilateral interests, and accelerate the launching of programs that are agreed upon by parties and ready for implementation, so as to ensure early harvest.

The Belt and Road cooperation features mutual respect and trust, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, and mutual learning between civilizations. As long as all countries along the Belt and Road make concerted efforts to pursue our common goal, there will be bright prospects for the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road, and the people of countries along the Belt and Road can all benefit from this Initiative.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Mondiale

Anno Elettorale 2019. 50 stati e due miliardi di Elettori andranno al voto.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-03.

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«In 2019, more people will vote than ever before.

Nearly two billion voters in 50 countries around the world will head to the polls this year to elect their leaders.

Some of the biggest elections include India – the world’s largest democracy with 800 million eligible voters, Indonesia – 187 million registered voters and Nigeria – 84 million registered voters.

Here’s how different voting systems work around the world»

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Questi sono gli stati europei.

2019-03-03: Estonia;

2019-03-16: Slovakia;

2019-04-14: Finlandia

2019-04-28: Spagna;

2019-05-12: Lituania;

2019-05-26: Belgio;

2019-02-27: Paesi Bassi;

2019-06-30: Danimarca;

2019-06-30: Lettonia;

2019-10-06: Portogallo;

2019-10-20: Grecia;

2019-12-??: Croazia.

Questi sono stati di interesse mondiale:

2019-03-31: Ukraina;

2019-04-??: India;

2019-04-09: Israele;

2019-04-17: Indonesia;

2019-05-??: Australia;

2019-05-13: Filippine;

2019-10-20: Svizzera;

2019-10-??: Canada.

* * * * * * *

In quasi tutti i paesi che andranno alle elezioni i sondaggi elettorali non indicano un partito, ovvero una coalizione, chiaramente egemone. Di conseguenza potrebbero accadere anche ribaltamento delle linee politiche ed economiche finora seguite.

Questa asserzione sembrerebbe essere particolarmente attuale negli stati europei, i capi di stato o di governo dei quali siedono a pieno diritto nel Consiglio Europeo, massimo organo direzionale dell’Unione Europea. Molti di questi stati hanno governi minoritari ovvero coalizioni in via di disgregazione.

Si preannuncia un anno davvero sorprendente.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Mondiale, Unione Europea

EU. Rutte e svolta verso la Realpolitik.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-02-17.

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Herr Mark Rutte è un uomo politico estremamente duttile, in grado di saper galleggiare indipendentemente dal liquido in è stato tuffato dall’alterna sorte. Se questa è la grande dote di un uomo politico, nel converso rende molto difficile capire cosa voglia, a parte la permanenza al potere.

Olanda. Rutte si schiera (quasi) con gli ‘eurocritici’. – Deutsche Welle.

«Mark Rutte è nato a L’Aia, 14 febbraio 1967: è un politico olandese. Appartiene al Partito Popolare per la Libertà e la Democrazia (VVD) ed è Primo ministro dal 14 ottobre 2010.

La sua linea politica potrebbe essere identificata con quella dei liberals democratici americani oppure con quella dei catto-comunisti italiani: più comunista che catto. Di cristiano non ha proprio nulla.

A fine 2017 è riuscito a formare una coalizione governativa dopo quasi nove mesi di gestazione a rischio, escludendo accuratamente il Partito Popolare per la Libertà, Pvv, di Geer Wilder, reo di avere una linea politica molto simile a quella di Mrs Margaret Thatcher e di essere per soprammercato un ‘eurocritico‘.»

In un incontro all’Istituto Europeo dell’Università di Zurigo Herr Rutte ha fatto un interessante discorso di politica estera, che lo differenzia nettamente dagli altri governanti nordici dell’Unione Europea.

«The European Union should be “less naive and more realistic” about its foreign policy and not be afraid to exercise power»

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«The EU needs a reality check; power is not a dirty word. Realpolitik must be an essential part of Europe’s foreign policy toolkit»

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«Nato remains our first line of defence and our guarantee of security, and in my opinion that rules out a European army»

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«This means that the EU, which was built on the power of principles, is increasingly being confronted by the principles of power»

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«But I seriously doubt whether this, on its own, will make the EU as effective and influential as it could be, as it wants to be, and as it should be in the future»

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«We must always draw the line when fundamental values come under pressure»

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«But a deal is also a deal when it comes to the euro and the Stability and Growth Pact. Because here too, bending the rules can erode the entire system, and we cannot have that»

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«Trump has a point when calling on European Nato countries to spend more on defence»

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«We need to stand by this commitment, not only because the Americans have a point when they press for a larger European contribution, but above all because it is in our own interest»

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«One of the main problems is that, in many cases, member states and the European institutions are not on the same page, so in geopolitical terms we don’t pull our weight as we should and could»

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«Currently, sanctions are decided by unanimity, so a veto by a single EU country can hold up the entire process.»

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«There is a qualified majority when a measure has support from 55 percent of the EU member states that represent at least 65 percent of the EU population»

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Discorso espresso in termini diplomaticamente ineccepibili, ma anche molto chiaro.

Herr Rutte si stacca completamente dal classico pensiero francogermanico, specie poi da quello espresso nel recente accordo di Aachen.

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Riassumendo.

– Realpolitik al posto di imposizione di quelli ritenuti essere valori fondamentali.

– Sanzioni, o anche condanne, sono al momento prese alla unanimità con diritto di veto: le procedure decisionali dovrebbero quindi essere rese più elastiche.

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Si nota solo una grande contraddizione.

Quanti pratichino nei fatti la Realpolitik sanno che le sanzioni sono per definizione ad essa antitetiche:non possono convivere.


EU Observer. 2019-02-16. Rutte warns EU to embrace ‘Realpolitik’ foreign policy

The European Union should be “less naive and more realistic” about its foreign policy and not be afraid to exercise power, Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte said in a speech on Wednesday (13 February).

“The EU needs a reality check; power is not a dirty word. Realpolitik must be an essential part of Europe’s foreign policy toolkit,” he said.

Rutte spoke at the Europe institute of the University of Zurich, in non-EU country Switzerland, where he was giving the annual Churchill Lecture.

The wide-ranging speech will further fuel speculation that Rutte may run for Jean-Claude Juncker’s job as EU Commission president, or Donald Tusk’s as head of the European Council – although he has denied being a candidate for either post.

Rutte said the EU did not need its own army, which was suggested a few months ago by France and Germany.

“Nato remains our first line of defence and our guarantee of security, and in my opinion that rules out a European army,” he said.

But Rutte added that soft power alone was no longer enough.

“Today we live in a multipolar world, in which a growing number of countries and political leaders seem to believe that international relations are a zero-sum game.”

“This means that the EU, which was built on the power of principles, is increasingly being confronted by the principles of power,” he said.

“But I seriously doubt whether this, on its own, will make the EU as effective and influential as it could be, as it wants to be, and as it should be in the future,” he said.

The Dutch PM noted that it was “relatively easy” for the EU to “claim the moral high ground” while depending on the United States’ protective umbrella.

The liberal leader said that the EU had leverage it could use geopolitically, like its market access, visa-free travel, trade agreements, and development aid.

It is quite a change for the Dutch politician, who began his career as PM with a much more eurosceptic attitude.

But since the UK, a close ally of the Netherlands, decided to leave the EU, Rutte has turned around towards embracing the EU.

Increasingly assertive Dutch

Rutte’s speech also marks an increasingly assertive Netherlands at the EU stage.

The country, a founding member of the EU, has been repositioning itself as an alternative to the EU’s two major forces, France and Germany.

This happened while the United Kingdom was on its way out, while Poland, Hungary and Italy have developed antagonistic relations with the EU institutions.

Rutte mentioned specifically that democracy and the rule of law need to be respected in the EU.

“We must always draw the line when fundamental values come under pressure, as they have in countries like Poland and Hungary,” he said.

“But a deal is also a deal when it comes to the euro and the Stability and Growth Pact. Because here too, bending the rules can erode the entire system, and we cannot have that,” noted Rutte.

While he did not mention France and Germany by name, this appeared a clear reference among EU-watchers to those countries – which have been running budget deficits in defiance of the pact.

Rutte also mentioned US president Donald Trump criticism on multilateral organisations, and called on the EU to seize that as an opportunity to reform the UN and the World Trade Organization.

He also stressed that Trump has a point when calling on European Nato countries to spend more on defence.

Nato countries agreed in 2014 that they should spend two percent of their GDP on defence by 2024, but many European countries have not yet reached that goal.

“We need to stand by this commitment, not only because the Americans have a point when they press for a larger European contribution, but above all because it is in our own interest,” said Rutte.

Ending sanctions vetoes?

Rutte also opened up the possibility to reform the way EU countries determine sanctions.

“One of the main problems is that, in many cases, member states and the European institutions are not on the same page, so in geopolitical terms we don’t pull our weight as we should and could,” he said.

Currently, sanctions are decided by unanimity, so a veto by a single EU country can hold up the entire process.

The Dutch leader called on his colleagues to “give serious thought to enabling qualified majority voting for specific, defined cases”.

“Certainly in its own geopolitical back garden, the EU should be a political force to be reckoned with,” he said.

There is a qualified majority when a measure has support from 55 percent of the EU member states that represent at least 65 percent of the EU population.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Mondiale

Cina. Dopo 30 anni di crescita ambirebbe alla leadership mondiale.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-18.

2018-12-18__Cina__001

Mentre negli ultimi trenta anni l’Occidente ha proseguito a baloccasi con le ideologie, la Cina è passata da un pil procapite di 349$ nel 1990 agli 8,663$ del 2017: è aumentato di venticinque volte.

Ma se si desse una sbirciata al futuro prossimo, le sorprese sarebbero ancora maggiori.

International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook (October – 2017)

Le proiezioni al 2022 danno la Cina ad un pil ppa di 34,465 (20.54%) miliardi di Usd, gli Stati Uniti di 23,505 (14.01%), e l’India di 15,262 9.10%) Usd. Seguono Giappone con 6,163 (3.67%),  Germania (4.932%), Regno Unito 3,456 (2.06%), Francia 3,427 (2.04%), Italia 2,677 (1.60%). Russia 4.771 (2.84%) e Brasile 3,915 (2.33%).

I paesi del G7 produrranno 46,293 (27.59%) mld Usd del pil mondiale, mentre i paesi del Brics renderanno conto di 59,331 mld Usd (35.36%).

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La ricetta economica messa in opera da Mr Deng Xiaoping è di una semplicità sconcertante:

«“What the government needs to do is to remove the straitjacket still stifling entrepreneurs. There are still too many rules, stupid rules. The going is getting tougher. Hopefully that would shake off some of the bureaucratic complacency.”»

Deng Xiaoping era la quintessenza del pragmatismo cinese, cui non interessa il colore del gatto, purché acchiappi i topi. Ciò che interessa è il ritorno prestazione/costo. Così convivono proficuamente azioni che per gli occidentali sarebbero contrastanti perché ascrivibili ad ideologie differenti ed opposte.

«Deng Xiaoping restarted university entrance examinations in late 1977, allowing all students to compete for a college place».

Nello stesso anno fece internare nel Laogai circa 600,000 insegnati assunti nella scuola per meriti politici. Scuola epurata, scuola funzionante.

Con la stessa nonchalance lasciava totalmente libere le persone con l’ordine di arricchirsi più che potessero, e nel contempo procedeva a nazionalizzare delle aziende: azioni anche questa per gli occidentali fuori dal ben del’intelletto.

Ma quello che l’occidente non può costituzionalmente comprendere è che in Cina la politica la si fa in quella scuola mandarinica ora denominata partito comunista cinese. Il termine ‘comunista‘ ha in occidente un senso del tutto differente da quello che ha in Cina.

Altre cose che fanno impazzire gli occidentali?

Cina. L’Islam sarebbe una patologia psichiatrica, e così la si cura.

Cinesi, gente pratica. Risolto il problema dell’integralismo islamico.

«Chinese authorities in the far-northwestern region of Xinjiang on Wednesday revised legislation to permit the use of “education and training centers” to combat religious extremism.»

*

«In practice, the centers are internment camps in which as many as 1 million minority Muslims have been placed in the past 12 months»

* * *

Sorriso e bonomia di Mr Xi potrebbero trarre in inganno: non si scambi la tradizionale semplicità e cortesia cinese per mancanza di polso. Gli uiguri ed i kazaki non vogliono essere ragionevoli?

Nessun problema.

Resteranno nel laogai fino a tanto che non parleranno fluentemente il cinese mandarino.

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L’Occidente però non ha proprio imparato nulla dalla Cina.

«Deng’s reforms, officially launched 40 years ago on Dec. 18 at a meeting of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, precipitated one of the greatest creations of wealth in history, lifting more than 700 million people out of poverty.»

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«But the changes also sowed the seeds of many of the problems China faces today»

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«Two decades of growth at any cost under Presidents Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao starting in 1993 saddled the nation with polluted rivers and smoggy skies, plus a mountain of debt»

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«But while Deng wanted his market-based reforms to make China rich, Xi has reasserted the control of the state in an effort to turn the country into a political and technological superpower»

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Da un personaggio che ha trovato semplicemente logico mettere in campo di lavoro un milione di persone non ci si aspetterebbero grossi scrupoli per i problemi ecologici che così stanno a cuore agli Occidentali: Xi vuole solo il dominio del mondo, e, come si dice, Parigi val bene una Messa.


Bloomberg. 2018-12-17. China Built a Global Economy in 40 Years. Now It Has a New Plan

Deng’s 1978 reforms gave China economic might. Now Xi wants more.

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Fred Hu will never forget the terror in his science teacher’s eyes when the man was dragged away to a Chinese jail during Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution. Then a 12-year-old peeping into the classroom, his dream of escaping rural poverty to become a journalist or teacher seemed hopeless.

Two years later, his hope was rekindled when incoming leader Deng Xiaoping restarted university entrance examinations in late 1977, allowing all students to compete for a college place.

“For the first time there was a clear path in front of us,” said Hu, who went on to earn masters degrees at Tsinghua and Harvard, work for the International Monetary Fund, and lead Goldman Sachs Group Inc. in China. “The turmoil was behind us. A new era had come,” said the founder of Primavera Capital Ltd., a private-equity fund based in Beijing.

In the years that followed, Hu and hundreds of millions of others left the countryside and set up businesses in cities or went to work in factories that propelled China to become the world’s second-largest economy. Deng’s reforms, officially launched 40 years ago on Dec. 18 at a meeting of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, precipitated one of the greatest creations of wealth in history, lifting more than 700 million people out of poverty.

But the changes also sowed the seeds of many of the problems China faces today. Two decades of growth at any cost under Presidents Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao starting in 1993 saddled the nation with polluted rivers and smoggy skies, plus a mountain of debt. During that time, China became deeply integrated into the global economy, a trend that accelerated after it joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.

When President Xi Jinping assumed power in 2013, many hoped he’d turn out to be a leader in Deng’s reformist vein. But while Deng wanted his market-based reforms to make China rich, Xi has reasserted the control of the state in an effort to turn the country into a political and technological superpower. 

“One of Xi’s overarching goals in terms of economic management is to effectively, if not formally, declare the end of the era of reform a la Deng Xiaoping,” said Arthur Kroeber, a founding partner and managing director at research firm Gavekal Dragonomics. Whereas Deng and subsequent leaders bolstered the role of private businesses in the economy and reduced that of the state, Xi seems to think the balance is now about right, Kroeber said.

Flouting Deng’s advice for China to lie low and bide its time, Xi went head to head with U.S. President Donald Trump and other world leaders, who were frustrated by years of Beijing stalling in opening its markets to foreign firms. China’s critics say domestic companies that are now aspiring for global dominance in technology and trade were raised on state subsidies or cheap loans while being protected from foreign competition. 

The standoff has dealt Xi some of his first policy setbacks and an unusual upswing in public criticism in China. Even Deng’s son leveled a veiled rebuke in a speech in October, urging China’s government to “keep a sober mind” and “know its place.”

The confrontation comes at a critical moment for China as it tries to avoid falling into what economists call the middle-income trap, where per-capita income stalls before a nation becomes rich. Usually that happens because rising wages and costs erode profitability at factories that make basic goods like clothes or furniture, and the economy fails to make the jump to higher-value industries and services.

Only five industrial economies in East Asia have succeeded in escaping the trap since 1960, according to the World Bank. They are Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.

To join them, Xi must oversee a transformation in China’s markets, injecting more competition in financial services, upgrading technology, and tightening corporate governance, while waging a trade war with a U.S. administration bent on containing the Asian nation’s rise. Xi’s challenge is compounded by an aging workforce, the mountain of corporate and local government debt, and an environmental clean-up that will take decades.

“No major economy that is not democratic has managed to surpass the middle income trap, so the odds are not in China’s favor even without the trade war,” said Steve Tsang, director of the SOAS China Institute at the University of London. “Abandoning the Dengist approach has raised alarm bells in the West, particularly in the U.S. This makes the task much more difficult.”

Whether China makes it will depend on the legacy of those migrants and entrepreneurs who took advantage of Deng’s opening and set up private companies and conquered one manufacturing industry after another. Today, China’s private sector generates 60 percent of the nation’s output, 70 percent of technological innovation and 90 percent of new jobs, according to Liu He, Xi’s top economic adviser.

Shadow Banking

Many of those companies are feeling the brunt of Xi’s campaigns to deleverage the economy and battle pollution. A crackdown on shadow-bank financing has stifled a major source of funding during the boom years, while hundreds of thousands of small enterprises have been shuttered for despoiling the environment.

Their plight prompted an unprecedented push by policymakers this year to cajole banks into lending more to non-state companies, a campaign Xi endorsed by proclaiming his “unwavering” support for the private sector.

The policy response isn’t robust or effective enough and there’s a risk of a further weakening of business and investor confidence that triggers a vicious cycle, Hu said Sunday in a separate interview with Bloomberg Television. Policies toward the private sector are “incoherent ” with lip service in support of it and then more stringent regulations imposed on it, he said.

“What the government needs to do is to remove the straitjacket still stifling entrepreneurs,” he said. “There are still too many rules, stupid rules. The going is getting tougher. Hopefully that would shake off some of the bureaucratic complacency.”

Nowhere are the successes and challenges of China’s entrepreneurs more apparent than in Shenzhen, which over the course of the four decades evolved from fishing village to factory town to export hub and into the gleaming technology hub it is today.

Andy Yu, a native of Wuhan in central China, is typical of the people who made the immigrant city a success. He came to Shenzhen in 2003 to work at a technology company and set up his own mobile phone maker, Shenzhen Garlant Technology Development Co., a few years later.

“Some people say China can only make cheap junk but that’s not true,” Yu said.  “China can make really good products and that’s why companies like Apple have factories here. China has the best price-to-quality ratio anywhere.”

Yu believes that combination of good quality at low prices will allow his company to shrug off Trump’s tariffs. About a fifth of Shenzhen Garlant’s $150 million in annual sales come from the U.S. and are subject to a 10 percent duty that could rise to 25 percent next year. Yu said he can pass on the increased cost to customers because his Western competitors sell at much higher prices while rival manufacturers in Southeast Asia and Latin America lag far behind in technology.

Shenzhen Garlant’s trajectory shows how the beneficiaries of Deng’s reforms have had to adapt to survive. The company still designs and markets its products from Shenzhen, but its 300-worker factory is now in Hubei province in Central China where wages are lower. Yu is considering increasing automation and building a new plant in the west of the country on the border with Myanmar, which he could staff with migrant Burmese who earn half the amount that Chinese workers do.

To achieve Xi’s goal of dominating the key technologies, outlined in his “Made in China 2025” blueprint, the nation will need to do more than make high-spec phones and laptops. Yet Xi’s model of more government control coupled with tighter restrictions on lending could inhibit innovation. 

“This year, the golden era for startups has ended,” said Wang Gaonan, one of the new generation of entrepreneurs who are driving change in China’s economy. “It’s almost impossible to find investors. The runway has vanished. If I had graduated in 2015 instead of 2012, it would be too late for me.”

Wang, who holds a masters degree in industrial engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, heads Capstone Games, creator of the third- and fourth-ranked soccer games in Apple’s China app store. Founded in 2013, the Beijing company’s annual revenue has more than doubled every year to reach about 150 million yuan ($21.8 million). 

Tighter controls on new game releases in China, where the government is concerned about the effects of device addiction on children, along with a slowing economy, have spurred Wang to look abroad for growth. Capstone plans to launch an app in the U.K. in March. 

Tighter Control

Xi has also clamped down on activities from online posts to the free-wheeling private businesses that grew up as a result of Deng’s policies, reasserting the control of the party on businesses and through regulations, state-run companies and government-owned banks. The economic impact of those controls shows up only after a time, so it’s hard to assess the effect now, said Nobel laureate economist Michael Spence, a professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business. “Taken too far that could create headwinds for innovation,” he said.

Yet even with the political and trade headwinds, the new digital economy, services and higher value producers could keep China on track to join the ranks of wealthy nations, said Spence. “A trade war expanding to technology and cross border investment will slow China down — and not just China — but not probably derail this progress,” he said.

The economy expanded 6.5 percent in the third quarter, the slowest pace since the aftermath of the global financial crisis in 2009. But if China can keep the rate above 5 percent well into the 2020s, per capita income levels will close the gap on developed nations, said Kroeber, who is the author of “China’s Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know.” 

Still, average income levels only tell part of the story. Back in the small, rural town of Xintang in Hunan province, where Fred Hu saw his teacher arrested more than half a century ago, the inequality created by China’s boom is plain to see. 

The paint on the walls of the Middle School Hu attended is peeling. Heating is minimal, which is why on a cold December day students sit at their desks wearing winter jackets. Education standards lag those in cities, said Senior Teacher Pan Yuezhong, 60. About 80 percent of students are “left-behind kids” — children whose parents left for higher-paying jobs, usually on the industrial east coast, and who are looked after by grandparents, relatives or friends.

“China has failed to invest in its single most important asset: its people,” said economist Scott Rozelle at Stanford University. “It has one of the lowest levels of education.”

According to the country’s own 2015 microcensus, only 30 percent of the labor force has finished high school. That puts China behind all other middle-income countries, including Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey. While that has not deterred the country from becoming a manufacturing powerhouse, it will no doubt hinder its evolution into a more advanced, knowledge-based economy.

In China’s cities, colleges churned out more than 8 million graduates this year. But the problem lies in China’s neglected hinterlands, according to Rozelle. Rural workers are only one-fourth as likely as urban ones to have a high school education. But rural areas account for 64 percent of China’s overall population and more than two-thirds of its children.

Worse still, one in five people in Miluo, a county-level city that oversees Xintang, is over 60 years old, a demographic trend that pervades most of the country and one that will become an increasing burden on the economy in medical costs and care.

Still even in Xintang, things are better than in the dark days of the Cultural Revolution, when people used kerosene lamps for light, bound rags for shoes and rice was so precious it was often saved for the elderly, children or the sick, said Hu Fuxin, whose local dialect was translated by Pan, the teacher. Wearing a thick coat and a quilt over his legs to keep warm in the living room of his modest home, the 78-year-old former teacher remembered Fred Hu as a model student.

Hu’s Primavera Capital invests in new economy companies such as online financial services platform Ant Financial Services Group and cloud  service provider Xunlei Ltd. He said the creativity, innovation and vision of Chinese entrepreneurs is equal to those in Silicon Valley and other tech hubs and believes China can still ascend to developed-world status. Yet he’s become increasingly worried about the country’s policy direction under Xi.

“China’s on the right track, but everyone wants to know if they will speed up the reform process Deng initiated 40 years ago or will they slow down or backtrack,” he said. “A lack of reform may prevent China from fully realizing its economic potential.”

Pubblicato in: Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Mondiale, Medio Oriente, Problemia Energetici

Qatar. Esce dall’Opec e si concentra sul gas naturale.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-03.

2018-12-03__Qatar__001

«Qatar has announced it is pulling out of the Opec oil producers’ cartel, just days before the group meets in Vienna»

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«Qatar produces around 650,000 of barrels of oil a day, compared with Russia’s 11.37 million barrels a day.»

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«The Gulf state, which joined Opec in 1961, said it would leave the cartel in January and would focus on gas production»

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«Qatar, the world’s biggest exporter of liquified natural gas, has been boycotted by some Arab neighbours over allegations that it funds terrorism»

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«Opec is expected to cut oil supply at this week’s meeting»

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«We don’t have great potential (in oil), we are very realistic. Our potential is gas»

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«Expectations are high that there will be agreement on output after Russian President Vladmir Putin said at the weekend that he and Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman “have agreed to extend our agreement” to limit production»

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Il braccio di ferro è evidente.

Da una parte i paesi produttori vorrebbero poter spuntare prezzi alti, e quindi sono favorevoli ad una riduzione della estrazione; dall’altra parte i paesi consumatori vorrebbero poter ottenere i prodotti petroliferi a basso costo.

Recentemente Mr Trump aveva constato come un basso costo del petrolio fosse equivalente negli Stati Uniti ad una riduzione delle tasse, ma i produttori avevano obiettato che il ragionamento era corretto, ma che loro non erano sicuramente di accordo nel dover pagarne il costo per conto degli gli americani.

Per quanto riguarda il mercato del gas naturale liquefatto, gli osservatori fanno notare che, essendo gli americani degli esportatori, avrebbero tutto da guadagnare da prezzi elevati. Da questo punto di vista il Qatar si sarebbe trovato un socio di non poco peso.


Bbc. 2018-12-03. Qatar pulls out of Opec oil producers’ cartel

Qatar has announced it is pulling out of the Opec oil producers’ cartel, just days before the group meets in Vienna.

The Gulf state, which joined Opec in 1961, said it would leave the cartel in January and would focus on gas production.

Qatar, the world’s biggest exporter of liquified natural gas, has been boycotted by some Arab neighbours over allegations that it funds terrorism.

Opec is expected to cut oil supply at this week’s meeting.

Explaining Qatar’s decision, Energy Minister Saad al-Kaabi said: “We don’t have great potential (in oil), we are very realistic. Our potential is gas.”

He said geopolitics was not factor in the decision.

Since June 2017, Qatar has been cut off by some of its powerful Arab neighbours, particularly Saudi Arabia, over its alleged support for terrorism.

Production cuts

Qatar’s withdrawal from Opec may not have any lasting impact on the price of oil as it a relatively small producer.

But this week’s meeting of Opec is being closely watched by markets for any agreement over cuts to production after the oil price fell sharply in November.

Expectations are high that there will be agreement on output after Russian President Vladmir Putin said at the weekend that he and Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman “have agreed to extend our agreement” to limit production.

Russia is not a member of Opec but is the biggest oil producer outside the group.

Mr Putin’s comments pushed oil prices higher. In early trading on Monday, Brent crude was $2.60 higher at $62.06 a barrel, while US West Texas Intermediate oil rose $2.42 to $53.35 a barrel.

However, prices are down sharply from September when Brent crude was at $81.16 a barrel.

Qatar produces around 650,000 of barrels of oil a day, compared with Russia’s 11.37 million barrels a day.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Mondiale, Trump

Trump. Il G20 si avvia a diventare un G2, meglio, un G1.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-01.

G7 Leaders Summit in Canada

È passata un’epoca. Invece di Mr Trump è scomparsa Frau Merkel.


Mr Trump si sta portando avanti con il lavoro.

Non ne vuole più sapere del politicamente corretto e dei temi che tanto stettero a cuore ai liberal di tutto il mondo.

Il ‘guasto‘ all’Airbus 340 di Frau Merkel è stato così provvidenziale per Mr Trump che i soliti malignassi professionisti sibilano tra i denti che sia stato un sabotaggio. Ma per fortuna dopo diciassette minuti e mezzo di indagini l’intelligence tedesca ha concluso e smentito tale ipotesi: chi mai avrebbe potuto pensare di fare un attentato a quel candido fiordaliso?

«E’ già braccio di ferro per il comunicato finale del G20, con la delegazione Usa guidata dal falco John Bolton pronta a chiamarsi fuori»

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«O accettate il nostro linguaggio o noi non aderiremo alla dichiarazione»

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«Siamo impegnati …. a lavorare per un consenso sul comunicato ma ci opporremo con forza a un linguaggio che pregiudichi le nostre posizioni e siamo pronti a tirarci fuori se necessario»

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«- nessuna menzione al libero commercio senza affiancarla alla definizione di “commercio equo”»

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«- no al passaggio sulla necessità di un rafforzamento delle istituzioni commerciali internazionali (a partire dal Wto)»

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«- nessun riferimento all’accordo sul clima di Parigi, quello da cui gli Stati Uniti si sono ritirati»

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Forte della vittoria elettorale che gli ha garantito il controllo del Senato e la maggioranza dei Governatori, Mr Trump ha ora mano libera a bonificare le organizzazioni internazionali che supportavano i liberal democratici.

A questo G20 la voce dell’Unione Europea non si è fatta sentire. Mr Macron è insolitamente silenzioso e non ha ancora rilasciato una delle sue solite dichiarazioni al fulmicotone, che tanto lo rendono amabile e popolare. Frau Merkel è arrivata in ritardo per essersi ostinata a voler usare un vetusto Airbus 340 della sua aviazione militare, sì, proprio quello che la aveva piantata già due volte.

Adesso Mr Trump mette il veto sia al Wto sia al ‘clima’.

Cina. Carbone. Davos. Fallito il piano Al Gore da 90,000 mld Usd.

E per fare buon peso, via anche il politicamente corretto.


Ansa. 2018-12-01. G20: commercio e clima priorità Brics

BUENOS AIRES, 1 DIC – I leader dei cinque Paesi del gruppo Brics (Brasile, Russia, India, Cina e Sudafrica) si sono riuniti oggi a Buenos Aires, a margine del Vertice G20, respingendo il protezionismo e sostenendo l’Accordo di Parigi sui mutamenti climatici. In un documento diffuso al termine della riunione, il Brics ha espresso il suo sostegno all’Organizzazione mondiale del commercio (Wto) quale garante di buone pratiche e del rispetto delle norme nelle transazioni globali. “Le regole del Wto – recita il documento – sono contrarie alle misure unilaterali ed al protezionismo, rivolgiamo quindi la richiesta ai suoi membri di opporsi a quelle pratiche”. La presa di posizione è avvenuta proprio mentre due dei principali protagonisti del G20 in Argentina, Usa e Cina, sono impegnati in un duro confronto.

Sul piano politico il Brics ha indicato di ribadire “il nostro impegno di lavorare insieme per rafforzare il multilateralismo e per promuovere un ordine internazionale giusto, egualitario, democratico e rappresentativo”.


Ansa. 2018-12-01. Il G20 appeso a Trump, Usa pronti a sfilarsi dal comunicato

E’ già braccio di ferro per il comunicato finale del G20, con la delegazione Usa guidata dal falco John Bolton pronta a chiamarsi fuori. “O accettate il nostro linguaggio o noi non aderiremo alla dichiarazione”. “Siamo impegnati – spiega una fonte della Casa Bianca – a lavorare per un consenso sul comunicato ma ci opporremo con forza a un linguaggio che pregiudichi le nostre posizioni e siamo pronti a tirarci fuori se necessario”. Le condizioni che Bolton avrebbe messo sul tavolo sarebbero almeno tre: nessuna menzione al libero commercio senza affiancarla alla definizione di “commercio equo”, no al passaggio sulla necessita’ di un rafforzamento delle istituzioni commerciali internazionali (a partire dal Wto), nessun riferimento all’accordo sul clima di Parigi, quello da cui gli Stati Uniti si sono ritirati. Secondo le fonti dell’amministrazione Trump il presidente americano sarebbe in stretto collegamento con Bolton e ha chiesto di seguire direttamente, passo passo, gli sviluppi del negoziato, per evitare sorprese come avvenne al G7 canadese.

Intanto, è lite con Mosca sull’incontro con Putin cancellato dalla Casa Bianca a causa della crisi con l’Ucraina, mentre secondo i russi, ‘la vera ragione è la situazione politica interna negli Stati Uniti’. Resta alta la tensione anche tra Russia e Ucraina dopo la decisione di Kiev di vietare a tutti gli uomini russi tra i 16 e i 60 anni l’ingresso nel Paese. Lo ha reso noto su Twitter il presidente ucraino Petro Poroshenko. Le restrizioni, sottolinea, sono state decise per impedire ai russi di formare distaccamenti di “eserciti privati” che rispondano alle forze armate russe. 

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Mondiale, Ong - Ngo, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Carbone. Davos. Fallito il piano Al Gore da 90,000 mld Usd.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-01.

2018-11-25__Davos 001

Tradizionalmente, a fine gennaio si teneva nella ridente cittadina di Davos il World Economic Forum.

«Il principale evento organizzato dal Forum economico mondiale è il forum che si tiene con cadenza annuale a fine gennaio presso la cittadina sciistica di Davos, nel Cantone dei Grigioni in Svizzera. L’incontro è a inviti e si tiene a porte chiuse, sebbene venga diffusa la registrazione di specifici eventi, come la sessione plenaria. In occasione dell’incontro, i vertici delle imprese associate alla fondazione incontrano una ristretta platea di leader politici e di organizzazioni non governative, esponenti della comunità scientifica, leader religiosi e giornalisti. Nei cinque giorni dell’evento sono oltre 200 gli eventi in programma, sui temi chiave del dibattito mondiale, quali conflitti internazionali, povertà e problemi ambientali» [Fonte]

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Business Insider. 2015-01-21. There’s A Plan Floating Around Davos To Spend $90 Trillion Redesigning All The Cities So They Don’t Need Cars


United Nations. 2015-01-22. Al Gore Explains in Davos What’s Next for Climate in 2015


Cnn. 2018-01-25. Al Gore: ‘We have a subprime carbon bubble’

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Per il 2019 il Meeting di Davos si sta movendo sussurrato: si fatica a trovarlo nei motori di ricerca.

Cgiar. World Economic Forum Annual Meeting – Davos 2019

«The World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos-Klosters is the foremost creative force for engaging the world’s top leaders in collaborative activities to shape the global, regional and industry agendas at the beginning of each year. For over four decades, the World Economic Forum’s mission – improving the state of the world – has driven the design and development of the Annual Meeting objectives. Annual Meeting participants will come together to address the most pressing issues on the global agenda. They will do so in an exceptional atmosphere – the “Spirit of Davos” – based on interdisciplinary, informal and direct interaction among peers.»

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Non si parla più del piano di Mr Al Gore di ricostruire tutte le città senza automobili.

Era un piano da 90,000 miliardi di dollari: avete letto bene, novantamilamiliardi di dollari. Tutto grasso che sarebbe colato nele tasche dei liberal socialisti.

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«As levels of greenhouse gases reach a new record, concerns are growing about the role of China in global warming»

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«For years, the increase in the number of Chinese coal-fired power stations has been criticised»

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«China is also backing dozens of coal projects far beyond its borders»

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«The Chinese-supported coal projects are under way or planned as far afield as South America, Africa, southeast Asia and the Balkans»

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«Contracts and financing for these facilities are often not fully transparent»

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«In Serbia, one of the country’s largest coal-fired power stations is being expanded with the help of a loan from a Chinese bank and with the work being led by one of China’s largest construction companies»

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«In the next few months a lot of Chinese will come here and this will be a big challenge, …. With Chinese workers and Serbian workers, at the beginning we had some cultural problems but we have overcome them and there is now very good cooperation»

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Alcune considerazioni.

– Nel suo intervento al Meeting di Davos del 2015 Mr Al Gore aveva chiaramente riportato come il business attorno al ‘clima‘ si aggirasse attorno ai 90,000 miliardi di dollari americani. Un volume di affari mostruoso.

– La allora dirigenza liberal al governo negli Stati Uniti e nei paesi europei si proponeva di stornare dai bilanci statali cifre di questa entità verso realtà ‘amiche‘, quali per esempio le agenzie, sottratte al controllo elettorale.

– L’elezione di Mr Trump pose fine a questo progetto , attirandogli addosso l’odio mortale dei liberal.

– Con la successiva caduta dei governi liberal socialisti in Europa il ‘clima’ è restato privo di appoggio politico, e sta semplicemente morendo.

– Il comportamento cinese è maieutico: a parole sostiene il ‘clima’, ma nei fatti viaggia a carbone.


Bbc. 2018-11-23. China-backed coal projects prompt climate change fears

As levels of greenhouse gases reach a new record, concerns are growing about the role of China in global warming.

For years, the increase in the number of Chinese coal-fired power stations has been criticised.

Now environmental groups say China is also backing dozens of coal projects far beyond its borders.

Coal is the most damaging of the fossil fuels because of the quantity of carbon dioxide it releases when it’s burned.

Last year, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached its highest level for the past 3-5 million years, according to the latest research by the UN’s weather agency, the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).

And last month the UN’s climate science panel said that coal must be phased out by 2050 if the world is to have any chance of limiting the rise in temperatures.

Greenhouse gas levels at new record high

Final call to halt ‘climate catastrophe’

What is climate change?

The Chinese-supported coal projects are under way or planned as far afield as South America, Africa, southeast Asia and the Balkans.

Contracts and financing for these facilities are often not fully transparent but campaign groups including Bankwatch have tried to keep track.

“You cannot be a world leader in curbing air pollution and at the same time the world’s biggest financier of overseas coal power plants,” the group’s energy coordinator Ioana Ciuta told the BBC.

According to Ms Ciuta, efforts to tackle the dirty air of Chinese cities have led many power companies to limit their ambitions for coal-fired power stations in China itself and to target their technology and labour overseas instead.

“By having China invest in over 60 countries along the Belt and Road Initiative, it’s perpetuating a source of pollution that has been demonstrated to be harmful not just to the climate but also to economies,” she said.

No carbon capture

In Serbia, one of the country’s largest coal-fired power stations is being expanded with the help of a loan from a Chinese bank and with the work being led by one of China’s largest construction companies.

An hour’s drive east of the capital Belgrade, in the coal-rich Danube valley, construction has already started at the site, known as Kostolac B3.

An existing power station towers over the rolling landscape, a steady stream of pollution twisting from a massive smokestack, and conveyor belts ferry coal from a nearby open-cast mine at Drmno.

The power station is run by the national Serbian electricity company, EPS, which provides about 70% of the country’s power by burning coal – the rest comes from hydro-electric schemes.

Now, under a $715m (£560m) contract agreed by the Serbian government and Chinese President Xi Jinping, an extra unit is being added, which will bring 350MW of additional capacity with the latest “super-critical” technology.

When we visit, we catch a brief glimpse of a group of Chinese workers wearing hard hats on their way from the construction site to a vast set of accommodation blocks – by next year, some 1,500 Chinese staff will be here.

Safety signs and notice boards are written in Serbian and Chinese. Equipment and shipping containers carry Chinese labels.

I ask the EPS official running the project, Zeljko Lazovic, what he feels about such a large and important venture being in the hands of Chinese engineers and workers.

“In the next few months a lot of Chinese will come here and this will be a big challenge,” he says.

“With Chinese workers and Serbian workers, at the beginning we had some cultural problems but we have overcome them and there is now very good cooperation.”

When asked about the environmental cost of the new project, Mr Lazovic insisted it would meet all the EU’s standards on pollution by dust, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur.

However, the new unit will not be fitted with any carbon capture technology so it will fit into a pattern of Chinese-backed projects that will add to carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

‘Locked into high emissions’

Christine Shearer is an analyst with the group CoalSwarm, which tracks coal developments, and she is scathing about the implications.

“These projects are not compatible with limiting global warming to 1.5C or 2C,” she said, referring to the two targets of the Paris Agreement on climate change.

She says that Chinese financial institutions are filling a gap left by Western banks and agencies deciding to limit their involvement in coal.

“These projects, if completed, will lock the countries into high carbon-emitting infrastructure and volatile coal imports precisely at a time when prices for clean energy are starting to fall below that of coal power.”

We tried to contact the Export-Import Bank of China, which is providing the loan, and the China Machinery Engineering Corporation, which is leading the construction, but did not hear back.

For the Serbian power company, EPS, the attraction of a local supply of coal has combined with a cheap Chinese loan and the prospects of valuable exports of electricity.

Respiratory diseases

About 3,500 jobs depend on the Kostolac complex but some local people have become increasingly outspoken about the pollution in the area.

Momir Savic showed me how the conveyor belts carrying coal run close to the villages and he fears a further expansion of the operation.

“The quality of our air and water is very poor. We cannot grow fruit and vegetables. There is also a lot of noise. All this affects the health of people living here, many of whom have respiratory diseases,” he said.

EPS says it is spending hundreds of millions of euros on environmental protection but its track record clearly does not inspire trust.

Pera Markovic, a lawyer with Cekor, an environmental group, is critical of the company’s failure to limit pollution in the local area.

But he concedes that Serbia is heavily dependent on coal for its power.

For how long? “Decades,” Mr Markovic says.

That’s likely to be the same in many other countries too, whatever climate scientists say is needed.