Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Istruzione e Ricerca

Cina. Le persone eccellenti vi immigrano felici e soddisfatte, e ci rimangono. Anche da Taiwan.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-05-18.

Cervelli in Fuga 001

«Pechino pesca in compagnie della isola [Taiwan] per rafforzare la propria industria»

«Taiwan ha ordinato alle agenzie di recruiting dell’isola di rimuovere tutte le offerte di lavoro dalla Cina per evitare che vi sia una fuga di talenti nei settori più remunerativi verso il continente, soprattutto quello dei chip»

«Il ministero del Lavoro di Taipei ha ordinato che tutte le compagnie che si occupano di reclutare staff, taiwanesi o straniere operanti a Taiwan, non possano più promuovere inserzioni per lavori nella Cina continentale, in particolare nei settori chiave dei circuiti integrati e dei semiconduttori»

«A causa delle tensioni geopolitiche tra Usa e Cina, lo sviluppo dei semiconduttori cinesi ha subito alcuni rovesci e come risultato la Cina è diventata più aggressiva nell’andare a caccia di principali talenti taiwanesi nel settore dei chip per costruire una catena di fornitura auto-sufficiente»

«Le nuove regole non riguardano solo le compagnie cinesi continentali e straniere, ma anche le posizioni lavorative in Cina di compagnie taiwanesi come Foxconn e Pegatron, che hanno grandi impianti manifatturieri nel continente»

«La Cina in effetti ha iniziato ad attirare talenti da Taiwan»

«Oltre 100 dipendenti del leader globale dei chip, Taiwan Semiconductor Manifacturing Company (TSMC) sono stati assunti dalla Quanxin Integrated Circuit Manifacturing (QXIC) di Jinan e dalla Wuhan Hongxin Semiconductor Manifacturing Company (HSMC)»

«I produttori di smartphone cinesi Xiaomi e Oppo hanno assunto alcuni veterani nello sviluppo di semiconduttori provenienti da MediaTek»

* * * * * * *

La Cina presenta alcune caratteristiche, incomprensibili per l’occidente liberal, che però stanno dimostrandosi carte vincenti.

La prima caratteristica è una rigida meritocrazia, maturata in migliaia di anni nella scuola mandarinica, ove le progressioni di carriera erano e sono fatte esclusivamente sulla base del merito. “Non interessa il colore del gatto, purché acchiappi i topi”, così diceva il grande Deng Xiaoping. Questo è il motivo cardine per cui la dirigenza politica, economica, sociale cinese è al top mondiale della efficienza. L’attuale Pcc altro non è che la prosecuzione della scuola mandarinica.

La seconda caratteristica discende dalla prima. I cinesi ben si guardano dal pensare e dall’agire sulla base di ideologie, di idee preconcette. Sono degli empiristi, pronti a mutare idea e comportamento sulla scorta dei dati di fatto.

La terza caratteristica è la visione imperiale del mondo. Secondo la Weltanschauung statalista, uno stato tende a fagocitare l’altro, assimilandolo a sé stesso in ogni aspetto: religioso, sociale, politico ed economico: è lo stato che si ingrandisce, che ingloba. Opposta è la visione imperiale: il centro avoca a sé il mantenimento dell’ordine interno, la difesa, la politica estera e la riscossione di una parte delle imposte. I diversi stati mantengono il proprio retaggio religioso, storico, e sociale, nel vicendevole rispetto delle diverse identità, organizzandosi come meglio aggrada.

* * * * * * *

Evaluation Criteria for Foreigners Employed in China (Trial)

*

The Thousand Talents Plan.

«China is issuing long-term visas to lure highly skilled people from abroad to work in the country»

«The multi-entry visas will be valid for between five and 10 years, according to state media»

«Technology leaders, entrepreneurs and scientists from in-demand sectors are among those eligible to apply»

«China has set out goals for its economic and social development, and sees recruiting experts from abroad as key to achieving that»

«When plans for the scheme were first considered, China said at least 50,000 foreigners would benefit»

«Nobel Prize winners welcome»

*

Cina. 1000TTP. Ne ignorate la esistenza. Domani vi mangerete le dita.

«Dopo il Progetto Belt and Road, un investimento di 1,500 miliardi di dollari americani in infrastrutture costruite nei paesi emergenti, adesso la China sta lanciando un grandioso progetto di richiamo del bene più prezioso che esista a questo mondo: l’intelligenza umana. Premi Nobel, ricercatori di eccellenza, persone intelligenti: venite a lavorare in Cina. Sarete stimati socialmente, sarete ben pagati, e nessuno vi importunerà con problemi amministrativi. Ma soprattutto, vivrete liberi dalla dittatura liberal.»

* * * * * * *

Tra Cina e Formosa non corre buon sangue, esattamente come l’occidente liberal vede la Cina con crescente apprensione.

Adesso un centinaio di ricercatori di eccellenza di Taiwan si sono volontariamente trasferiti in Cina, ove possono vivere lavorando liberi in pace, ben pagati e socialmente stimati. Ma questo è solo uno dei molteplici casi.

A poco vale la cortina di ferro con cui si cerca di bloccarli.

Non ci si stupisca quindi se la Cina si avvia a diventare la potenza egemone mondiale.

*


Crisi chip, Taiwan cerca di bloccare flusso talenti verso Cina.

Pechino pesca in compagnie isola per rafforzare la propria industria.

Taiwan ha ordinato alle agenzie di recruiting dell’isola di rimuovere tutte le offerte di lavoro dalla Cina per evitare che vi sia una fuga di talenti nei settori più remunerativi verso il continente, soprattutto quello dei chip. Lo segnala oggi Nikkei Asia.

Il ministero del Lavoro di Taipei ha ordinato che tutte le compagnie che si occupano di reclutare staff, taiwanesi o straniere operanti a Taiwan, non possano più promuovere inserzioni per lavori nella Cina continentale, in particolare nei settori chiave dei circuiti integrati e dei semiconduttori.

La decisione cerca di contenere la minaccia per l’economia di Taiwan rappresentata dalla decisione cinese di rafforzare la propria industria dei semiconduttori, nella quale l’isola è leader mondiale grazie a giganti come TSMC e Foxconn.

“A causa delle tensioni geopolitiche tra Usa e Cina, lo sviluppo dei semiconduttori cinesi ha subito alcuni rovesci e come risultato la Cina è diventata più aggressiva nell’andare a caccia di principali talenti taiwanesi nel settore dei chip per costruire una catena di fornitura auto-sufficiente”, sostiene nella nota inviata alle compagnie di recruiting il ministero.

Per questo motivo, sono state messe in campo anche delle ammende nei confronti delle agenzie di lavoro che procurino personale per la Cina. “Se il reclutamento riguarda i semiconduttori e i circuiti integrati, la pena sarà anche più alta”, spiega la nota.

Le nuove regole non riguardano solo le compagnie cinesi continentali e straniere, ma anche le posizioni lavorative in Cina di compagnie taiwanesi come Foxconn e Pegatron, che hanno grandi impianti manofatturieri nel continente.

La Cina in effetti ha iniziato ad attirare talenti da Taiwan per accelerare il rafforzamento della sua industria dei semiconduttori, in un momento in cui c’è una forte penuria di chip a livello globale. Oltre 100 dipendenti del leader globale dei chip, Taiwan Semiconductor Manifacturing Company (TSMC) sono stati assunti dalla Quanxin Integrated Circuit Manifacturing (QXIC) di Jinan e dalla Wuhan Hongxin Semiconductor Manifacturing Company (HSMC).

Inoltre i produttori di smartphone cinesi Xiaomi e Oppo hanno assunto alcuni veterani nello sviluppo di semiconduttori provenienti da MediaTek, una compagnia taiwanese seconda al mondo per sviluppo di chip per apparati mobili. Ancora, la Luxshare-ICT cinese ha cercato di assumere talenti dalla Foxconn.

Pubblicato in: Istruzione e Ricerca

Corrente del Golfo. Sta raffreddandosi, preannunciando inverni rigidi nel Nord Europa.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-04-07.

2021-03-03__ Nature Geoscience 001

«”La circolazione nell’Oceano Atlantico, alla base della Corrente del Golfo (il sistema meteorologico che porta un clima caldo e mite in Europa) è al suo livello più debole considerando l’ultimo millennio. Il cambiamento climatico ne è la causa più probabile. Questo è quanto riportato da un recente studio che ha visto la collaborazione di scienziati irlandesi, britannici e tedeschi”. Lo scrive su Facebook Ingv Ambiente, in riferimento alla ricerca resa nota da Nature Geoscience.

I ricercatori hanno analizzato le informazioni provenienti da archivi naturali (come sedimenti oceanici o carote di ghiaccio) risalenti a molte centinaia di anni fa per ricostruire la storia del flusso dell’Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

Gli scienziati affermano che un ulteriore indebolimento dell’AMOC potrebbe provocare un numero maggiore di tempeste che colpiscono il Regno Unito, inverni più intensi e un aumento delle dannose ondate di calore e di siccità in tutta Europa. L’AMOC è uno dei più grandi sistemi di circolazione oceanica del mondo, trasporta l’acqua calda superficiale dal Golfo del Messico verso il nord Atlantico, dove si raffredda e diventa più salata fino a quando non affonda a nord dell’Islanda, che a sua volta attira più acqua calda dai Caraibi.

Questa circolazione è accompagnata da venti che contribuiscono anche a portare un clima mite e umido in Irlanda, nel Regno Unito e in altre parti dell’Europa occidentale. I ricercatori  prevedono che l’AMOC si indebolirà ulteriormente se il riscaldamento globale continuerà ad aumentare e potrebbe ridursi da circa il 34% al 45% entro la fine di questo secolo. Questo potrebbe portarci ad un “punto di non ritorno” in cui il sistema potrebbe diventare irrevocabilmente instabile.» [Fonte]

* * * * * * *

2021-03-03__ Corrente del Golfo 001

«The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)—one of Earth’s major ocean circulation systems—redistributes heat on our planet and has a major impact on climate. Here, we compare a variety of published proxy records to reconstruct the evolution of the AMOC since about ad 400»

«after a long and relatively stable period, there was an initial weakening starting in the nineteenth century, followed by a second, more rapid, decline in the mid-twentieth century, leading to the weakest state of the AMOC occurring in recent decades»

«the Gulf Stream System, also known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)»

«A major mechanism for heat redistribution and crucial to the world’s climate, an abrupt slowdown of the AMOC could trigger disruptions around the globe»

«The international research team made up of scientists from Ireland, Britain and Germany were able to reconstruct the flow history of the AMOC over the last 1600 years by using a range of several different and largely independent proxy indicators including data from tree rings, ice cores, ocean sediments, and corals, as well as from historical data, such as ship logs»

«Analysis of the collated data indicates that whilst AMOC has been relatively stable until the 19th century, the system of ocean currents began to decline by the end of the Little Ice Age after around 1850, with a second, more drastic decline following since the mid-20th century»

«in a 2020 Geophysical Research Letters study, went further and revealed how the extreme state of Atlantic circulation caused 20th century warming of the surface ocean in the Northeast Atlantic that was unprecedented in the last 10,000 years»

«this study shows the increasing evidence in support of the modern Atlantic Ocean undergoing unprecedented changes in comparison to the last millennium, and in some cases longer»

«AMOC is a key control on both regional and global climate»

«Whilst a slowdown of the AMOC could imply more extreme and intense winter weather events in Europe, the consequences could be manifold for people living on both sides of the Atlantic – with the east coast of the US vulnerable to flooding»

* * * * * * *

I mutamenti climatici si attuano nell’arco di millenni, e sono la risultante della interazione di molteplici fattori.

A momento non è ancora disponibile una teoria che consideri simultaneamente tutte le variabili note, e che sappia descrivere gli aventi passati, base questa per poter inferire qualcosa di valido per il prossimo futuro.

* * * * * * *


L. Caesar, G. D. McCarthy, D. J. R. Thornalley, N. Cahill & S. Rahmstorf .

Current Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation weakest in last millennium.

Nature Geoscience.

Abstract.

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)—one of Earth’s major ocean circulation systems—redistributes heat on our planet and has a major impact on climate. Here, we compare a variety of published proxy records to reconstruct the evolution of the AMOC since about ad 400. A fairly consistent picture of the AMOC emerges: after a long and relatively stable period, there was an initial weakening starting in the nineteenth century, followed by a second, more rapid, decline in the mid-twentieth century, leading to the weakest state of the AMOC occurring in recent decades.

* * * * * * *


Earth’s Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium.

25 February 2021.

A new study involving researchers from UCL has found consistent evidence of a decline in ocean currents, with the Gulf Stream System, also known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), at its weakest in over 1,000 years.

Published today in Nature Geoscience, the team found that the Gulf Stream’s slowdown in the 20th century is unprecedented.

A major mechanism for heat redistribution and crucial to the world’s climate, an abrupt slowdown of the AMOC could trigger disruptions around the globe – including a sudden rise in regional sea levels, changes in the position of major rainfall and arid climate zones. 

The international research team made up of scientists from Ireland, Britain and Germany were able to reconstruct the flow history of the AMOC over the last 1600 years by using a range of several different and largely independent proxy indicators including data from tree rings, ice cores, ocean sediments, and corals, as well as from historical data, such as ship logs.

Analysis of the collated data indicates that whilst AMOC has been relatively stable until the 19th century, the system of ocean currents began to decline by the end of the Little Ice Age after around 1850, with a second, more drastic decline following since the mid-20th century.

The study findings build upon, and are consistent with, previous research led by study co-author Dr David Thornalley (UCL Geography). A 2018 Nature study by Dr Thornalley used the size of sediment grains in marine cores to reconstruct the strength of important deep sea currents, and alongside data used to reconstruct past surface ocean temperatures, it provided the first ocean evidence for the unprecedented nature of recent changes in the AMOC. Further work by Dr Thornalley’s team, in a 2020 Geophysical Research Letters study, went further and revealed how the extreme state of Atlantic circulation caused 20th century warming of the surface ocean in the Northeast Atlantic that was unprecedented in the last 10,000 years. 

Dr Thornalley said: “Whilst climate modelling has long predicted a slowdown of the AMOC as a result of human-induced warming, this study shows the increasing evidence in support of the modern Atlantic Ocean undergoing unprecedented changes in comparison to the last millennium, and in some cases longer. Alongside other human pressures on the marine environment, the changes we are observing in ocean circulation are impacting marine ecosystems in both the surface and deep ocean. We will need to take account of these ongoing changes in our efforts to conserve and manage marine resources. 

“Overall, this new study highlights that major changes are occurring, but it also draws attention to how in future work we must aim to resolve which components and pathways of the AMOC have changed, how, and for what reason – there is a lot we still need to learn.”

AMOC is a key control on both regional and global climate. Whilst a slowdown of the AMOC could imply more extreme and intense winter weather events in Europe, the consequences could be manifold for people living on both sides of the Atlantic – with the east coast of the US vulnerable to flooding.

Dr Levke Caesar, lead author (ICARUS Climate Research Centre, Maynooth University, and guest scientist at Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)) said: “The northward surface flow of the AMOC leads to a deflection of water masses to the right, away from the US east coast. This is due to Earth’s rotation that diverts moving objects such as currents to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. As the current slows down, this effect weakens and more water can pile up at the US east coast, leading to an enhanced sea level rise.”

Study initiator Professor Stefan Rahmstorf (PIK)) said: “If we continue to drive global warming, the Gulf Stream System will weaken further – by 34 to 45 percent by 2100 according to the latest generation of climate models. This could bring us dangerously close to the tipping point at which the flow becomes unstable.” Earth’s Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium.

A new study involving researchers from UCL has found consistent evidence of a decline in ocean currents, with the Gulf Stream System, also known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), at its weakest in over 1,000 years.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Istruzione e Ricerca

Science. Covid. Più velocemente circolasse prima si ridimensionerebbe. – Science.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-03-11.

2021-03-07__Science 001

Jennie S. Lavine, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Rustom Antia.

Immunological characteristics govern the transition of COVID-19 to endemicity.

Science  12 Feb 2021:

Vol. 371, Issue 6530, pp. 741-745

DOI: 10.1126/science.abe6522

* * * * * * *

«Lo studio di Science: più il virus circolerà velocemente e più in fretta ce lo toglieremo di torno»

«La rivista americana ha di recente pubblicato uno studio che rivoluziona le nostre conoscenze sull’evoluzione del coronavirus Sars-Cov-2. Due scienziati, Jennie S. Lavine del Dipartimento di Biologia della Emory University, Atlanta (Usa) e Ottar N. Bjornstad del Dipartimento di Biologia e del Centro Dinamica delle malattie infettive dell’Università dello Stato della Pennsylvania, hanno sviluppato uno studio basandosi sull’evoluzione degli altri coronavirus»

«I due sostengono che il Sars-Cov-2 è diventato così diffuso da esserci poche possibilità di eliminazione diretta. Gli esseri umani però convivono con tanti altri coronavirus endemici che causano più reinfezioni, ma generano un’immunità diffusa sufficiente a proteggere gli adulti da gravi malattie, avendone indebolito l’aggressività»

«Quindi più il virus circolerà velocemente (R0=6) e più in fretta ce lo toglieremo di torno. Ma se continuiamo a limitarne la diffusione ci metteremo almeno 10 o 20 anni, per uscire da questa situazione. Bisogna ovviamente usare tutte le difese in nostro possesso, dalle cure diffuse ai vaccini, eccetera, per proteggere le categorie a rischio, come ad esempio anziani e persone con più malattie»

«Ma al contempo bisognerebbe eliminare qualsiasi forma di distanziamento sociale e di protezione per poterlo diffondere più possibile e ridurne l’aggressività, portandolo a manifestarsi come una normale influenza»

* * * * * * *

Esula dalle nostre competenze dare una valutazione a questo studio, peraltro già vidimato dalla pubblicazione su Science, una delle più esclusive riviste scientifiche.

Si dovrebbe tuttavia notare come la lettura di questa pubblicazione riveli una stringente concatenazione logica.

*


Covid quando finirà, Science choc: “Fra 10-20 anni se non apriamo tutto”

Lo studio di Science: più il virus circolerà velocemente e più in fretta ce lo toglieremo di torno. Proteggendo anziani e categorie a rischio con cure e vaccini.

Quando finisce il Covid?

Quando finisce il Covid? Per Science, in campo scientifico una delle riviste più prestigiose a livello mondiale, dipende dalle nostre capacità di far diventare il virus endemico e non così virulento come lo è ora.

La rivista americana ha di recente pubblicato uno studio che rivoluziona le nostre conoscenze sull’evoluzione del coronavirus Sars-Cov-2. Due scienziati, Jennie S. Lavine del Dipartimento di Biologia della Emory University, Atlanta (Usa) e Ottar N. Bjornstad del Dipartimento di Biologia e del Centro Dinamica delle malattie infettive dell’Università dello Stato della Pennsylvania, hanno sviluppato uno studio basandosi sull’evoluzione degli altri coronavirus. I due sostengono che il Sars-Cov-2 è diventato così diffuso da esserci poche possibilità di eliminazione diretta. Gli esseri umani però convivono con tanti altri coronavirus endemici che causano più reinfezioni, ma generano un’immunità diffusa sufficiente a proteggere gli adulti da gravi malattie, avendone indebolito l’aggressività.

Parliamo quindi di virus paragonabili ai comuni virus influenzali, con un rapporto di mortalità per infezione (IFR) pari allo 0,001. Quindi più il virus circolerà velocemente (R0=6) e più in fretta ce lo toglieremo di torno. Ma se continuiamo a limitarne la diffusione ci metteremo almeno 10 o 20 anni, per uscire da questa situazione. Bisogna ovviamente usare tutte le difese in nostro possesso, dalle cure diffuse ai vaccini, eccetera, per proteggere le categorie a rischio, come ad esempio anziani e persone con più malattie. Ma al contempo bisognerebbe eliminare qualsiasi forma di distanziamento sociale e di protezione per poterlo diffondere più possibile e ridurne l’aggressività, portandolo a manifestarsi come una normale influenza. Questo processo oltre ad abbassarne la virulenza ne ridurrebbe anche l’età di diffusione, interessando principalmente i bambini che hanno un sistema immunitario più forte e reattivo.

I due scienziati sono arrivati a queste conclusioni seguendo l’evoluzione degli altri coronavirus in circolazione ma tenendo anche conto del profilo della malattia strutturata per diffusione di età e valutando l’impatto della vaccinazione che potrebbe, con l’attuale sistema di bassa diffusione, avere effetti di protezione relativamente limitati.

“La nostra analisi dei dati immunologici ed epidemiologici sui coronavirus umani endemici (HCoV)”, dicono i due, “mostra che l’immunità che blocca le infezioni diminuisce rapidamente ma che l’immunità che riduce la malattia è di lunga durata”. Per evitare che la situazione attuale duri qualche decennio occorrerebbe agire con strategie diverse, consapevoli che attualmente la reinfezione è possibile un anno dopo la prima infezione, anche se con sintomi più lievi.

Una volta raggiunta la fase endemica l’esposizione primaria avverrebbe nell’infanzia. La strategia che l’umanità dovrebbe seguire è: “affinché la maggior parte delle persone venga infettata così presto nella vita, persino più giovane del morbillo nell’era pre-vaccino, il tasso di attacco deve superare la trasmissione dalle sole infezioni primarie”. Dovremmo cioè evitare la sua eccezionalità. Un’infezione susseguente (ripetuta), causata dallo stesso germe, ma col quadro suggerito, potrebbe persino non notarsi.

                         Come sconfiggere il Covid e tornare alla normalità

“Tuttavia, una volta che i dati demografici dell’infezione raggiungono uno stato stazionario, il nostro modello prevede che i casi primari si verifichino quasi interamente nei neonati e nei bambini piccoli, che, nel caso di Covid-19, sperimentano un CFR basso e un IFR contemporaneamente basso”, spiegano i due scienziati, cioè con bassi rischi. “Si prevede che le reinfezioni negli individui più anziani siano comuni durante la fase endemica e contribuiscano alla trasmissione, ma in questa popolazione allo stato stazionario, gli individui più anziani, che sarebbero a rischio di malattia grave da un’infezione primaria, hanno acquisito l’immunità che riduce la malattia dopo l’infezione durante l’infanzia”, se si ragiona sul lungo periodo, cioè quando l’umanità si sarà adattata al virus e viceversa.

“Questa transizione”, ad un virus più debole e relativamente innocuo, endemico, “può richiedere da pochi anni a pochi decenni, a seconda della velocità con cui si diffonde l’agente patogeno”, scrivono Lavine e Bjornstad. Infatti va compreso anche che “rallentare l’epidemia attraverso misure di allontanamento sociale che riducono R 0 vicino a 1 appiattisce la curva, ritardando così le infezioni e prevenendo la maggior parte dei decessi precocemente, offrendo un momento critico per lo sviluppo di un vaccino efficace”.

In sostanza per eliminare gli effetti più gravemente patogeni della Sars-Cov 2 il virus va fatto circolare. In questo modo saremmo anche più in grado di trovare un vaccino sempre più efficace: “se è necessario un frequente potenziamento dell’immunità mediante la circolazione virale in corso per mantenere la protezione dalla patologia, allora potrebbe essere meglio che il vaccino imiti l’immunità naturale nella misura in cui previene la patologia senza bloccare la circolazione del virus in corso”.

In più i due scienziati sostengono che “i risultati preliminari suggeriscono che il vaccino a base di adenovirus è migliore nel prevenire infezioni gravi rispetto a quelle lievi o asintomatiche, e sarà importante produrre tecnologie simili per gli altri vaccini”. Tradotto: il vaccino migliore è quello basato su vettori virali adenovirus. Nella ricerca questa tecnologia di vaccino sembra apparire come la più efficace e andrebbe riprodotta come sistema per fabbricare altri vaccini.

Nel sistema con adenovirus, dopo la vaccinazione, viene prodotta la proteina spike superficiale che attiva il nostro sistema immunitario affinché attacchi il virus e lo debelli.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Istruzione e Ricerca

Svezia. Ritornerebbe in auge la libertà di parola e di ricerca nelle università.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-03-09.

Svezia 001

«Nell’antichità classica non mancarono istituzioni paragonabili alle moderne u.; l’esempio maggiore è l’Accademia Platonica. Ciò che distingue le istituzioni classiche dalla u. medievale è il particolare riconoscimento giuridico che quest’ultima concedeva a chi aveva profittato del suo insegnamento, mentre l’istituzione accademica antica non concedeva titoli o gradi accademici.

L’u. medievale aveva la duplice caratteristica di studium generale, cioè luogo di studi aperto a tutti, e universitas studiorum, cioè corporazione che gestiva gli istituti d’insegnamento, e al tempo stesso corporazione dei maestri e degli scolari, da cui la denominazione più comune di universitas magistrorum et scholarium. Questa u. concedeva, dopo un esame, la licentia ubique docendi e il licenziato, una volta diventato doctor o magister, non veniva accolto nella u. presso la quale aveva frequentato gli studi, ma si recava altrove a insegnare o a svolgere la propria professione. Il punto essenziale dell’evoluzione storica delle u. nei vari paesi d’Europa consiste espressamente nel modo con cui si realizza il distacco dello studente dall’u. presso la quale ha studiato; cosicché u. come quelle francesi hanno conservato la caratteristica medievale della venia legendi, con la quale lo studente, licenziandosi dall’u., vi compie la prima lezione della sua carriera.

Le prime u. sorsero dalle scuole ecclesiastiche, e quindi è impossibile determinarne cronologicamente la nascita; le u. più antiche continuavano a svolgere la propria attività ex consuetudine, ma per l’istituzione di nuove u. divenne necessaria un’autorizzazione papale o imperiale: quindi solo per queste ultime si può parlare di una precisa data di fondazione. Il più antico centro di studi superiori, ma non una vera u., fu la celebre Scuola di medicina di Salerno (già dalla metà dell’11° sec.), riordinata da Federico II nel 1231. ….

Le u. sono dotate di personalità giuridica. Esse organizzano le proprie strutture e agiscono, per la realizzazione delle proprie finalità istituzionali, nel rispetto della libertà d’insegnamento e di ricerca e dei principi generali fissati nella disciplina relativa agli ordinamenti didattici universitari. Più in particolare, in attuazione dell’art. 33 Cost., che conferisce alle università il diritto di darsi ordinamenti autonomi nei limiti stabiliti dalla legge dello Stato, l’art. 6 della l. n. 168/1989 ha riconosciuto agli atenei «autonomia didattica, scientifica, organizzativa, finanziaria e contabile»» [Fonte]

* * * * * * *


Senza sostanziale libertà di autonomia didattica, scientifica, organizzativa, finanziaria e contabile le università si insteriliscono e producono ricerca e didattica solo nel solco del passato. Ma le grandi scoperte sono per definizione rivoluzionarie, iconoclaste: superano con un balzo il passato e proiettano nel futuro. Una nuova scoperta che non abbia dell’incredibile ed oscuri e conglobi tutte quelle passate non è certo una ‘grande scoperta‘. Ma per progredire la scienza ha bisogno di personalità quali Archimede, Luca Pacioli, René Descartes, Galileo Galilei, Kurt Gödel, solo per citare alcuni pilastri della scienza.

Ciò è vero al punto tale che le due grandi scoperte degli ultimi secoli sono state addirittura concepite fuori dagli angusti limiti mentali dell’accademia: nel 1687 Isaac Newton pubblicò i Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, concepiti in un solitario romitaggio; nel 1905 invece Albert Einstein pubblicò sei lavori che dischiusero la visione della relatività ristretta, ponendo le basi per le successive scoperte.

Ma Einstein non era accademico: concluse infatti gli studi al politecnico di Zurigo nel luglio del 1900, superando gli esami finali con la votazione di 4,9/6 e classificandosi quarto su cinque promossi. Egli fu l’unico dei laureati a non ottenere un posto come assistente.

Per vivere e mantenere la famiglia, dopo la laurea Einstein trovò lavoro presso l’ufficio brevetti di Berna.

* * * * * * *

Negli ultimi decenni le università dell’enclave liberal occidentale sono state colonizzate dall’ideologia liberal, che si è imposta con mano ferrea e pesante: quanti non fossero stati concordi sarebbero stati tagliati via dai finanziamenti e licenziati. La libertà era stata soppressa ed il rogo dei libri ripreso. Le università occidentali si sono inaridite.

Procuratore Generale NY, Schneiderman, dimissionario per abusi sessuali.

Il caso di Mrs Ramsey Bearse. Sodoma e Gomorra a scuola.

Trump. Una sua accusatrice arrestata in flagranza di reato.

Silicon Valley. La pronta risposta al sexual harassment.

Brutto fattaccio quello della Berkeley University.

«Un caso paramount. Il prof Tim Hunt, premio Nobel per la Medicina disse che “è meglio non aver donne nei laboratori perché ci innamoriamo di loro, si innamorano di noi e quando le criticate, si mettono a piangere“. Licenziato in tronco dal University College of London su denunzia di alcune femmine, dopo nemmeno due mesi era stato assunto dalla Okinawa University, lui e sua moglie: “The loss of a leading UK female scientist is perhaps one of the more ironic outcomes of the Hunt affair“. Le sue denunciatrici sono scomparse nel nulla, ma la perdita di Hunt e Collins fu davvero severa. I premi Nobel non sono funghi prataioli.»

Six months after a speech wrecked Tim Hunt’s career, the Nobel laureate and his wife Mary Collins tell of her top-level new job and their future in Japan.

«Mary Collins, a senior scientist at University College London (UCL), has been appointed director of research for a prestigious new university, the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. “Setting up the institute is a big commitment by the Japanese cabinet and it will be my job to build up the faculty and make sure this university works,” she says ….

“You can study deep-sea vents which are close to the island and work on coral, that sort of thing. We are also extremely well funded,” she says. (The institute’s budget last year was around £110m.)»

* * * * * * *

Ma qualcosa inizia a cambiare.

«Sweden moves to protect academic freedom after prof quits covid research due to harassment»

«We have been discussing erosion of free speech and academic freedom protections at colleges and universities around the United States»

«Most faculty have been conspicuously silent as their colleagues are attacked, suspended, or even fired for taking opposing views on systemic racism, police brutality, or movements like Black Lives Matter»

«In Sweden, the response has been quite different after Professor Jonas Ludvigsson, announced that he would stop all further research on Covid-19 after a campaign of abuse and harassment following his study on the low threat that the virus poses to children and teachers»

«Ludvigsson researches and teaches clinical epidemiology at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute. His research is consistent with studies that have long found a low risk to students and teachers»

«The argument for reopening schools, particularly for young children, was portrayed as political and “not following the science.”»

«Commercials ran that calls to returning to the classroom was tantamount to “murder.”»

«However, the science has been overwhelmingly supportive of such reopening»

«Indeed, Catholic and other private schools in many states never closed without surges in the virus»

* * *

«Ludvigsson was attacked and hounded out of further research»

«The response of the country however has been different from the response in the United States. Various academic leaders and groups are pushing for legislation designed to protect academic freedom.»

«The response in the United States is strikingly different. We have been discussing efforts to fire professors who voice dissenting views on various issues including an effort to oust a leading economist from the University of Chicago as well as a leading linguistics professor at Harvard and a literature professor at Penn»

«who call for the firing of those with opposing views (including myself)»

* * * * * * *

Nell’enclave liberal socialista occidentale la libertà di parola non esiste più da tempo e le università sono state irreggimentate come non accadeva dalla prima metà del novecento in molti paesi europei.

Non ci si stupisca se il resto del mondo tutela invee e protegge la libertà i parola e di ricerca universitaria.

Cina. “Homosexuality as a “psychological disorder” in a university textbook”.

Nel 2018 la Cina ha pubblicato 528,263 lavori scientifici su riviste internazionali quotate dallo Institute for Scientific Information’s Science Citation Index (SCI), il database scientifico riconosciuto a livello mondiale. Nello stesso anno gli Stati Uniti ne hanno pubblicato 422,808. La mancanza di libertà di parola e ricerca li ha relegati in secondo piano.

* * * * * * *

Sweden Moves To Protect Academic Freedom After Prof Quits COVID Research Due To Harassment.

We have been discussing erosion of free speech and academic freedom protections at colleges and universities around the United States. Most faculty have been conspicuously silent as their colleagues are attacked, suspended, or even fired for taking opposing views on systemic racism, police brutality, or movements like Black Lives Matter. In Sweden, the response has been quite different after Professor Jonas Ludvigsson, announced that he would stop all further research on Covid-19 after a campaign of abuse and harassment following his study on the low threat that the virus poses to children and teachers. The country is ramping up protections for academics to combat such cancelling campaign.

Ludvigsson researches and teaches clinical epidemiology at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute. His research is consistent with studies that have long found a low risk to students and teachers.  This research was highlighted during the Trump Administration in a call for the resumption of classes but largely ignored by the media. The argument for reopening schools, particularly for young children, was portrayed as political and “not following the science.”  Commercials ran that calls to returning to the classroom was tantamount to “murder.”

However, the science has been overwhelmingly supportive of such reopening. 

Indeed, Catholic and other private schools in many states never closed without surges in the virus.

Ludvigsson looked at children from age 1 to 16 during the first wave of COVID-19 and found that only 15 children went to the ICU, for a rate of 0.77 per 100,000. Moreover, in the 1-16 age group, there was only a slight increase from the four-month period before the pandemic to the four-month period following the period.

Such studies contradict the media narrative and the position of teacher unions, including many which continue to oppose a return to the classroom despite the science. Accordingly, Ludvigsson was attacked and hounded out of further research.

The response of the country however has been different from the response in the United States. Various academic leaders and groups are pushing for legislation designed to protect academic freedom. They are citing a Swedish government study in 2018 found “21 out of 26 universities said that there is a risk that researchers will be exposed to harassment, threats and violence.”

The response in the United States is strikingly different. We have been discussing efforts to fire professors who voice dissenting views on various issues including an effort to oust a leading economist from the University of Chicago as well as a leading linguistics professor at Harvard and a literature professor at Penn. Sites like Lawyers, Guns, and Money feature writers like Colorado Law Professor Paul Campus who call for the firing of those with opposing views (including myself).  Such campaigns have targeted teachers and students who contest the evidence of systemic racism in the use of lethal force by police or offer other opposing views in current debates over the pandemic, reparations, electoral fraud, or other issues.

Faculty have largely stayed silent as campaigns target these professors and teachers. While some may relish such cleansing of schools of opposing voices, many are likely intimidated by such campaigns and do not want to be the next targeted by such groups. We have often defended the free speech rights of faculty on the left who have made hateful comments about whites, males, and conservatives. Yet, there is an eerie silence when conservatives are targeted for their own views. Sweden has shown how this is a global issue but that the response outside of the United States has been markedly different.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Istruzione e Ricerca

Cina. 2020. Spesa in ricerca e sviluppo salita a 378 miliardi Usd, +10%.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-03-04.

2021-03-03__ Cina. 2020. Spesa in ricerca e sviluppo salita a 378 miliardi Usd, +10%

«Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Gap-filled total. Scientific and technical article counts are from journals classified by the Institute for Scientific Information’s Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)»

* * * * * * *

«China’s total expenditure on R&D rose 10.3% from a year ago to 2.44 trillion yuan ($377.8 billion)»

«China’s spending on research and development hit a record high 2.4% of gross domestic product in 2020»

«China’s top leadership is set to detail additional measures to support self-reliance in technology and innovation»

«U.S. policies that seek to contain China’s continued rise have given new urgency to Beijing’s push for technology self-sufficiency»

* * * * * * *


 U.S. R&D Increased by $32 Billion in 2017, to $548 Billion; Estimate for 2018 Indicates a Further Rise to $580 Billion.

La Cina sta facendo grandi sforzi per diventare il top nel settore ricerca e sviluppo, e già lo è per quanto rigurda il numero delle pubblcazioni su riviste quotate dallo Institute for Scientific Information’s Science Citation Index, il database di riferimento a livello mondiale.

Se sicuramente al momento attuale è ancora indietro rispetto gli Stati Uniti nei contenuti, dando tempo al tempo si potrebbe inferire che questo obbiettivo potrebbe essere raggiunto in poco meno di cinque anni.

Ma i cinesi sono pazienti. Tutto richiede i suoi tempi.

*

L’occidente non potrà mai contenere la Cina con le sanzioni: dovrebbe solo riprendere a produrre senza orpelli ideologici. Ma non possiamo chiedere a Biden di suicidarsi.

*


China’s R&D Spending Rises 10% to Record $378 Billion in 2020.  

China’s spending on research and development hit a record high 2.4% of gross domestic product in 2020, according to preliminary data from the National Bureau of Statistics.

China’s total expenditure on R&D rose 10.3% from a year ago to 2.44 trillion yuan ($377.8 billion), the bureau said in a release Sunday. It’s the slowest incremental growth in five years and down from 12.5% in 2019.

China’s spending on research and development hit a record high 2.4% of gross domestic product in 2020, according to preliminary data from the National Bureau of Statistics.

China’s total expenditure on R&D rose 10.3% from a year ago to 2.44 trillion yuan ($377.8 billion), the bureau said in a release Sunday. It’s the slowest incremental growth in five years and down from 12.5% in 2019.

China’s top leadership is set to detail additional measures to support self-reliance in technology and innovation at the National People’s Congress that kicks off this week. The ruling Communist party will also announce economic and other policy targets for this year, the next five years, and through the year 2035, at the annual gathering.

U.S. policies that seek to contain China’s continued rise have given new urgency to Beijing’s push for technology self-sufficiency. China has pledged to accelerate development of 5G technologies, semiconductor manufacturing and other technologies seen as critical to the next stage of economic development.

The R&D expenditure data released Sunday are subject to revisions, with the final 2020 tally expected later this year.

Pubblicato in: Istruzione e Ricerca, Medicina e Biologia, Regno Unito

UK. Vaccino Pfizer-BioNTech. Effetti collaterali non gravi nei pazienti allergici.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2020-12-10.

Pfizer 013

Non esiste farmaco efficiente che non abbia reazioni collaterali.

«UK warns people with serious allergies to avoid Pfizer vaccine after two adverse reactions»

«Britain’s medicine regulator has advised that people with a history of significant allergies do not get Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine after two people reported adverse reactions on the first day of rollout»

«Starting with the elderly and frontline workers, Britain began mass vaccinating its population on Tuesday, part of a global drive that poses one of the biggest logistical challenges in peacetime history»

«National Health Service medical director Stephen Powis said the advice had been changed after two NHS workers reported anaphylactoid reactions associated with receiving the vaccine. They were among the thousands who received the shot on Tuesday»

«Last week Britain’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) became the first in the world to approve the vaccine, developed by Germany’s BioNTech and Pfizer, while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) continue to assess the data»

«Pfizer has said people with a history of severe adverse allergic reactions to vaccines or the candidate’s ingredients were excluded from their late stage trials, which is reflected in the MHRA’s emergency approval protocol»

«Any person with a history of a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, medicine or food (such as previous history of anaphylactoid reaction or those who have been advised to carry an adrenaline autoinjector) should not receive the Pfizer BioNtech vaccine»

«Britain is first rolling out the vaccine to the over-80s, those in care homes, carers and health staff»

«entrambe le reazioni sono avvenute negli operatori sanitari piuttosto che negli anziani»

«In the United States, the FDA released documents on Tuesday in preparation for an advisory committee meeting on Thursday, saying the Pfizer vaccines efficacy and safety data met its expectations for authorization.»

* * * * * * *


Ripetiamo solo per chiarezza: non esiste farmaco efficiente che non abbia reazioni collaterali.

Questi effetti collaterali sono stati segnalati nello 0.63% delle persone nel gruppo dei vaccinati e nello 0.51% delle persone che erano state trattate con placebo.

Sono evenienze da tener sempre presente, ma il loro impatto è percentualmente minimale.

*


UK warns people with serious allergies to avoid Pfizer vaccine after two adverse reactions.

Britain’s medicine regulator has advised that people with a history of significant allergies do not get Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine after two people reported adverse reactions on the first day of rollout.

Starting with the elderly and frontline workers, Britain began mass vaccinating its population on Tuesday, part of a global drive that poses one of the biggest logistical challenges in peacetime history.

National Health Service medical director Stephen Powis said the advice had been changed after two NHS workers reported anaphylactoid reactions associated with receiving the vaccine. They were among the thousands who received the shot on Tuesday.

“As is common with new vaccines the MHRA (regulator) have advised on a precautionary basis that people with a significant history of allergic reactions do not receive this vaccination, after two people with a history of significant allergic reactions responded adversely yesterday,” Powis said.

“Both are recovering well.”

The MHRA said it would seek further information and was investigating as a matter of priority, and Pfizer and BioNTech said they were supporting the MHRA’s investigation.

Last week Britain’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) became the first in the world to approve the vaccine, developed by Germany’s BioNTech and Pfizer, while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) continue to assess the data.

“Last evening, we were looking at two case reports of allergic reactions. We know from the very extensive clinical trials that this wasn’t a feature,” MHRA Chief Executive June Raine told lawmakers.

ALLERGIC REACTION

Pfizer has said people with a history of severe adverse allergic reactions to vaccines or the candidate’s ingredients were excluded from their late stage trials, which is reflected in the MHRA’s emergency approval protocol.

The new MHRA guidance, sent out to health professionals, said a much broader segment should not take the vaccine.

“Any person with a history of a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, medicine or food (such as previous history of anaphylactoid reaction or those who have been advised to carry an adrenaline autoinjector) should not receive the Pfizer BioNtech vaccine,” it said.

It also said resuscitation facilities should be available for all vaccinations.

Britain is first rolling out the vaccine to the over-80s, those in care homes, carers and health staff. Food allergies are less common in older people, and both reactions happened in health workers rather than the elderly.

“Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are unusual but staff administering vaccines are always trained and equipped to deal with them in the event they occur,” Adam Finn, professor of paediatrics at the University of Bristol, said, adding the advice was a “sensible” precaution until more experience with the vaccine was gathered.

In the United States, the FDA released documents on Tuesday in preparation for an advisory committee meeting on Thursday, saying the Pfizer vaccine’s efficacy and safety data met its expectations for authorization.

The briefing documents said 0.63% of people in the vaccine group and 0.51% in the placebo group reported possible allergic reactions in trials, which Peter Openshaw, Professor of Experimental Medicine at Imperial College London, said was a very small number.

“The fact that we know so soon about these two allergic reactions and that the regulator has acted on this to issue precautionary advice shows that this monitoring system is working well,” he said.

Pubblicato in: Economia e Produzione Industriale, Istruzione e Ricerca, Regno Unito

Regno Unito. Acceso il reattore sperimentale a fusione ‘Mast Upgrade’.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2020-11-16.

2020-11-06__ Fusione 013

«The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) experiment was a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire, England, from December 1999 to September 2013. A successor facility called MAST Upgrade is being commissioned in 2020, with physics campaigns planned to start in late 2020.

MAST followed the highly successful Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) experiment (1991-1998) and used the same innovative spherical tokamak design as START. Spherical tokamaks have been shown to be more efficient in use of the magnetic field than the more conventional toroidal design, adopted by Joint European Torus (JET) and ITER. START proved to exceed even the most optimistic predictions and MAST confirmed the results of its forerunner on a larger, more purpose-built experiment.

It was fully commissioned by EURATOM/UKAEA and took two years to design and a further two years to construct. MAST included a neutral beam injector similar to that used on START for plasma heating, and used the same merging compression technique for plasma formation instead of the conventional direct induction. Merging compression provides a valuable saving of central solenoid flux, which can then be used to further ramp up the plasma current and/or maintain the required current flat-top.

Its plasma volume was about 8 m3 and it confined plasmas with densities on the order of 1020/m3.

Image to right shows plasma in the MAST device, displaying its almost circular outer profile. The extensions off the top and bottom are plasma flowing to the ring divertors, a key feature of modern tokamak designs.» [Fonte]

* * * * * * *

«Si chiama Mast Upgrade, banco di prova per la tecnologia»

«La Gran Bretagna ha acceso il suo reattore sperimentale a fusione nucleare, per produrre energia elettrica imitando il processo che accende il Sole e le altre stelle»

«Si chiama Mast Upgrade (Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak) e, come osserva la rivista Science sul suo sito, promette di essere un banco di prova per le tecnologie destinate ai futuri reattori a fusione»

«Costruito in 7 anni e costato 55 milioni di sterline, il reattore si basa su una tecnologia che è una variante della macchina Tokamak, dalla caratteristica forma di ciambella, sulla quale è basato il progetto Iter (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in costruzione nel Sud della Francia, a Cadarache»

«Acceso il reattore sperimentale a fusione britannico»

* * * * * * *

Il sapere scientifico e tecnologico si espande in continuazione.

E questo sembrerebbe essere un passo promettente.

*

M Cox & MAST Team

The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak.

Sciencedirect. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-3796(99)00031-9

Abstract

Results from START at Culham have been very impressive and have triggered the construction of several new Spherical Tokamaks (R/a≤1.5), including the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST), which was given EURATOM approval in April 1996. MAST (R=0.7 m, a=0.5 m, k∼2, Ip≤2 MA) is twice the size of START and will allow plasmas with cross-section similar to medium-sized conventional tokamaks (e.g. ASDEX-U, D-IIID) to be studied. A summary is presented of the overall design of MAST, which as far as possible has been based on the successful approach used on START and has been arranged to maximise the use of existing COMPASS power supplies. Details of some of the challenging design issues associated with the components in the central regions of the machine, where space is restricted, are described.

* * * * * * *


Acceso il reattore sperimentale a fusione britannico.

Si chiama Mast Upgrade, banco di prova per la tecnologia.

La Gran Bretagna ha acceso il suo reattore sperimentale a fusione nucleare, per produrre energia elettrica imitando il processo che accende il Sole e le altre stelle. Si chiama Mast Upgrade (Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak) e, come osserva la rivista Science sul suo sito, promette di essere un banco di prova per le tecnologie destinate ai futuri reattori a fusione.
Costruito in 7 anni e costato 55 milioni di sterline, il reattore si basa su una tecnologia che è una variante della macchina Tokamak, dalla caratteristica forma di ciambella, sulla quale è basato il progetto Iter (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in costruzione nel Sud della Francia, a Cadarache.

In queste macchine il confinamento del plasma (per isolarlo dalle pareti del reattore) è ottenuto attraverso intensi campi magnetici, ma la tecnologia ha un inconveniente: si verificano improvvise instabilità del plasma nel reattore, che interrompono il confinamento, con la duplice conseguenza di fermare la produzione di energia e danneggiare componenti chiave del rettore.

Per tentare si superare questo problema Mast è stato concepito in maniera diversa. Rispetto al tokamak standard ha la forma più simile al torsolo di una mela che a una ciambella, perchè, secondo i ricercatori questa forma può conferire una maggiore stabilità al plasma rispetto a un tokamak a forma di ciambella. Tuttavia questa tecnologia è poco conosciuta e ancora non si sa se sia davvero efficace.

La prova di concetto del progetto Mast era stata testata per la prima volta nel 1999 e ora il progetto è stato aggiornato: la nuova versione, Mast Upgrade, è più potente ed è stata migliorata con una nuova tecnologia per l’estrazione del calore dal plasma.

I ricercatori britannici sperano che Mast Upgrade dimostri un miglioramento sufficiente delle prestazioni da poter andare avanti con il piano per la costruzione di una centrale elettrica basata su questa tecnologia. Con questo obiettivo in Gran Bretagna lo scorso anno è stato lanciato un progetto da 220 milioni di sterline di finanziamenti governativi per una nuovo reattore per la produzione di energia elettrica da ultimare entro il 2040.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Istruzione e Ricerca, Scienza & Tecnica

Occidente che punzecchia la Cina, con risultati controproducenti. Riviste scientifiche.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2020-08-30.

2020-08-28__ Sorgente 001

Gli occidentali, meglio i liberal democratici negli Stati Uniti e quelli socialisti in Europa, hanno il vezzo di voler fare sempre la morale a tutti gli altri. Si ritengono depositari della verità assoluta, ritengono di essere non solo infallibile, ma anche di dover predicare il loro credo religioso – politico, lanciando anatemi a destra e manca.

Poi passano molto tempo a lamentarsi che gli altri li mandino a quel paese.

Ma non è mica che siano stinchi di santi.

Germania. Nel 2019 15,000 casi di pedofilia.

Germania. Pedofilia. Un vaso di Pandora di raccapriccianti orrori.

Berlino. Da trenta anni le Autorità affidavano i trovatelli ai pedofili.

Se  tedeschi facessero un po’ di pulizia in casa loro prima di pontificare, non sarebbe male.

* * * * * * *

L’ultima trovata sarebbe questa.

Molte riviste internazionali, quasi tutte a dire il vero, mettono in rete gli indici delle pubblicazioni effettuate e, di norma, ne permettono la visualizzazione dei testi, sia pure parziale.

Ma il mondo è curioso.

Chiunque si pigliasse la briga di esaminare con cura i codici sorgenti delle loro pagine, troverebbe una istruzione più o meno equivalente a questa:

«<!– Removed due to network issues when loading in China –>»

Nei fatti, ogni codice sorgente contiene molte righe analoghe: questo è solo un esempio.

* * * * * * *

È solo una banalissima puntura di spillo, che chiunque sarebbe in grado di risolvere, ma nel suo complesso è solo irritante.

Ci si domanda: ne valeva la pena?

Pubblicato in: Brasile, Istruzione e Ricerca, Scienza & Tecnica

UCL. Nuovo record velocità su internet. 178 terabit al secondo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2020-08-30.

2020-08-26__IEEE 001

Nuovo record di velocità su Internet, 178 terabit al secondo.

«Stabilito il nuovo record mondiale di velocità nella trasmissione dati su Internet: è di 178 terabit al secondo (pari a 178 milioni di megabit al secondo), quanto basta per scaricare l’intero catalogo di Netflix in meno di un secondo. Il primato è stato conquistato dai ricercatori dell’University College di Londra, che hanno così migliorato del 20% il record precedente detenuto da un team giapponese. Il risultato, che aiuterà a potenziare le attuali infrastrutture della Rete, è stato ottenuto in collaborazione con le compagnie Xtera e KDDI Research, ed è pubblicato sulla rivista IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

“Mentre le attuali interconnessioni dei data center in cloud sono in grado di trasportare fino a 35 terabit al secondo – spiega la coordinatrice dello studio, Lidia Galdino – noi stiamo lavorando con nuove tecnologie che usano in modo più efficiente le infrastrutture già esistenti, facendo un uso migliore della larghezza di banda della fibra ottica e rendendo possibile una trasmissione record di 178 terabit al secondo”. Il primato è stato ottenuto trasmettendo dati attraverso una più ampia gamma di lunghezze d’onda rispetto a quelle usate tipicamente nella fibra ottica. La tecnica può essere applicata alle attuali infrastrutture in modo economicamente vantaggioso, aggiornando gli amplificatori posizionati lungo le fibre ottiche a intervalli di 40-100 chilometri.

I servizi di comunicazione in banda larga sono sempre più richiesti dall’inizio della pandemia, “ma al di là della crisi di Covid-19 – sottolinea Galdino – il traffico Internet è cresciuto esponenzialmente negli ultimi dieci anni è questa crescita è legata alla riduzione del costo del bit. Lo sviluppo di nuove tecnologie è cruciale per mantenere questa tendenza verso costi più bassi andando incontro alle future domande di dati che continueranno ad aumentare, con applicazioni ancora impensabili che trasformeranno la vita delle persone”.»

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Questo è un gran bel risultato, specialmente perché:

«La tecnica può essere applicata alle attuali infrastrutture in modo economicamente vantaggioso, aggiornando gli amplificatori posizionati lungo le fibre ottiche a intervalli di 40-100 chilometri»

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Lidia Galdino et Al.

Optical Fibre Capacity Optimisation via Continuous Bandwidth Amplification and Geometric Shaping.

IEEE Photonics Technology Letters (Volume: 32 , Issue: 17 , 1021 – 1024, Sept.1, 1, 2020)

DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2020.3007591

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Abstract:

The maximum data throughput in a single mode optical fibre is a function of both the signal bandwidth and the wavelength-dependent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we investigate the use of hybrid discrete Raman & rare-earth doped fibre amplifiers to enable wide-band signal gain, without spectral gaps between amplification bands. We describe the widest continuous coherent transmission bandwidth experimentally demonstrated to date of 16.83 THz, achieved by simultaneously using the S-, C- and L-bands. The variation of fibre parameters over this bandwidth, together with the hybrid amplification method result in a significant SNR wavelength-dependence. To cope with this, the signal was optimised for each SNR, wavelength and transmission band. By using a system-tailored set of geometrically shaped constellations, we demonstrate the transmission of 660 ×25 GBd channels over 40 km, resulting in a record single mode fibre net throughput of 178.08 Tbit/s.

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UCL engineers set new world record internet speed.

The world’s fastest data transmission rate has been achieved by a team of UCL engineers who reached an internet speed a fifth faster than the previous record.

Working with two companies, Xtera and KDDI Research, the research team led by Dr Lidia Galdino (UCL Electronic & Electrical Engineering), achieved a data transmission rate of 178 terabits a second (178,000,000 megabits a second) – a speed at which it would be possible to download the entire Netflix library in less than a second.

The record, which is double the capacity of any system currently deployed in the world, was achieved by transmitting data through a much wider range of colours of light, or wavelengths, than is typically used in optical fibre. (Current infrastructure uses a limited spectrum bandwidth of 4.5THz, with 9THz commercial bandwidth systems entering the market, whereas the researchers used a bandwidth of 16.8THz.)

To do this, researchers combined different amplifier technologies needed to boost the signal power over this wider bandwidth and maximised speed by developing new Geometric Shaping (GS) constellations (patterns of signal combinations that make best use of the phase, brightness and polarisation properties of the light), manipulating the properties of each individual wavelength. The achievement is described in a new paper in IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

The benefit of the technique is that it can be deployed on already existing infrastructure cost-effectively, by upgrading the amplifiers that are located on optical fibre routes at 40-100km intervals. (Upgrading an amplifier would cost £16,000, while installing new optical fibres can, in urban areas, cost up to £450,000 a kilometre.)

The new record, demonstrated in a UCL lab, is a fifth faster than the previous world record held by a team in Japan.

At this speed, it would take less than an hour to download the data that made up the world’s first image of a black hole (which, because of its size, had to be stored on half a ton of hard drives and transported by plane). The speed is close to the theoretical limit of data transmission set out by American mathematician Claude Shannon in 1949.

Lead author Dr Galdino, a Lecturer at UCL and a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellow, said: “While current state-of-the-art cloud data-centre interconnections are capable of transporting up to 35 terabits a second, we are working with new technologies that utilise more efficiently the existing infrastructure, making better use of optical fibre bandwidth and enabling a world record transmission rate of 178 terabits a second.”

Since the start of the COVID-19 crisis, demand for broadband communication services has soared, with some operators experiencing as much as a 60% increase in internet traffic compared to before the crisis. In this unprecedented situation, the resilience and capability of broadband networks has become even more critical.

Dr Galdino added: “But, independent of the Covid-19 crisis, internet traffic has increased exponentially over the last 10 years and this whole growth in data demand is related to the cost per bit going down. The development of new technologies is crucial to maintaining this trend towards lower costs while meeting future data rate demands that will continue to increase, with as yet unthought-of applications that will transform people’s lives.”

This work is funded by the Royal Academy of Engineering, The Royal Society Research grant, and the EPSRC programme grant TRANSNET (EP/R035342/1).

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Biography.

Lidia Galdino

Lecturer and a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellow

Dr Lidia Galdino received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electronic and electrical engineering from the University of Campinas, Brazil, in 2008 and 2013, respectively. Dr Galdino commenced a lectureship and a Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship in September 2018 on the topic of “Capacity-approaching, Ultra-Wideband Nonlinear optical Fibre Transmission System”, and a co-investigated in the EPSRC TRANSNET programme grant. She previously worked as a Senior Research Associate on the EPSRC UNLOC programme grant.

She is Associate Editor of Optical Fiber Technology and worked on the Technical Programme Subcommittee for several international conferences

Dr Galdino was a co-recipient of the RAEng Colin Campbell Mitchell Award in 2015 for pioneering contributions to optical communications technology

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Istruzione e Ricerca, Stati Uniti

USA. Il Dipartimento di Giustizia accusa la Yale University di discriminare ‘Asian-American and white applicants’.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2020-08-18.

2020-08-16__Dipartimento Giustizia 001


Il Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, ha formalmente accusato la Yale University di discriminare ‘Asian-American and white applicants’ nei test di ammissione a quella università, da molti ritenuta essere prestigiosa. Ma, una volta abbandonata la ammissione meritocratica, la Yale vive di glorie passate.

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Justice Department Finds Yale Illegally Discriminates Against Asians and Whites in Undergraduate Admissions in Violation of Federal Civil-Rights Laws.

«The Department of Justice today notified Yale University of its findings that Yale illegally discriminates against Asian American and white applicants in its undergraduate admissions process in violation of Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. The findings are the result of a two-year investigation in response to a complaint by Asian American groups concerning Yale’s conduct.»

«“There is no such thing as a nice form of race discrimination,” said Assistant Attorney General Eric Dreiband for the Civil Rights Division. “Unlawfully dividing Americans into racial and ethnic blocs fosters stereotypes, bitterness, and division. It is past time for American institutions to recognize that all people should be treated with decency and respect and without unlawful regard to the color of their skin. In 1890, Frederick Douglass explained that the ‘business of government is to hold its broad shield over all and to see that every American citizen is alike and equally protected in his civil and personal rights.’ The Department of Justice agrees and will continue to fight for the civil rights of all people throughout our nation.”»

«As a condition of receiving millions of dollars in taxpayer funding, Yale expressly agrees to comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a cornerstone civil-rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance»

«The Department of Justice found Yale discriminates based on race and national origin in its undergraduate admissions process, and that race is the determinative factor in hundreds of admissions decisions each year. For the great majority of applicants, Asian Americans and whites have only one-tenth to one-fourth of the likelihood of admission as African American applicants with comparable academic credentials. Yale rejects scores of Asian American and white applicants each year based on their race, whom it otherwise would admit.»

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La Yale University è il più famoso tempio intellettuale dei liberal democratici, ossia di quel partito che a parole affermerebbe di voler tutelare gli ‘human-right’, condannando razzismo e tutti gli altri credi ideologici da loro professati, per poi comportarsi come quelle esecrande realtà politiche del secolo scorso.

Alla fine però il Dipartimento di Giustizia si è trovato costretto ad intervenire.

Il punto centrale è questo:

«Yale illegally discriminates against Asian American and white applicants in its undergraduate admissions process in violation of Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act»

«For the great majority of applicants, Asian Americans and whites have only one-tenth to one-fourth of the likelihood of admission as African American applicants with comparable academic credentials»

«Yale rejects scores of Asian American and white applicants each year based on their race, whom it otherwise would admit»


Questo è razzismo della peggior specie, mimetizzato come se fosse stato un atto di giustizia.

Alleghiamo due ampi articoli tratti dal The New York Times, che cercano disperatamente di difendere posizioni indifendibili: contorsionismi logici fatti da professionisti del campo.

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Justice Dept. Accuses Yale of Discrimination in Application Process.

The Trump administration said the university discriminated against Asian-American and white applicants. Yale defended its practices and vowed to maintain them.

The Justice Department on Thursday accused Yale University of violating federal civil rights law by discriminating against Asian-American and white applicants, an escalation of the Trump administration’s moves against race-based admissions policies at elite universities.

The charge, coming after a two-year investigation, is the administration’s second confrontation with an Ivy League school; two years ago, it publicly backed Asian-American students who accused Harvard in a lawsuit of systematically discriminating against them.

The department’s finding could have far-reaching consequences for the ongoing legal challenges to affirmative action, which are expected to eventually reach the Supreme Court. Some conservative groups have long opposed affirmative action, a tool born in the civil rights era, and a handful of states have banned such policies at public universities.

“There is no such thing as a nice form of race discrimination,” Eric S. Dreiband, the assistant attorney general for the civil rights division, said in a statement announcing the Justice Department’s move against Yale. “Unlawfully dividing Americans into racial and ethnic blocs fosters stereotypes, bitterness and division.”

The Justice Department said that Yale had violated Supreme Court rulings on affirmative action by using race not as one of many factors in deciding which applicants to invite to the freshman class, but as a predominant or determining factor in admissions — an effect that was multiplied for competitive applicants.

It directed Yale to suspend the consideration of race or national origin in admissions for one year, at which time the university would need to seek clearance from the government to begin using race as a factor again, the department said.

Yale pledged to fight the order, saying Thursday that it would hold fast to its admissions process. In a statement, the university said that it looks at the “whole person” when deciding whether to admit a student — not just academic achievement, but interests, leadership and “the likelihood that they will contribute to the Yale community and the world.”

“The department’s allegation is baseless,” said Peter Salovey, Yale’s president. “At this unique moment in our history, when so much attention properly is being paid to issues of race, Yale will not waver in its commitment to educating a student body whose diversity is a mark of its excellence.”

The Justice Department’s action comes about a month before arguments are set to be heard in the appeal of the case challenging Harvard’s admissions practices. The timing is so close that the department’s finding is likely to color the debate both inside and outside of the courtroom.

Initially filed in 2014, the Harvard case rests on many of the same complaints that the Justice Department leveled against Yale. It argued that Harvard’s admissions process amounted to an illegal quota system, that classes were racially balanced, and that Harvard favored Black and Hispanic applicants at the expense of Asian-Americans, who were held to a higher standard.

Harvard won the case in district court, with a judge finding that the university had not intentionally discriminated against Asian-Americans. A Justice Department effort to enforce its order against a defiant Yale might result in something of a rerun of the Harvard lawsuit.

Mr. Dreiband, the assistant attorney general, said the evidence in the civil rights division’s investigation indicated that Yale was racially balancing its classes by admitting similar proportions of each major racial group year after year, and that it had not made a serious effort since at least the 1970s to find another way of building a diverse student body.

“Our investigation indicates that Yale’s diversity goals appear to be vague, elusory and amorphous,” he said in a four-page letter explaining the department’s finding.

While some applicants — mainly African-American and Hispanic students — were favored by Yale because of their race and ethnicity, others were disfavored, Mr. Dreiband said, and it was mainly Asian-American and white applicants who were “unduly bearing the brunt of the preferences.”

Edward Blum, president of Students for Fair Admissions and the architect of the lawsuit challenging admissions practices at Harvard, portrayed the Justice Department’s finding as a first step in unraveling affirmative action across the world of selective colleges.

“All of the Ivy League and other competitive universities admit to using racial classifications and preferences in their admissions policies,” Mr. Blum said in an email. “This investigation reinforces the need for all universities to end race-based admissions policies.”

Rachel Kleinman, senior counsel at the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, which will be arguing in support of Harvard’s admissions policies before the appeals court next month, said she was “shocked but not surprised” by the Justice Department’s finding.

“This particular Department of Justice has been laser-focused on ending affirmative action,” she said, adding that she believed the department’s finding was “a foregone conclusion before they started their investigation.”

Despite the district court judge’s rejection of similar arguments in the Harvard case, she said, “They’re sticking with the analysis that any use of race is racism and insidious.”

The Ivy League schools are unapologetic about their use of race and ethnicity as a factor in admissions. On the contrary, the system the Trump administration is attacking is one that Yale, Harvard and others point to with pride, and that has become a national model.

Harvard has argued in a district court brief that while it sets no quotas, if it wants to achieve true diversity, it must pay some attention to the numbers of students it admits of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. The university has also said that abandoning race-conscious admissions would diminish the “excellence” of a Harvard education.

Likewise, Yale officials say that there is nothing mechanical about the school’s admissions process. They read 35,000 applications a year in their entirety, and race is one of hundreds of data points, they said. The university noted that of the students who enrolled last fall, 26 percent were Asian-American.

The Supreme Court over the years has generally upheld the principle behind affirmative action, within limits, including as recently as 2016. In a 1978 decision, Justice Lewis F. Powell articulated the rationale for efforts to improve academic diversity, writing, “A farm boy from Idaho can bring something to Harvard College that a Bostonian cannot offer. Similarly, a black student can usually bring something that a white person cannot offer.”

The Justice Department’s finding against Yale specifically accuses the university of violating Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which the school is required to comply with as a condition of receiving millions of dollars in taxpayer funding.

Legal experts said it would be extraordinarily rare, if not unheard-of, for the government to cut off federal funding to a university, and they noted that the Justice Department did not explicitly propose doing so in its finding against Yale. Instead, it would attempt to enforce its directive via a lawsuit if Yale does not voluntarily agree by Aug. 27 to suspend the use of race in undergraduate admissions.

The Trump administration began its investigation of Yale after a group called the Asian American Coalition for Education filed a complaint accusing the university of discriminatory practices.

On Thursday, Swan Lee, a co-founder of the group, called the Justice Department’s decision “a breath of fresh air for a lot of Asian-American parents” who see their children being held to a higher standard than some other groups in the college admissions process.

“It feels great to finally have our existence be recognized by the government,” she said.

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Justice Dept. Says Yale Discriminates. Here’s What Students Think.

The Trump administration’s charge that the university discriminates against Asian-American applicants was disputed by many Asian-American students and others.

When Siddarth Shankar applied to Yale in 2017, he did not hesitate to identify himself as Asian-American, and wrote about how visiting family members in conflict-ridden Kashmir had shaped his worldview.

He did not expect to get in, because he knew he had tough competition as a student at a public high school in the affluent Washington suburb of McLean, Va., where most students were either white or, like him, Asian-American, and many apply to the Ivy League. But he was admitted.

Now he sees the Trump administration’s accusation that Yale discriminated against Asian-American and white applicants, leveled against the university by the Justice Department’s civil rights division on Thursday, as unfathomable and divisive.

“I think this is the oldest tactic in the book, to pit minority groups against each other,” Mr. Shankar, 20, now a junior majoring in economics, said on Friday.

Yale students widely criticized the administration’s finding, which came two years after a complaint was filed against the university by a group called the Asian American Coalition for Education. Most said the administration had lost credibility on racial matters long ago, undermining any analysis it might produce on the use of race and ethnicity in college admissions.

“When I talk to my Asian-American friends, this is not what we wanted,” said Alec Dai, a Yale senior from New York City whose parents immigrated from Guangzhou, China. “It’s not like people on campus were asking for this kind of justice that doesn’t exist.”

The Justice Department accused Yale of violating federal civil rights law by using race and ethnicity as a determining factor when sifting through the roughly 35,000 applications it reviews each year to admit about 2,300 students. About half of the students in last year’s freshman class identified themselves as white and a quarter as Asian-American, with African-American students making up 12 percent and Latino students 15 percent.

“For the great majority of applicants, Asian-American and white applicants have only one-tenth to one-fourth of the likelihood of admission as African-American applicants with comparable academic credentials,” the department said.

The government demanded that Yale stop using race and national origin as factors in admission. Yale has refused, saying its admissions process adheres to both federal law and Supreme Court rulings that have generally supported affirmative action — triggering a possible lawsuit by the Justice Department, which lacks the authority to enforce the demand on its own.

Legal experts saw the finding as an extension of conservative legal efforts to end race-based college admissions policies, a battle that is expected to eventually reach a Supreme Court that leans more conservative after two appointments by President Trump.

Several challenges to admissions practices, including at Harvard, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a newly filed case against the University of Texas at Austin, have been orchestrated by Students for Fair Admissions, a group that opposes affirmative action, and are making their way through the federal courts. A federal judge ruled in Harvard’s favor last year, but an appeal in the case will be heard next month, with the federal government supporting the plaintiffs.

Samuel Bagenstos, a law professor at the University of Michigan, suggested that the Yale finding was motivated by “the almost certain fear by Trump administration officials that there’s at least a substantial likelihood that come January, they won’t be here. So they want to put facts on the ground, to try them in a potential Biden administration.”

Mr. Bagenstos was a career attorney in the civil rights division in the 1990s and deputy assistant attorney general for civil rights in the Obama administration. He said that Thursday’s finding, which was only four pages long, seemed rushed — unlike the pages and pages of extensive discussions of the facts that usually characterize such letters.

“It’s a very thin demand letter,” he said, “which suggests they’re really rushing in order to get in ahead of the election.”

Three Asian-American students who were involved in the legal actions against Ivy League schools — one who was rejected by Harvard and two others by Harvard and Yale, despite strong academics — were reluctant to speak on Friday. They said they agreed with the Justice Department ruling but were afraid of being savaged on social media for their views.

Zuri Goodman, 20, a Yale junior, said he had misgivings about whether the university’s admissions process was fair to everyone.

“Race shouldn’t necessarily be discarded, it should just be perhaps weighted less,” said Mr. Goodman, who is biracial, the child of an Indian-born mother and a white father. “And I think what should be weighted in its place is class and wealth and the access that they allow.”

Kahlil Greene, a senior who last year was the first Black student elected as Yale’s student body president, said he had considered his race “part of my identity, not a plus or a minus.” To ignore it, he said, would be “strange.”

“It’s like taking a plot point or character out of a story, like a weird omission,” he said.

He was hurt by beliefs expressed on social media over the last day that “Black students have a much easier time getting in” to Yale because of their race. The Justice Department finding has inflamed those resentments, he said.

As a beneficiary of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, Cinthia Zavala Ramos, a Yale senior who was born in Honduras but whose family moved to the United States when she was 6, has been dealing with the Trump administration for four years, she said, as the president has threatened to end the program that allows her to stay. The tension between the administration and the university feels familiar to her.

The experience for her white classmates seems very different, she said. Some have parents or grandparents who also attended the university.

“For them, Yale was a rite of passage,” Ms. Zavala Ramos said. “There’s always these sentiments of, like, this institution wasn’t meant for us, and there’s people who have been here for generations that feel the same way when they see us.”

Mary Chen, 20, a junior, said she had experienced discrimination against Asian-Americans. She recalled being taunted by classmates in the seventh grade in her hometown, Columbus, Ga. But she did not believe Yale was discriminating against Asian applicants, and regardless, she said, the racism she had experienced did not compare to anti-Black racism in America.

“Anti-Blackness and systematic racism and oppression, especially for Black Americans, is the more pervasive and the most important thing that we need to focus on right now,” she said.

She noted that the Justice Department had ignored Yale’s tradition of legacy and athletic admissions, which favor wealthier white students.

“That’s not something that is considered in discussions about affirmative action,” she said. “It’s always continuing the demonization of Black and Latinx students, as taking a spot from a deserving white or Asian student.”