La Cina è un paese da oltre un miliardo e trecento milioni di abitanti: nel breve volgere di trenta anni è passata da un paese misero ad essere la prima potenza economica mondiali, se misurata come pil ppa.
Di questi tempi ha varato un grandioso progetto per fare emergere dalla povertà nella fascia della classe media circa seicento milioni di persone. Si delinea quindi un mercato interno di dimensioni quasi eguali a quelle di tutto l’occidente considerato assieme.
«China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer»
«The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.»
«Deal signed in Beijing to build four Rosatom-designed reactors. Nations set to build two VVER-1200s at Xudabao, two at Tianwan»
«China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power»
«The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries»
«As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom»
* * * * * * * *
Questa notizia dovrebbe dare da pensare a molti.
Sul mercato mondiale l’occidente è rappresentato soltanto dalla Westinghouse Electric Co., la quale però sta vincendo sempre meno commissioni e virtualmente è impossibilitata a costruire reattori in patria. In una situazione del genere i suoi prodotti diventano presto obsoleti e poco competitivi.
Se è vero che la Korea del Sud riesce ancora a reggere sul mercato del nucleare, sarebbe altrettanto vero constatare come sia specializzata in reattori atomici di bassa – media potenza. Un’offerta che può soddisfare molte esigenze locoregionali, ma non certo le richieste energetiche della Cina.
A parte il fatto che i reattori della Rosatom siano allo stato dell’arte, in pratica sono gli unici acquistabili sul mercato e con solide garanzie della manutenzione.
– Deal signed in Beijing to build four Rosatom-designed reactors
– Nations set to build two VVER-1200s at Xudabao, two at Tianwan
China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power.
A plan to build four Russian units was among four deals signed Friday during a ceremony in Beijing attended by presidents Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin. The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries. China will finance the reactor construction, Rosatom Chief Executive Officer Alexey Likhachev said after the ceremony.
China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer. The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.
The nation signaled in March it would end a multiyear freeze on new reactor construction this year, and a month later approved the fuel-loading of Westinghouse Electric Co.’s AP1000 in Zhejiang province’s Sanmen and French-designed EPR in Guangdong’s Taishan. That paves the way for startups within months, which would be the first successful operations globally for units of their kind.
As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom.
China already uses some of Russia’s older technology. Two VVER-1000 units at Tianwan started in 2007, and a third was connected to the grid in December, Rosatom said.
“Tianwan has been a testing ground for Russian nuclear technology,” said Snowy Yao, an analyst at China Securities International Finance Holding Co. “China looks willing to try out all the latest designs before endorsing a winner.”
The two countries also on Friday signed deals for the supply of equipment, fuel and services for the CFR-600 fast reactor pilot project developed by state-owned CNNC, as well as the supply of generator parts for China’s lunar exploration program.
China previously signed a contract with Westinghouse to build two units at Xudabao, according to a World Nuclear Association report in October 2016. They were among six AP1000 reactors planned for the site, it said. A Beijing-based Westinghouse spokesman declined to comment Friday.
È da anni che i tedeschi sarebbero stati disposti a fare carte false pur di assicurarsi gli appalti per la costruzione della Trans-Arabian Railway.
Progetti naufragati sullo scoglio di una Germania che avrebbe voluto imporre la sua ideologia liberal al Regno Saudita, e che ha preso posizioni diplomatiche avverse al Regno. Una preclusione ideologica incompatibile con le più semplici possibilità di poter commerciare su base paritetica. Le conseguenze sono state drastiche.
Di questi giorni la notizia che il Principe ereditario Muḥammad bin Salmān avrebbe dato il via al progetto della per la costruzione della Trans-Arabian Railway, progetto da inserirsi nel quadro del Progetto cinese Belt and Road.
Secondo le ultime notizie, la Russia avrebbe parte principale nel progetto, avendo vinto tutta la restante concorrenza mondiale. Inutile dire la portata strategica di questa iniziativa ed i ritorno non solo economici, bensì anche politici, della Russia.
Tutto il Medio Oriente e l’Africa del Nord ha un bisogno disperato di avere un sistema ferroviario efficiente.
«Russian Railways is eyeing an opportunity to participate in construction of the Trans-Arabian Railway and other projects in Saudi Arabia»
«Saudi Arabia approved a program of infrastructure development until 2030. It contains a railway component and the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Saudi Arabia is currently preparing a tender for implementation of this project»
«The concept is for the GCC states to tighten their non-energy economic integration with one another through a coastal railway that hugs the southern edge of the Persian Gulf and would run from Kuwait to Oman»
«That might change in the coming future, however, as a result of trilateral cooperation between Russia, Saudi Arabia, and China»
«To explain, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman’s ambitious Vision 2030 agenda of socio-economic reforms dovetails perfectly with China’s One Belt One Road global vision of New Silk Road connectivity in the sense that it aims to position the Wahhabi Kingdom as a tri-continental economic hub for Afro-Eurasia»
«Some of the over $130 billion worth of investments that China clinched in Saudi Arabia last year alone will be used to modernize the recipient’s economy and place it on the trajectory for developing a sustainable post-oil future, and it’s here where Russia’s railway expertise comes in.»
«Moscow’s deepening all-around involvement in Arab affairs, especially with the influential GCC, will enable it to gain wider respect and acceptance as a Mideast power as well»
* * * * * * *
La Germania non ha mai brillato per doti diplomatiche, che presuppongono un dialogo franco, fatto sostanzialmente dell’ascolto attento e rispettoso delle esigenze altrui. Poi, da quando ha assunto l’ideologia liberal, ha anche sviluppato un’arroganza comportamentale che le ha spesso alienato la possibilità di un rapporto costruttivo con l’interlocutore.
Lo stesso potrebbe essere detto per la diplomazia dell’Unione Europea, che per di più ha nominato come Alto rappresentante dell’Unione per gli affari esteri e la politica di sicurezza una personalità ignota e fatiscente.
Sul tutto si aggiunga come l’impegno sino – russo nello scacchiere mediorientale abbia raggiunto i 130 miliardi Usd, contro un impegno europeo nullo.
Le conseguenze stratetiche, politiche, economiche e, forse, anche militari saranno di grande rilevanza.
«Moscow’s deepening all-around involvement in Arab affairs, especially with the influential GCC, will enable it to gain wider respect and acceptance as a Mideast power as well»
The CEO of Russian Railways, the state-backed leader in this industry, announced his company’s intent in participating in the Trans-Arabian Railway during last week’s Saint Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF), thus drawing attention to a project that’s been on the drawing board for a few years already but has failed to get off the ground. The concept is for the GCC states to tighten their non-energy economic integration with one another through a coastal railway that hugs the southern edge of the Persian Gulf and would run from Kuwait to Oman, but this vision hasn’t yet been prioritized. That might change in the coming future, however, as a result of trilateral cooperation between Russia, Saudi Arabia, and China.
To explain, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman’s ambitious Vision 2030 agenda of socio-economic reforms dovetails perfectly with China’s One Belt One Road global vision of New Silk Road connectivity in the sense that it aims to position the Wahhabi Kingdom as a tri-continental economic hub for Afro-Eurasia. Some of the over $130 billionworth of investments that China clinched in Saudi Arabia last year alone will be used to modernize the recipient’s economy and place it on the trajectory for developing a sustainable post-oil future, and it’s here where Russia’s railway expertise comes in.
Russian Railways has been working very hard to establish itself as a global player and the Trans-Arabian Railway project provides the perfect opportunity for showcasing its services. Not only that, but it’s a quid pro quo for Saudi investment in the Russian economy over the past couple of years, and it will help to accelerate the Russian-Saudi rapprochement, too. Moscow’s deepening all-around involvement in Arab affairs, especially with the influential GCC, will enable it to gain wider respect and acceptance as a Mideast power as well. Altogether, Russia’s successful involvement in the Trans-Arabian Railway project and China’s game-changing investments in the Kingdom could help Saudi Arabia diversify its foreign policy and ultimately become more multipolar as a result.
PETERSBURG, May 24. /TASS/. Russian Railways is eyeing an opportunity to participate in construction of the Trans-Arabian Railway and other projects in Saudi Arabia, First Deputy CEO of the Russian railway operator Alexander Misharin told TASS in an interview on Tuesday at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF).
“Saudi Arabia approved a program of infrastructure development until 2030. It contains a railway component and the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Saudi Arabia is currently preparing a tender for implementation of this project. A consultant has been selected; we received a request for our proposals concerning performance of the company and terms. We furnished such data. Now we wait for the next stage – the tender announcement,” Misharin said. “We seriously consider participation in these projects, including in construction of the Trans-Arabian Railway passing through Saudi Arabia,” he added.
Al momento di scrivere l’articolo, l’unico giornale italiano che riporta della visita di Mr Putin in Austria sarebbe il Sole 24 Ore
«Non è nostro obiettivo dividere niente o nessuno in Europa: al contrario, vogliamo vedere un’Europa unita e prospera, perché l’Unione Europea è il nostro principale partner commerciale ed economico. Più problemi ha, più rischi e incertezze abbiamo anche noi ….»
ci rendiamo perfettamente conto che per ciascun Paese dell’Unione Europea, preso singolarmente, è abbastanza complicato parlarne. Ma tutto quanto avviene in questo ambito non ci impedisce di sviluppare le nostre relazioni con l’Austria»
Ampio invece il risalto dato dalla stampa estera, che riportiamo nei titoli e negli incipit.
«Notionally scheduled to commemorate 50 years since Austria became the first western European country to sign a natural gas deal with the Soviet Union, the visit also offered the Russian and Austrian leaders opportunities to advance their respective geopolitical agendas, with a youthful Kurz, 32, pushing his credentials as a bridge builder between east and west.»
«President Vladimir Putin on Monday downplayed suggestions Russia was seeking to disrupt the European Union’s cohesion, saying it was in his country’s interests for the bloc to remain “united and prosperous”.
“We have an interest in an EU that’s united and prosperous, since the EU is our most important commercial and economic partner,” Putin told Austria’s ORF television a day before an official visit to Vienna.»
«Russian President Vladimir Putin visits Austria on Tuesday, and he says he wants to build bridges to Europe.
Some fear he seeks to drive a wedge in it.
The official reason for the trip, Putin’s first foreign visit since he won a landslide re-election in March, is for talks with Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz and President Alexander Van der Bellen. Trade and economic cooperation are at the top of the agenda: Putin is slated to attend a meeting with Russian and Austrian business representatives to discuss investment opportunities and economic cooperation.
But the Kremlin leader is looking for an opening to a Europe that is witnessing a rise of right-wing, populist governments, with a clear aim of easing sanctions and ending Russia’s political isolation.
Austria is an interesting case in point. Late last year, a new coalition government took power in Vienna that includes the far-right Freedom Party as a junior partner.
Heinz-Christian Strache, Austria’s vice chancellor and leader of the Freedom Party, is an opponent of sanctions, which were imposed by the European Union and the US over Russia’s annexation of the Black Sea peninsula of Crimea in 2014.
In a recent interview with the newspaper Oesterreich, Strache made his position clear.
“It is high time to put an end to these exasperating sanctions and normalize political and economic relations with Russia,” he said.
The Austrian government has also done another major favor for Putin. It opted not to join over 20 other countries in expelling Russian diplomats over the March 4 nerve agent attack against Russian former spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter, Yulia Skripal, in Salisbury, England.
That’s raised questions in Austria about the real agenda for Putin’s visit.»
«Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Austria on Tuesday in his first trip to the West since being re-elected to the Kremlin and was rebuffed when he called for European Union sanctions to be lifted.
Austria, where a coalition of conservatives and the pro-Putin far right is in power, has a history of neutrality and relatively warm ties with Moscow.
It came in for criticism from its allies for being among the minority of EU member countries that did not expel any Russian diplomats over the poisoning of the former Russian double agent Sergei Skripal. ….
Chancellor Sebastian Kurz, whose conservatives control EU policy, repeated that Vienna would not break ranks with the rest of the bloc, which says the situation in eastern Ukraine must improve before sanctions can be lifted.
His Austrian trip is a rare and symbolic foray to the West for a man often at odds with Western governments over issues such as Syria and Ukraine. His last bilateral trip to Western Europe was to Finland last July.
Austria, which takes over the European Union’s rotating presidency in July, says it wants to act as a “bridge-builder” between east and west.
It has forged friendly ties with nationalist leaders like Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban.»
Dalla lettura della stampa ci si formerebbe l’opinione che
«That’s raised questions in Austria about the real agenda for Putin’s visit.»
«La centrale nucleare galleggiante russa, il cui primo modello entrerà in funzione alla fine del 2019, è il primo progetto di una serie di unità mobili a bassa potenza trasportabili senza analoghi al mondo. Ne ha parlato a Sputnik Mikhail Evgenyev, project manager presso l’Istituto di Energia Nucleare di Atomenergomash.
“L’obiettivo principale del progetto è quello di creare una fonte di energia efficiente e sicura per garantire calore ed energia elettrica affidabile tutto l’anno ai consumatori in aree difficili da raggiungere, come la Regione del Nord, l’Estremo Oriente, ecc., Dove la fornitura di combustibili organici è difficile e costosa”, ha detto l’esperto.
Le centrali nucleari galleggianti sono una promettente fonte di energia anche per le aree remote dove l’energia è necessaria per un periodo limitato, ad esempio per i lavori di costruzione o per soddisfare le esigenze dell’industria nel campo della cogenerazione, ad esempio la produzione idrogeno o la dissalazione dell’acqua.
La centrale nucleare galleggiante può fungere da fonte di energia per grandi impianti industriali ad alta intensità energetica che coprono le proprie esigenze di energia elettrica attraverso la generazione di diesel, in particolare nel settore minerario. Come avviene in Indonesia, Vietnam, Sud Africa, Ghana, Messico, Brasile, Perù, Cile e altri paesi.» [Fonte]
Lo sfruttamento industriale, specie quello minerario, richiede grandi quantità di energia. Tuttavia spesso le risorse sono disponibili in zone ove sarebbe impensabile per motivi climatici ed economici poter installare centrali elettriche tradizionali. Si pensi anche alla necessità dei rifornimenti di combustibile.
Quando poi si parli di zone sopra il circolo polare artico, l’ambiente avverso ed il clima quasi proibitivo generano difficoltà energetiche ancora maggiori, aggiungendosi la esigenza di utilizzo della corrente per riscaldamento e quella di illuminare a giorno la zona di lavoro durante la lunga notte invernale.
La soluzione identificata con la Akademik Lomonosov sembrerebbe essere particolarmente interessante.
«a floating nuclear power station …. The 144-by-30-metre (472-by-98-foot) barge holds two reactors with two 35 megawatt nuclear reactors that are similar to those used to power icebreaker ships …. The barge can produce enough electricity to power a town of 200,000 residents, far more than the 5,000 living in Russia’s northernmost town»
Un aspetto che rende ancor più interessante questo progetto è legato alla facilità della manutenzione: quella ordinaria può essere eseguita in loco, ma per interventi maggiori si può rimorchiare l’interno complesso in un bacino di carenaggio appositamente attrezzato.
«China is also building a floating nuclear power plant»
As Russia is forced to push further north into the Arctic in the search for oil and gas, it needs electricity in far-flung locations.
To meet its growing electricity needs in its drive to develop oil resources in remote Arctic regions, Russia has built a floating nuclear power station, a project that detractors deride as a “Chernobyl on ice”.
Built in Saint Petersburg, the Akademik Lomonosov is currently moored in Murmansk where it is being loaded with nuclear fuel before heading to eastern Siberia.
On Saturday, head of state nuclear power firm Rosatom unveiled the brown-and-mustard-painted facility in the city’s estuary as an orchestra played the national anthem.
Rosatom chief Alexei Likhachev hailed the new power station as “a new world first,” which he said “underlines the undoubted leading role of Rosatom and the Russian nuclear energy sector on the global agenda.”
“I hope today will be a symbolic day for the Arctic,” Likhachev said, adding that Rosatom “is setting a trend, a demand for medium-capacity nuclear facilities, mobile facilities, for many decades ahead.”
The 144-by-30-metre (472-by-98-foot) barge holds two reactors with two 35 megawatt nuclear reactors that are similar to those used to power icebreaker ships.
The Akademik Lomonosov will be towed in the summer of 2019 to the port of Pevek in the autonomous Chukotka region in Russia’s extreme northeast.
The barge can produce enough electricity to power a town of 200,000 residents, far more than the 5,000 living in Russia’s northernmost town. But Akademik Lomonosov isn’t in Pevek to just keep the lights on in homes.
As Russia is forced to push further north into the Arctic in the search for oil and gas, it needs electricity in far-flung locations.
“The idea is to have low-capacity, mobile power plants that can be used in the Russian Arctic where large amounts of electricity aren’t needed” and the construction of a conventional power station would be complicated and costly, said Sergei Kondratyev at the Institute for Energy and Finance in Moscow.
“The alternatives are coal, gas and diesel. But diesel is very costly,” he said, while the gas needs to be delivered as liquefied natural gas or LNG.
Vitaly Trutnev, who is in charge of the construction and operation of floating nuclear power stations at Rosatom, said such units would “supply electricity and heat to the most remote regions, supporting also growth and sustainable development.”
He said use of such floating reactors can save 50,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year.
The Akademik Lomonosov is set to replace an ageing nuclear reactor and a coal-fired power plant which are both located in Chukotka.
Trutnev said the barge has “the latest security systems and should be one of the safest nuclear installations in the world.”
Activists at the environmental group Greenpeace are not convinced and call for international monitoring.
They fear that the Akademik Lomonosov could become a “nuclear Titanic” or a “Chernobyl on ice” 32 years after the Soviet nuclear disaster.
Greenpeace Russia’s Rashid Alimov said that accidents are possible at all nuclear power plants, but that the barge “will be especially sensitive to storms, environmental phenomena and threats such as terrorism.”
He said a shift to more numerous small reactors would pose risks for proliferation of nuclear material.
Greenpeace nuclear expert Jan Haverkamp noted that the Akademik Lomonosov is being fuelled near Murmansk, a city of 300,000, before being towed across the Arctic.
“Its installation in the tough environment of the Russian Arctic will pose a constant threat for residents of the north and the Arctic’s pristine nature,” said Haverkamp.
The barge had initially been scheduled to be fuelled in Saint Petersburg, but that work was moved to Murmansk instead due to concern in countries along the Baltic Sea.
Kondratyev at the Institute for Energy and Finance in Moscow downplayed safety concerns about the barge, insisting it met the same safety rules as nuclear icebreakers and submarines.
“But it is a new piece of equipment. There may be concerns among the general populace, but there are additional risks compared to nuclear power plants,” he said.
Rosatom chief Likhachev said Saturday that the corporation hopes to build more such barges and to find Asian clients in need of power in remote regions, giving the examples of Indonesia and Philippines.
“In certain cases a floating nuclear power plant is more cost-effective than other electric power plants … it has its own niche,” Kondratyev said.
He said China is also building a floating nuclear power plant.
The economy’s in decent shape and oil prices are up.
The stronger dollar may have taken its toll on Turkey and Argentina but there is one notable exception to the stresses plaguing emerging markets – Russia.
Investors have largely shrugged off the shock from U.S. Treasury sanctions being imposed for the first time on specific Russian companies, notably aluminum producer United Co. Rusal. The MOEX Russia Index, the country’s benchmark, just hit a record high.
Sanctions? What Sanctions?
Russia’s stock market has brushed off the U.S restrictions and is making record highs again
The creditworthiness of Russia took a knock, but in the greater scheme of things it is just a blip. S&P Global Ratings in February lifted the sovereign back into investment grade, at BBB-, and it has not revised its view since. Moody’s Investors Service, which has a Ba1 rating with a positive outlook, said April 19 that Russia’s economy can weather the new sanctions.
Just a Little Bump
The cost of insuring for a Russian default jumped 35 bps on the sanctions crisis but has since recovered half of that
Another Moody’s report on Wednesday said Russian corporate liquidity “remains strong.” Economic stability, higher oil and commodity prices, lower interest rates and the weaker ruble all contributed to a broad picture of corporate health.
The ruble has recouped only some of its losses from the sanctions crisis as renewed dollar strength weighs against it
Central Bank of Russia Governor Elvira Nabiullina said soon after the U.S. announced sanctions that “systemic measures” weren’t needed to support the ruble, and she was right. Though the Russian currency has not recovered much from its sharp selloff, it has at least stabilized. And that has enabled the CBR to resume its normal practice of buying about $200 million a day in dollars to rebuild its currency reserves.
Back To The Plan
It is not all sunshine and roses. Russia has yet to respond to the American measures in a meaningful way, and there’s scope for President Vladimir Putin to escalate tensions. There is still a bill rumbling through nation’s parliament, the Duma, which would impose counter-sanctions on Western countries and companies. Though some of the more extreme elements have already been watered down, officials could ratchet them back up.
The U.S. Treasury could also opt for a wide interpretation of sanctions violations that would catch parties not named in its April statement, such as banks. As I have argued, it’s easy to see how the taint of the new edict can spread. So far this hasn’t happened, but it can’t be ruled out.
Russia’s economy grew 1.3 percent in the first quarter, at the low end of the central bank’s forecasts. It’s not a disaster – it’s up from 0.9 percent in the fourth quarter, and in line with the slower pace of expansion seen in Europe. The sanctions came at the start of the current period, but that doesn’t need to imply a slower pace of growth, as some analysts argue. The oil price rise will take a lot, perhaps all, of the sting out of their impact.
The Russian economy has come a long way. Inflation and interest rates were both at 17 percent three years ago, and they’re now at 2.4 percent and 7.25 percent. The CBR had forecast rates to become neutral this year, which it says is toward the upper end of its 6-7 percent range, but it is now a crossroads. The weaker ruble looks to have stayed its hand from further reductions at its April 27 meeting, and it could also hold steady at its June 15 policy decision.
That shouldn’t bother stock markets. It’s more complicated for fixed income. The central bank’s expectations for its key rate didn’t account for the drop in the ruble and the gain in oil. And these factors, and the surprising strength of wage growth, look likely to stoke a probable rebound in inflation. This is a problem the bank can set aside for now.
Most of the world has been throwing rocks at Russia for months now. Its markets seem largely immune, and if politics remain as – relatively – peaceful and calm as this, stocks can keep climbing. With a price to earnings ratio of 8.6 percent, on a value basis, the MOEX Russia Index looks hard to beat.
«Russian engineers are installing a giant railway arch in the channel between Russia and Crimea, as a 19km (12-mile) road-rail bridge takes shape»
«It will take about a month to fix the arch, weighing 6,000 tonnes, to massive supports in the water»
«The road section of the Kerch Strait bridge will also have a giant arch»
* * *
«The controversial Crimean Bridge has been finished six months early and will link Russia’s southern Krasnodar region with the Crimean city of Kerch»
«The massive bridge will help reduce Crimea’s reliance on sea transport»
«Russian President Vladimir Putin was due to open a 19-kilometer bridge connecting southern Russia to the Crimean peninsula on Tuesday»
«The project cost 228 billion rubles ($3.69 billion, €3.1 billion) and will become the longest bridge in Europe, taking over the Vasco da Gama Bridge in Lisbon, Portugal»
* * * * * * * *
La costruzione di questo ponte era iniziata proprio nel maggio 2015, ed è stata terminata in giusto tre anni.
Tre ordini di commenti.
In primo luogo, questo ponte segna un record per la brevità dei tempi di progettazione e di costruzione. In una situazione normale ci si sarebbe aspettati tempi variabili tra i cinque ed i sette anni.
In secondo luogo, i costi riferiti sarebbero 3.69 miliardi di Usd. Una cifra davvero molto contenuta. Per dare solo qualche esempio, quando nel 1968 venne emanata la legge 384 circa un ponte sullo Stretto di Messina, per i soli costi di progettazione furono stanziati 3.4 miliardi. L’offerta finale della ditta Eurolink fu di 3.88 miliardi euro, essendo il ponte lungo circa tre kilometri.
In terzo luogo, vi sono i noti problemi politici. La Russia ha dichiarato la Krimea territorio nazionale e la ha ammessa alla Federazione Russa dopo un referendum locale. Tale annessione non è stata riconosciuta essere legalmente valida da parte dell’Ukraina, dell’Unione Europea e di molte altre nazioni a livello mondiale. A seguito di questi fatti Usa ed Unione Europea hanno posto alla Russia una lunga serie di sanzioni economiche, anche se poi, nei fatti, alcune nazioni non le applicano.
The controversial Crimean Bridge has been finished six months early and will link Russia’s southern Krasnodar region with the Crimean city of Kerch. The massive bridge will help reduce Crimea’s reliance on sea transport.
Russian President Vladimir Putin was due to open a 19-kilometer bridge connecting southern Russia to the Crimean peninsula on Tuesday.
The controversial Crimean Bridge links the southern Krasnodar region with the Crimean city of Kerch and spans across a stretch of water between the Black Sea and the Azov Sea.
The project cost 228 billion rubles ($3.69 billion, €3.1 billion) and will become the longest bridge in Europe, taking over the Vasco da Gama Bridge in Lisbon, Portugal.
It had been expected to be fully constructed by the end of 2018 but has been completed six months ahead of schedule and will be open to traffic on May 16, according to a Kremlin statement.
Ukraine condemns bridge
Ukraine has criticized the project, saying construction has damaged the environment and that larger ships will be unable to get through to its ports on the Azov Sea.
The results of a referendum deemed unconstitutional by the Ukrainian Constitutional Court on reunification with Russia found most people were in favor of joining Russia.
The annexation of the peninsula in 2014 was condemned by Kiev and the West as an illegal land grab.
EU and US sanctions target construction firm
European Union and US sanctions have targeted those involved in the realization of the bridge, particularly businessman Arkady Rotenberg, a close ally of Putin whose company Stroygazmontazh won the construction contract.
The peninsula has until now been difficult to access from southern Russia with long queues of vehicles often trying to board ferries, which are not always able to run during winter storms. The easiest mode of transportation is flying.
The blocks imposed by Kiev and Western sanctions have meant a large amount of food is transported from Russia to Crimea by ship, meaning the bridge will play an important role in reducing the region’s reliance on sea transport.
Mentre gli italiani seguono appassionati il minuetto politico che sta andando in scena da oltre due mesi e si stanno rassegnando a subire maxi aumenti dell’Iva – lo vuole l’Europa – la Germania si sta facendo i fatti propri con disinvolta nonchalance.
Il parere del Consiglio Europeo? Sarebbe una inutile perdita di tempo.
Una votazione del parlamento Europeo? Ma i parlamentari stanno già discutendo dei sexual harassment a Bruxelles.
Il parere favorevole delle Commissioni EU? Frau Merkel è più che sicura che se si fosse chiesto il loro parere, come da legge, le Commissioni avrebbero sicuramente dato risposta affermativa.
Un ingenuo potrebbe anche dire che vi sarebbero state severissime sanzioni ai mercimoni energetici con la Russia, nazione che proprio non rispetta il ruolo delle leggi europee e che non rispetta i diritti umani. Pensate che arriva al punto da non volere le ngo sul suo territorio.
Ma se anche Mr Putin si mangiasse quattro bambini al giorno, che mai sarebbe ciò di fronte ai superiori interessi germanici?
Orbene: la Germania ha iniziato alla chetichella il lavoro per il Nord Stream 2.
«Germany has started to pour concrete on a Russian gas pipeline that risks dividing the EU and harming its energy security»
«The construction began in Lubmin, on Germany’s Baltic Sea coast, on Thursday (3 May), with the laying of foundations for a terminal that will receive 55bn cubic metres (bcm) a year of Russian gas via the Nord Stream 2 pipeline when it goes online in 2020»
«We’re confident that we’ll receive all relevant permits»
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In poche parole.
La Germania inizia i lavori alla chetichella in collaborazione che i biechi russi, ossia quelli con i quali nessun altro dell’Unione Europea può collaborare. Ora capite perché Mr Gerhard Schröder è stato equiparato alla seconda carica politica russa?
Germany has started to pour concrete on a Russian gas pipeline that risks dividing the EU and harming its energy security.
The construction began in Lubmin, on Germany’s Baltic Sea coast, on Thursday (3 May), with the laying of foundations for a terminal that will receive 55bn cubic metres (bcm) a year of Russian gas via the Nord Stream 2 pipeline when it goes online in 2020.
“We’re moving within the framework of the [German] planning approval decision,” a spokesman for Gazprom, the Russian firm behind the project, told German press agency DPA.
“We’re confident that we’ll receive all relevant permits,” the spokesman said.
The Baltic pipeline is to run from Russia via the maritime zones of Finland, Sweden, and Denmark. Finland recently granted a permit, with the other two pending.
Its opponents, including Poland, the Baltic states, and Nordic EU countries, have said Nord Stream 2 would help Russia to cut gas supplies to Western allies, including Ukraine, for strategic reasons.
The European Commission has said it could help Gazprom to gouge even higher prices in eastern Europe.
The US has also said it would make a mockery of Western sanctions on Russia, imposed over its invasion of Ukraine four years ago.
Next steps for the Russian project include the laying and welding of 200,000 pipe segments, each one weighing 24 tonnes, along 1,200 km of the Baltic Sea bed.
The pipes are already waiting in storage yards in Germany, Finland, and Sweden in a €9bn enterprise that includes five major EU energy firms and 200 other companies in 17 European countries, creating, Gazprom says, 1,000 jobs.
News of the Lubmin construction work comes despite German chancellor Angela Merkel’s recent nod to Nord Stream 2 critics.
“This is not just an economic project, but [its] … political factors must also be taken into account,” she said at a meeting with Ukrainian leader Petro Poroshenko in Berlin last month.
The construction is also moving ahead amid EU commission appeals to hold talks with Russia on how to apply European energy law to the pipeline.
Sofia Federica Augusta di Anhalt-Zerbst nacque a Stettino il 21 aprile 1729. Sposò l’erede al trono russo Pietro Fëdorovič, e quando questi divenne lo Czar Pietro III di Russia, fece un colpo di stato e divenne lei imperatrice. Pietro III fu assassinato. I russi sono sfortunati con i tedeschi.
Mr Gerhard Schröder, classe 1944, è membro della socialdemocrazia tedesca (Spd): è stato Cancelliere tedesco dal 27 ottobre 1999 fino al 22 novembre 2005.
«Alcuni mesi dopo la fine del mandato politico, accetta la nomina di Gazprom a capo del consorzio Nord Stream AG, che si occupa della costruzione di un gasdotto che collegherà la costa russa nella regione di Vyborg alla costa tedesca nella regione di Greifswald, passando per il Mar Baltico.» [Fonte]
«A friend of the Russian president, former German Chancellor Schröder has been working for the Russian energy industry since he lost to Chancellor Merkel in 2005»
«A Russian government decree published late on Friday night nominated former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder to join the board of the Russian energy giant Rosneft»
«The company is majority-owned by the Russian government and has its headquarters near the Kremlin in Moscow.»
«Schröder was nominated as a non-executive director of Rosneft as part of the company’s plans to increase the number of board directors from nine to 11»
«His name was one of seven presented in the decree signed by Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and published on the Russian government’s website»
«Rosneft is the world’s largest publicly traded petroleum company and is headed by Igor Sechin, an ally of Russian President Vladimir Putin, who served as deputy prime minister until 2012. The company has been hit by Western sanctions following Russia’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea region and its support for pro-Russia separatists in eastern Ukraine»
«Rosneft has been hit by Western sanctions»
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Quanto riportato serve per rinfrescare la memoria di quanto per il momento sia successo.
Il 7 maggio Mr Putin si è insediato ufficialmente al Kremlin per il suo quarto mandato presidenziale.
Contrastanti le reazioni ufficiali tedesche. Il quarto mandato di Mr Putin è stato visto come un trionfo dell’autoritarismo autocratico, mentre il quarto mandato conferito a Frau Merkel era semplicemente il trionfo del sistema democratico.
Ma mentre i politici tedeschi ufficialmente prendevano posizione, richiedendo a gran voce altre sanzioni contro la Russia, Herr Schröder arrivava al termine della sua scalata al potere.
Alla cerimonia di insediamento di Mr Putin, Herr Schröder era al secondo posto, subito dopo Mr Dmitry Medvedev, Capo del Governo Russo, e subito prima di SE il Patriarca Kirill, Capo della Chiesa Ortodossa Russa.
Non solo, ad Herr Schröder è anche spettata una inedita stretta di mano da parte del Presidente Putin.
The Presidential Protocol Office is responsible for protocol during visits abroad and trips to the regions of Russia by the President and his wife. It takes care of protocol matters for events involving the President and his wife during visits to the Russian Federation by representatives of foreign countries and international organisations. It organises protocol for mass and other events involving the President or held on the instructions of the President or the Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office.
Chief of the Presidential Protocol Office – Vladislav Kitayev.»
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La constatazione che Herr Schröder sia la seconda personalità politica della Federazione Russa è la dimostrazione concreta della considerazione tributata alla sua persona, ma anche alla sua patria di origine. Sarebbe però anche molto difficile pensare che Mr Putin abbia assunto un comportamento del genere, ed Herr Schröder lo abbia accettato, senza che le cancellerie russe e tedesca si siano preventivamente consultate. Ma un simile gesto presupporrebbe non solo ottimi rapporti politici, ma anche economici e sociali.
Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder was granted a place in the front row of Vladimir Putin’s inauguration ceremony in the Kremlin and received an ‘exclusive’ handshake from the Russian leader.
Putin was sworn in for his fourth term as president Monday and Schroeder was among the guests of honor. He was one of just three people Putin shook hands with after taking the oath – along with Dmitry Medvedev, the chair of the Russian government, and Patriarch Kirill, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
During Schroder’s time in office, he was a strong proponent of having closer ties between Germany and Russia. He advocated the creation of a direct underwater pipeline below the Baltic Sea, which would bring Russian natural gas directly to Germany, bypassing transit countries. After retiring as chancellor, he continued his work in the senior management of Nord Stream AG, a joint venture involving Russian and European companies, which operates the pipeline.
«Il Javelin è un’arma militare utilizzata in caso di attacco contro mezzi blindati e carri armati, ma non sono esclusi elicotteri a bassa quota. Il raggio d’azione è di circa 2–3 km. L’arma è composta da un lanciatore spalleggiabile usa e getta, chiamato CLU (Command Launch Unit, unità di controllo lancio); il proiettile utilizzato è un missile a combustibile solido.
Il personale di lancio è di norma costituito da due persone, ma può essere lanciato anche da una persona singola.
Il bersaglio viene individuato in fase di puntamento, ed è agganciato e seguito autonomamente dal missile, senza che siano necessari altri interventi da parte del personale che lo ha lanciato (“lancia e dimentica”) per mezzo del calore emanato dal bersaglio stesso; il puntamento è facilitato dall’elettronica dell’arma che, oltre ad una funzione di zoom, include anche una di visione notturna.
Il missile può operare in due differenti modalità:
– Direct Attack: il missile colpisce con volo diretto il bersaglio ad una quota massima di 60 m superiore al punto di lancio;
– Top Attack: il missile si innalza fino a 150 m di altezza prima di colpire, se occorre, in picchiata.
La parte superiore dei veicoli blindati si presenta solitamente piatta e non ha i tipici profili inclinati e sfuggenti destinati a deviare i proiettili di provenienza orizzontale. Nella modalità “Top Attack” il missile, grazie alla condizione di velocità raggiunta in picchiata, ricade sull’obiettivo con un altissimo potere di penetrazione.
Allo scopo di neutralizzare la difesa reattiva delle moderne corazze reattive, il missile utilizza una doppia testata HEAT in tandem, la prima carica esplosiva fa saltare le corazze reattive esterne, la seconda carica (principale) penetra nella corazza.
Il missile può essere sviluppato in modo da confondere i sistemi antimissile della difesa da colpire, in quel caso il bersaglio non ha via di scampo.» [Fonte]
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«The White House is said to have approved the sale of Javelin systems to Ukraine late last year after months of heated debate»
«The announcement at the time triggered a sharp reaction from Moscow, including an accusation against the United States of “fomenting a war”»
Il sistema contro-carro Javelin non è esattamente lo stato dell’arte, ma è pur sempre una arma ravvicinata di tutto rispetto. Si riferisce che per neutralizzare un carro armato T 14 sarebbero necessari da quattro a cinque missili.
Di per sé la fornitura di missili contro – carro non dovrebbe essere una notizia: tutti gli eserciti ne sono forniti e tutti i carri armati moderni hanno sistemi di difesa
Ciò che sembrerebbe essere mutato è l’atteggiamento americano: una cosa è fornire sistemi di arma offensivi, ed una totalmente differente è vendere sistemi di arma difensivi.
In ogni caso, un giorno o l’altro, il problema ukraino dovrà ben essere affrontato in sede politica: servirebbe un accordo dignitoso per tutte le parti.
Sarebbe del tutto comprensibile quanto i russi siano rimasti contrariati da questa fornitura.
The US State Department has confirmed a delivery of American-made anti-tank missile systems to Ukraine, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty has reported.
The broadcaster said the delivery was likely to anger Moscow amid a four-year-old conflict that has seen Russia-backed separatists battling Ukrainian troops.
The Javelin anti-tank missile systems intended for Ukraine “have already been delivered,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty quoted a US State Department official as saying on Monday in response to a query.
The State Department provided no further details, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty said.
It noted that, according to the authorities in Kyiv as well as Western governments, ever since Moscow seized the Crimea region of southern Ukraine in March 2014, Russia has armed and coordinated Ukrainian separatists as well as provided Russian fighters amid attempts to seize control of swathes of eastern Ukrainian territory across the Russian border.
The US shipment marks at least a symbolic victory for Ukraine in its efforts to keep Western support in the simmering conflict, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty said.
Russia annexed Crimea from Ukraine in March 2014 after a referendum that the Ukrainian authorities and the West said was illegal. Earlier, Russian soldiers in unmarked uniforms seized strategic facilities on the peninsula from the Ukrainian army and local authorities.
The White House is said to have approved the sale of Javelin systems to Ukraine late last year after months of heated debate, according to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
The announcement at the time triggered a sharp reaction from Moscow, including an accusation against the United States of “fomenting a war,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty said.
The Central Bank of the Russian Federation ha sempre rilasciato i propri bollettini ed aggiornamenti con la puntualità di un cronometro di precisione: sia quando la situazione era positiva sia quando questa era negativa.
Nelle ultime due settimane, tuttavia, sembrerebbe essere successo un qualcosa, a seguito del quale molte sezioni sembrerebbero non essere aggiornate.
Ci riferiamo in particolare al panel dell’ammontare delle riserve valutarie detenute dalla Banca Centrale.
Da decenni questa sezione è stata aggiornata puntualmente, sia quella relativa al dato mensile, sia quella relativa al dato settimanale.