Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Giustizia, Stati Uniti

Il Procuratore Generale del Texas porta in Tribunale il blocco delle deportazioni di Biden.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-26.

2021-01-26__Texas 001

«The Constitution, controlling statutes, and prior Executive pledges prevent a seismic change to this country’s immigration laws merely by memorandum»

*

«Biden ordered halt to removal of most undocumented immigrants»

«Texas attorney general claims directive violates federal law»

«Texas attorney general files lawsuit to block Biden’s deportation freeze»

«The Texas attorney general filed a lawsuit on Friday that seeks to block U.S. President Joe Biden’s move to pause certain deportations for 100 days, a controversial opening-move by the Democratic president that has provoked blowback from some Republicans»

«In the filing, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton said the state would face “irreparable harm” if the deportation moratorium was allowed to go into effect»

«U.S. District Judge Drew Tipton in Victoria, Texas, heard arguments Friday on the state’s request for a temporary restraining order against the plan while the case proceeds. Tipton, a Donald Trump appointee, said he’d issue a decision later»

«The Constitution, controlling statutes, and prior Executive pledges prevent a seismic change to this country’s immigration laws merely by memorandum»

* * * * * * *


Mr Trump ha nominato 53 / 165 giudici nelle Corti di Appello federali. Tutte nomine a vita.

«As Trump leaves the White House, his imprint on the Judiciary deepens»

«As Democrats look to the incoming Biden administration to reverse much of President Trump’s work, the conservative imprint he has left on the federal courts is only deepening»

«We’ve seen a huge conservative shift. A lot of these judges are very young, and they’ll be there for a long time»

«Mr. Trump has named 53 of the 165 judges on the nation’s regional appeals courts: lifetime appointments that will have a vast and enduring impact»

Sommati ai giudici federali di nomina repubblicana già presenti, il blocco conservatore è la maggioranza.

Ai giudici federali di appello che giudicavano secondo ideologia liberal ed opportunità politica della sinistra, sono subentrati giudici federali che sentenziano secondo costituzione, sentenze della Corte Suprema, rispetto testuale degli scritti legislativi.

*


Texas Files First Major Lawsuit Against Biden Administration.

– Biden ordered halt to removal of most undocumented immigrants

– Texas attorney general claims directive violates federal law

*

Texas sued the U.S. government for ordering a temporary halt to most deportations of undocumented immigrants, the first major lawsuit challenging President Joe Biden’s policies just two days into his term and a likely sign of what’s to come from other Republican-led states.

Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton claims the directive breaches a deal reached between the state and the Department of Homeland Security less than two weeks before the end of the Trump administration, under which DHS agreed to consult with Texas before making any changes to deportation regulations. The changes amounts to “blanket amnesty,” Paxton claims.

U.S. District Judge Drew Tipton in Victoria, Texas, heard arguments Friday on the state’s request for a temporary restraining order against the plan while the case proceeds. Tipton, a Donald Trump appointee, said he’d issue a decision later.

Paxton, a staunch Trump ally, blasted the federal government’s plan, saying it would harm Texas by preventing the state from deporting undocumented immigrants.

“On its first day in office, the Biden Administration cast aside congressionally enacted immigration laws and suspended the removal of illegal aliens whose removal is compelled by those very laws,” Paxton said in the complaint. “In doing so, it ignored basic constitutional principles and violated its written pledge to work cooperatively with the State of Texas to address shared immigration enforcement concerns.”

                         Partisan Clash.

The suit highlights the clash between Biden’s pledge to reverse Trump’s efforts to clamp down on people in the U.S. illegally and Republicans who want to continue those policies. Biden plans to eventually offer a path to citizenship to the almost 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S., which will likely trigger additional litigation.

“Texas is asking to run federal immigration law,” Adam Kirschner, a Justice Department lawyer, told the judge. The lawyer added that Texas is effectively arguing the Biden administration can’t do what it wants “because the last administration — 12 days before it left office — gave us the veto.”

The lawsuit is the latest sign of the ongoing polarization of state attorneys general, said Douglas Gansler, a Democrat who was attorney general of Maryland from 2007 to 2015 and elected president of the National Association of Attorneys General in 2012.

“The Republican attorneys general brought many cases against the Obama Administration, often around the Affordable Care Act, and then the Democratic attorneys general brought many cases against the Trump Administration — this is unfortunately likely to be the first salvo of cases against the Biden Administration,” said Gansler, now a litigator at Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP in Washington.

Paxton, who is under federal investigation for bribery and abuse of power allegations made by former aides, led a failed legal challenge by Republican attorneys general that sought to prevent Biden from taking office based on bogus allegations of election fraud. In his new lawsuit, the Texas official claims the current administration is failing to remove immigrants even after they’ve had “full and fair” hearings.

“The Constitution, controlling statutes, and prior Executive pledges prevent a seismic change to this country’s immigration laws merely by memorandum,” Paxton said in the suit.

The Department of Homeland Security’s press office declined to comment and referred questions to the White House. The White House didn’t immediately return messages seeking comment.

*


Texas attorney general files lawsuit to block Biden’s deportation freeze

The Texas attorney general filed a lawsuit on Friday that seeks to block U.S. President Joe Biden’s move to pause certain deportations for 100 days, a controversial opening-move by the Democratic president that has provoked blowback from some Republicans.

In the filing, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton said the state would face “irreparable harm” if the deportation moratorium was allowed to go into effect.

Biden promised on the campaign trail to enact a 100-day moratorium on deportations if elected, a proposal that contrasted sharply with the immigration crackdown promoted by then-President Donald Trump, a Republican.

After Biden took office on Wednesday, the top official at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued a memo that ordered a pause on certain deportations to enable the department to better deal with “operational challenges” at the U.S-Mexico border during the pandemic.

In the court filing on Friday, Paxton argued that the deportation moratorium violated the president’s constitutional duty to execute federal laws. Paxton, a Republican, also said the temporary freeze violated an enforcement agreement the state brokered with the outgoing Trump administration earlier this month.

*


Texas attorney general sues Biden administration over deportation pause

Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton on Friday sued the Biden administration over its 100-day deportation pause, citing an 11th-hour agreement between Texas and the Trump administration that required the Department of Homeland Security to consult with the state before making changes.

It’s the first lawsuit challenging one of the Biden administration’s immigration actions, coming roughly 50 hours after President Joe Biden took the oath of office.

“On its first day in office, the Biden Administration cast aside congressionally enacted immigration laws and suspended the removal of illegal aliens whose removal is compelled by those very laws,” the complaint, filed in the US District Court for the Southern District of Texas, reads.

“In doing so, it ignored basic constitutional principles and violated its written pledge to work cooperatively with the State of Texas to address shared immigration enforcement concerns,” the lawsuit adds.

Legal agreements in the waning days of the Trump administration between DHS and Texas, as well as some other states and counties are intended to slow down the Biden administration’s policy changes, but it’s unclear if those agreements are legal or enforceable. They were signed by Ken Cuccinelli, then the senior official performing the duties of the deputy secretary.

A Republican, Paxton led an attempt to void Biden’s Electoral College victory last month and will be a constant presence in federal court attempting to block the Biden administration’s policies on immigration.

During the Trump administration, Paxton also led a lawsuit challenging the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, which shields undocumented immigrants who came to the US as children from deportation. The case is ongoing. Paxton is also at the head of the latest lawsuit at the Supreme Court challenging the Affordable Care Act.

Friday’s lawsuit targets the Biden administration’s 100-day pause on deportations. The decision to temporarily halt deportations was made “to ensure we have a fair and effective immigration enforcement system focused on protecting national security, border security, and public safety,” according to a DHS news release this week.

The deportation moratorium takes effect Friday.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia. Si prepara l’invio di un convoglio LNG sulla rotta artica da Yamal alla Cina.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-26.

2021-01-21__ Russia Rotta Artica 013

La Russia sta proseguendo a sfruttare i campi di gas naturale di Yamal. Adesso, grazie allo strato sottile del ghiaccio artico, si appresta a riaprire la rotta artica.

«Russia is preparing to make the earliest-ever shipment of liquefied natural gas to Asia, taking advantage of thinning ice in the Arctic Ocean and paving the way for a record-long navigation season this year»

«The super-chilled cargo from Novatek PJSC’s Yamal LNG facility in early May will beat last year’s record for the start of eastbound voyages through the Northern Sea Route by almost two weeks if the plan works out, according to people familiar with the situation. It will travel with an ice-breaker»

«The Northern Sea Route, stretching more than 3,000 nautical miles (5,556 kilometers) between the Barents Sea and the Bering Strait, is the shortest passage between Europe and Asia»

«The Northern Sea Route, stretching more than 3,000 nautical miles (5,556 kilometers) between the Barents Sea and the Bering Strait, is the shortest passage between Europe and Asia»

«Last year saw another period of intense heat. Especially in parts of the Arctic and northern Siberia, where temperatures in some regions were more than 6 degrees Celsius higher than average»

«Earlier this month, Novatek sent two LNG tankers, the Christophe de Margerie and the Nikolay Yevgenov, to China through the NSR»

«The vessels don’t need ice-breaker support as the current conditions in the eastern Arctic are mild»

«the tankers, scheduled to deliver the super-chilled cargoes to China in late January, will use an ice-breaker on their return to Russia across the passage in February»

* * * * * * *

Russia. Nebiullina. Le spille della governatrice. Il ciuffolotto.

Russia. Riaperto il laboratorio per armi artiche. Il monito del WSJ che nessuno udrà. Leggetemi.

Russia. Pakistan, Greater Eurasian Partnership ed Eurasian Economic Union.

U.N. Human Rights Council. Rinnovata la dirigenza, confermate Cina e Russia.

Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

Putin avvia lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye.

Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Russia. Programma di quintuplicare il LNG entro il 2035.

Russia. Partita la prima tanker LNG della stagione, da Yamal verso la Cina.

Putin il Grande. Arctic LNG 2 lo finanzieranno gli occidentali, quelli delle sanzioni.

* * * * * * *


Lo sfruttamento del gas naturale dei giacimenti di Yamal è stato finanziato in larga quota da quell’occidente che aveva imposto alla Russa precise sanzioni.

*


Russia Prepares Earliest-Ever Arctic LNG Shipment to Asia.

Russia is preparing to make the earliest-ever shipment of liquefied natural gas to Asia, taking advantage of thinning ice in the Arctic Ocean and paving the way for a record-long navigation season this year.

The super-chilled cargo from Novatek PJSC’s Yamal LNG facility in early May will beat last year’s record for the start of eastbound voyages through the Northern Sea Route by almost two weeks if the plan works out, according to people familiar with the situation. It will travel with an ice-breaker.

The Northern Sea Route, stretching more than 3,000 nautical miles (5,556 kilometers) between the Barents Sea and the Bering Strait, is the shortest passage between Europe and Asia. Yet its eastern part is usually shut for navigation for several months at the start of the year due to thick ice, limiting shipment potential. Its increased use underscores how quickly the pace of climate change is accelerating in the Earth’s northernmost regions.

The exact timing of the LNG shipment will depend on the thickness of the ice and weather conditions, said the officials, who asked not to be identified as the schedule is not public or finalized.

“The possibility of such a voyage in May is under discussion,” Nikita Sekretarev, spokesperson for Russian shipping company Sovcomflot PJSC, said declining to provide further details. Sovcomflot provides the Christoph de Margerie tanker to Novatek’s Yamal LNG project.

Russia’s state nuclear corporation Rosatom, which operates the Northern Sea Route, declined to comment on the schedule.

Russia expects the passage to rival the Suez Canal as Arctic ice thins out. But climate experts warn that an increase in ocean-going vessels through the route could cause more damage to the environment.

Last year saw another period of intense heat. Especially in parts of the Arctic and northern Siberia, where temperatures in some regions were more than 6 degrees Celsius higher than average.

The warming allowed Novatek to send an eastbound LNG cargo via the NSR with ice-breaker support in late May in 2020 — the earliest start to the navigation season in the area so far. Shipments continued to Asia through January, a record-long navigation season in the eastern Arctic.

February Record

Earlier this month, Novatek sent two LNG tankers, the Christophe de Margerie and the Nikolay Yevgenov, to China through the NSR. The vessels don’t need ice-breaker support as the current conditions in the eastern Arctic are mild, according to Rosatom.

However, the tankers, scheduled to deliver the super-chilled cargoes to China in late January, will use an ice-breaker on their return to Russia across the passage in February, according to the industry officials.

Until now, a cargo ship has never made a February voyage in the eastern Arctic, according to Sovcomflot, who owns the Christophe de Margerie.

Sovcomflot confirmed the plans for the tanker. The U.S.-based Teekay LNG Partners LP, the owner of the Nikolay Yevgenov, did not respond to Bloomberg’s request for a comment.

The planned February return voyage is part of “the systemic efforts to gradually extend transit navigation in the eastern sector of the Arctic,” the Sovcomflot spokesman said. “In the future, the goal is to set up a safe round-the-year navigation” across the Northern Route, he said.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Finanza e Sistema Bancario

Italia. Il dramma del debito sovrano. – Bloomberg.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-26.

2021-01-15_ bANKITALIA 013

«Debt seen rising to 158.5% of output in 2021, deficit at 8.8%»

«Government approved larger-than-expected extra deficit request»

«Italy’s government expects debt to rise more than expected this year, as it gets ready to boost fiscal stimulus to support its battered economy»

«The Treasury, led by Finance Minister Roberto Gualtieri, expects Italy’s debt to rise to 158.5% of output in 2021, up from 155.6%, while the country’s budget deficit would be 8.8%.»

«The government, led by Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, agreed to a request for a 32 billion-euro ($39 billion) increase in debt on Thursday evening»

«It’s the fifth time the administration has sought to expand its borrowing limits since Italy went into its first national lockdown last March»

«It’s entitled to as much as 81 billion euros in grants from the EU and a potential 127 billion euros in loans»

* * * * * * *

Il problema dei debiti sovrani è una macina da mulino incatenata al collo degli stati occidentali.

Il mercato non intende acquistarli: emittenti scricchiolanti a tassi negativi. Un pessimo investimento.

Così questi bond statali sono comprati dalla banca centrale e dalle banche, le quali utilizzano sia le elargizioni europee sia il denaro della raccolta, ossia quello dell’inconsapevole Contribuente.

Occidente. Le cambiali dei debiti sovrani stanno arrivando a scadenza.

Mondo. Bond a tassi negativi ammontano a 18 Usd trilioni. Non mondo, bensì occidente.

Usa. Cber. Previsioni. Marcia trionfale di Cina e Paesi asiatici.

Finanza occidente alla disperata ricerca di bond che rendano qualcosa.

UK ed EU. Derivati. 364 trilioni Usd. Alla fine qualcuno dovrà ben pagarli. Voi, tanto per capirci.

Eurostat. Italia pietra dello scandalo. Una Tabella da incubo.

L’Italia è fondata su debito e cambiali. Debito pubblico salito a 2,501.374 mld.

La rivoluzione verde è una enorme fake news. – Il Sole 24 Ore.

*

Se questo immane schema Ponzi funzionasse, nella storia non si riscontrerebbero i default nazionali, che invece sono tristemente frequenti. Gli Assignat sono storia rcente.

*


Italy Braces for Larger Debt Load Amid Political Infight

– Debt seen rising to 158.5% of output in 2021, deficit at 8.8%

– Government approved larger-than-expected extra deficit request

*

Italy’s government expects debt to rise more than expected this year, as it gets ready to boost fiscal stimulus to support its battered economy.

The Treasury, led by Finance Minister Roberto Gualtieri, expects Italy’s debt to rise to 158.5% of output in 2021, up from 155.6%, while the country’s budget deficit would be 8.8%.

The new forecasts, first reported by Corriere della Sera, reflect the struggle of the eurozone’s third-biggest economy amid a resurgent coronavirus outbreak and a deepening political crisis.

The government, led by Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, agreed to a request for a 32 billion-euro ($39 billion) increase in debt on Thursday evening. It’s the fifth time the administration has sought to expand its borrowing limits since Italy went into its first national lockdown last March.

The country is set to receive the biggest share of European Union aid. It’s entitled to as much as 81 billion euros in grants from the EU and a potential 127 billion euros in loans. This has been a key issue in a clash between Conte and a junior ally in his coalition, Matteo Renzi, who has withdrawn support from the government.

The cabinet’s new funding request must be approved by parliament. It’s expected to be used to compensate businesses hit by coronavirus restrictions, to extend furlough payments for workers and for spending on health care.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, India, Regno Unito

USA. Anno nuovo, media con nuova impaginazione. Reuters e Cnn.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-25.

2021-01-24__ Media 001 Cnn 002

Con gennaio sono mutate molte realtà, sia a livello politico sia a livello economico.

L’Amministrazione Trump è stata sostituita da quella subentrante e il sistema economico cinese si avvia a superare il valore di quello americano. Il dollaro non è più valuta di riserva a livello mondiale.

2021-01-24__ Media 001 Reuters 001

I media americani stanno lentamente prendendo conoscenza delle mutazioni avvenute ed hanno mutato rattamente le titolazioni degli indici.

                         Cnn.

La pagina politico-economica inizia con “World”, dizione in cui modestamente e umilmente la Cnn mette gli Stati Uniti.

Ma subito dopo seguono Africa, Americas, Asia, Australia, China, Europe, India, Middle East, United Kingdom.

Alcuni termini sono soltanto geografici, altri denominano invece stati sovrani.

Si noti come l’Unione Europea non sia nemmeno menzionata, così come la Germania o la Francia.

Invece Cina, India e Regno Unito hanno l’onore di un sottoindice particolare.

                         Reuters.

Fedeli all’ordine ricevuto in velina, anche Reuters si è adeguata.

Sotto l’indice “World” compaiono zone geografiche e quattro stati sovrani: United States, United Kingdom, China ed India.

Ossia le grandi potenze politiche, economiche e sociali del mondo.

* * * * * * *

Alcuni elementi saltano agli occhi.

– La Russia, grande potenza politica, energetica e militare non compare per evidenti motivazioni ideologiche

– Giappone, Germania e Francia non sono nemmeno considerate: sono nullità

– L’Unione Europea è stata fatta rientrare nella generica dizione di ‘Europa’: un sistema politico ed economico allo sfascio

* * * * * * *


I tempi stanno cambiando, ed anche molto velocemente.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Germania. Gennaio. Indice Zew sulle condizioni economiche -66.4.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-25.

2021-01-20 Germania Zew 001

«L’indice Zew Economic Sentiment Indicator ha cadenza mensile e sintetizza l’opinione di 350 esperti sul futuro dell’economia tedesca, e viene elaborato nell’ambito di un’indagine che viene svolta dal Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung, dalle cui iniziali l’indice prende il nome.

I dati su cui si basa l’indagine provengono da 350 interviste che l’istituto di ricerca tedesco rivolge a esperti di economia tedesca sulle prospettive dell’economia nei sei mesi successivi al momento in cui l’indagine viene svolta. Se l’indice ottiene un punteggio superiore a zero vuol dire che gli intervistati sono complessivamente ottimisti sul futuro dell’economia tedesca; se l’indice è inferiore a zero vuol dire che sono invece pessimisti. L’indice Zew è molto più volatile dell’indice IFO sulla fiducia delle imprese.» [Fonte]

* * * * * * *

Germania. Giugno. Cupe previsioni. Indice ZEW -83.1%.

Germania. Agosto. Indice Zew -81.3.

L’Indice Zew sulle condizioni economiche tedesche chiarisce molte situazioni e smaschera platealmente alcune perduranti menzogne.

Di questi tempi nell’enclave economica occidentale la colpa i tutto ciò che sta accadendo è attribuita alla pandemia da Covid-19, a torto od a ragione. Ma troppo spesso si esagera e si confonde l’effetto della pandemia con la disastrosa condotta dei governi e, soprattutto, con la preesistente grave crisi del sistema produttivo.

Ma se corriamo con un minimo di attenzione lo storico riportato in fotocopia, emerge chiaramente come la Germania abbia iniziato a presentare valori negativi dell’Indice Zew già a partire dal luglio 2019, scendendo fino al -24.7 del novembre di quell’anno.

In altri termini, la crisi del sistema produttivo tedesco era già in atto, ed anche severa, ben prima che la pandemia da coronavirus si fosse presentata. Poi, questa ha svolto il suo ruolo frenante, amplificato da provvedimenti governativi raffazzonati e contrastanti, forse di effetto peggiore del Covid-19 stesso.

Pubblicato in: Senza categoria

Terre Rare. Chi le controlla, controlla il mondo. Piaccia o meno, è la Cina.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-25.

2020-12-30__ Terre Rare 013

Il Governo degli Stati Uniti ha recentemente pubblicato il Report “Rare Earths Data Sheet. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020.

«China continued to dominate the global supply of rare earths. According to China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the mine and separation production quotas for 2019 were 132,000 tons and 127,000 tons, respectively».

* * * * * * *

2020-12-30__ Terre Rare 014

«Can the US reduce its dependency on chinese rare earths?»

«the United States has relentlessly pursued the utopia of energy independence»

«Washington will never achieve true energy independence by relying solely on fossil fuels»

«most Americans believe that the government should “…focus on developing alternative sources of energy over expansion of fossil fuel sources” »

«the United States is now facing another conundrum: It’s almost completely dependent on China for the minerals it uses to build clean energy systems.»

«China is a rare earth monopoly, supplying 80% of the rare earths elements (REE) used by the United States in the manufacture of solar panels, windmills, electric car batteries, cellphones, computers, national defense systems, medical equipment, and even in oil and gas technologies»

«Indeed, all it took was a simple visit to an obscure factory by Chinese President Xi at the height of the trade war last year to raise the specter of Beijing cutting off supplies of critical materials to the U.S. and potentially crippling large swathes of industries»

«Rare earth minerals, also known as the “vitamins of chemistry”, are a group of elements used in the manufacture of a wide range of equipment in small doses to produce powerful salutary effects»

«These minerals are extensively used in smartphones, batteries, turbines, lasers, electromagnetic guns, missiles, advanced weapon sensors, stealth technology, and jamming technology»

«Oil refiners also use rare earth catalysts to process crude oil into gasoline and jet fuel»

*

«China produced more than 90 percent of the world’s supply of these critical elements over the past decade, though its share fell to 71.4 percent last year»

«In 2018, the U.S. Geological Survey identified 35 minerals critical to the country’s economy and national security. America is heavily dependent on imports of these minerals, producing less than a tenth of the world’s supplies and importing half what it consumes»

«Meanwhile, dozens of companies and startups from Alaska to Texas are advancing mining development, with a site in Colorado about to become the first non-China facility for refining rare earth ores»

«a mountain in Wyoming called Bear Lodge holds about 18 million tons of REE, enough to supply the country for years.»

*

«But ultimately, it might all boil down to political will–or lack thereof»

«The permitting process in the U.S. is ridiculously long, and can take up to three decades compared to just two years in countries like Australia and Canada»

«Navigating a regulatory minefield of labyrinthine local, state, and federal rules stifle U.S. mining companies compared to their Chinese competitors»

* * * * * * *

La Cia è il più grande estrattore, raffinatore ed esportatore di terre rare. Ma nessuno la obbliga ad esportare quei minerali. Potrebbe anche non voler vendere. Un campanello di allarme era suonato nel giugno 2019.

Cina. Export terre rare -16%. Industrie militari i crisi.

U.S. military firms likely to face China rare earth restrictions: Global Times

Usa, Cina e Terre Rare. Ora interviene anche il Pentagono.

Terre rare. Novità rilevanti per il disprosio.

Guerra commerciale Cina-Usa, cosa sono le «terre rare» e perché Xi ha un’arma in più contro Trump

Cobalto. Congo terreno di scontro di una guerra mondiale.

La rivoluzione verde è una enorme fake news. – Il Sole 24 Ore.

Guardando i dati relativi alle terre rare ci si chiariscono molti problemi della geopolitica.

Il Congo produce metà del cobalto mondiale. Brasile e Vietnam hanno riserve di terre rare pari a metà di quelle cinesi, la Russia pari ad un quarto.

«The permitting process in the U.S. is ridiculously long, and can take up to three decades compared to just two years in countries like Australia and Canada»

Per quanto riguarda le terre rare, ancora una volta l’Unione Europea e gli Stati Uniti soccombono proprio alle leggi che si sono date.

Can The US Reduce Its Dependency On Chinese Rare Earths?

Since the days of President Jimmy Carter and the 1970s oil crisis, the United States has relentlessly pursued the utopia of energy independence. But persistent oil crises, severe oil price shocks, and the global shift to clean energy have made it glaringly obvious that Washington will never achieve true energy independence by relying solely on fossil fuels. Indeed, most Americans believe that the government should “…focus on developing alternative sources of energy over expansion of fossil fuel sources” in a bid to alleviate climate change.

But as the shift to clean and renewable energy gains serious momentum, the United States is now facing another conundrum: It’s almost completely dependent on China for the minerals it uses to build clean energy systems.

China is a rare earth monopoly, supplying 80% of the rare earths elements (REE) used by the United States in the manufacture of solar panels, windmills, electric car batteries, cellphones, computers, national defense systems, medical equipment, and even in oil and gas technologies.

That leaves the country in a particularly precarious position, especially with the never-ending trade tensions between the two nations. Indeed, all it took was a simple visit to an obscure factory by Chinese President Xi at the height of the trade war last year to raise the specter of Beijing cutting off supplies of critical materials to the U.S. and potentially crippling large swathes of industries.

Further, the U.S. is about to start keenly feeling China’s stranglehold on the industry now that Biden is about to ascend into the Oval Office and possibly implement his ambitious Green Deal.

Depending on China.

Rare earth minerals, also known as the “vitamins of chemistry”, are a group of elements used in the manufacture of a wide range of equipment in small doses to produce powerful salutary effects. These minerals are extensively used in smartphones, batteries, turbines, lasers, electromagnetic guns, missiles, advanced weapon sensors, stealth technology, and jamming technology. For instance, lanthanum is used in lighting equipment and camera lenses; neodymium in hybrid vehicles; praseodymium in aircraft engines; europium in nuclear reactors and gadolinium in MRIs and X-rays. Oil refiners also use rare earth catalysts to process crude oil into gasoline and jet fuel.

China produced more than 90 percent of the world’s supply of these critical elements over the past decade, though its share fell to 71.4 percent last year.

In 2018, the U.S. Geological Survey identified 35 minerals critical to the country’s economy and national security. America is heavily dependent on imports of these minerals, producing less than a tenth of the world’s supplies and importing half what it consumes. It clearly highlights the U.S.’ soft underbelly.

And China’s dominance might only increase going forward.

The global REE industry is expected to nearly double from $8.1 billion in 2018 to $14.4 billion in 2025, as demand for EVs, cell phones, and microchips skyrockets. Biden anticipates this wild growth and has pledged to install 500,000 new EV charging stations by 2030 from the current U.S. tally of 26,000.

Beating China at its own game.

But China’s control of REE might not necessarily be ‘‘an ace in Beijing’s hand’’ as the Global Times once claimed. On the contrary, the U.S. is actually in a strong position to dent China’s control of the industry and move towards rare earth independence.

Biden clearly recognizes this challenge and opportunity and has pledged to support the increased exploration of lithium, copper, nickel, and rare earths, among other minerals, to ensure domestic sourcing of minerals critical to solar panels, wind turbines, and electric vehicles.

Indeed, the government of the United States has been ramping up efforts to expand domestic mineral research and development.

For example, the bipartisan Reclaiming American Rare Earths (RARE) Act that was introduced in the House in September offers a comprehensive framework of tax incentives to encourage more investment into the U.S.-based REE mining and production. Meanwhile, dozens of companies and startups from Alaska to Texas are advancing mining development, with a site in Colorado about to become the first non-China facility for refining rare earth ores.

The U.S. is not exactly lacking in REE resources, either.

For instance, a mountain in Wyoming called Bear Lodge holds about 18 million tons of REE, enough to supply the country for years.

And if push comes to shove and Beijing suddenly bans REE exports to the United States, America might counter by building a new supply chain outside of China just like Japan did when a similar fate befell the country a decade ago.

Or we can simply start recycling more.

Currently, only around 1% of REE are recycled from end-products at the end of their life-cycles.

Yet, the potential for recycling rare earths is huge.

A 2013 paper says that simply boosting the collection rate of batteries, bulbs, and magnets could improve the recycling rate of REE from one percent up to 20-40%. That would amount to up to 5% of global REE mine production, or nearly half of the U.S. annual mine supply. But we could do even better. As Simon Jowitt, assistant professor at UNLV’s Department of Geoscience, has told ArsTechnica, much more than 40% of REE could be recycled depending on adoption rates of technologies like EVs.

To be fair, recycling that amount of rare earths would not be a walk in the park

The diverse types of electronics being recycled would not necessarily contain enough rare earths and in the right proportions to make recycling those elements profitable. In many cases, the manufacturers usually are not responsible for running recycling operations, meaning they might not even be privy to which components contain what materials.

Here, the United States’ REE industry needs to borrow a leaf from Europe.

The EU’s Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE requires manufacturers of electronic devices to not only finance or perform the recycling of those devices but also requires sellers to offer free e-waste collection.

But ultimately, it might all boil down to political will–or lack thereof.

The permitting process in the U.S. is ridiculously long, and can take up to three decades compared to just two years in countries like Australia and Canada. Navigating a regulatory minefield of labyrinthine local, state, and federal rules stifle U.S. mining companies compared to their Chinese competitors.

But given recent bipartisan moves in the industry, legislators can hopefully look beyond party lines and affiliations and fashion a workaround.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Stati Uniti

Biden. Ecco i trenta executive orders promulgati nei suoi primi tre giorni.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-24.

White House Animal 001

Nei suoi primi tre giorni in carica, Biden ha emesso trenta executive order. Una larga quota inerisce lo sforzo di contenere l’epidemia da Covid-19, l’ambiente e l’economia, mentre i restanti cercano di smontare accuratamente quanto aveva fatto il suo predecessore.

Si ripete il fatto che ad ogni cambio di presidente, quello entrato in carica inverte sia e politiche interne, sia quelle economiche, sia quelle estere. Operazione lecita, sia ben inteso, ma che coerce i comportamenti in un continuo fare e disfare, senza segnare di fatto progressi consolidati o consolidabili.

Nulla da stupirsi, quindi, se la Cina, i Brics, e gli stati aderenti al Rcep abbiano superato gli Stati Uniti quanto pil ppa e si avviino a superarli anche in pil espresso in termini reali.

Questa situazione si ripercuote severamente sulla credibilità internazionale dell’America.

* * * * * * *

Here are the 30 executive orders and actions Biden signed in his first three days

President Joe Biden has signed a flurry of executive orders, actions and memorandums aimed at rapidly addressing the coronavirus pandemic and dismantling many of President Donald Trump’s policies.

The 30 executive actions Biden has taken in the first days of his administration include halting funding for the construction of Trump’s border wall, reversing Trump’s travel ban targeting largely Muslim countries, imposing a mask mandate on federal property, ramping up vaccination supplies and requiring international travelers to provide proof of a negative Covid-19 test prior to traveling to the US.

See them all here.

President Joe Biden has taken 30 executive actions in three days

In his first three days in office, Biden issued 30 executive orders, presidential memoranda and agency directives, primarily focused on addressing the Covid-19 pandemic and undoing former President Donald Trump’s actions. Ten of Biden’s executive actions directly reverse Trump’s policies.

*


executive actions directly reverse Trump’s policies.

date

topic

reversal

summary

January 22

Economy

Yes

Restores collective bargaining power and worker protections for federal workers, and lays the foundation for $15 minimum wage

January 22

Economy

No

Calls for assistance to those who are struggling to buy food, missed out on stimulus checks or are unemployed.

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Accelerates manufacturing and delivery of supplies for vaccination, testing and Personal Protective Equipment

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Directs FEMA to expand reimbursement to states to fully cover the cost for National Guard personnel and emergency supplies

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Establishes the Pandemic Testing Board to expand US coronavirus testing capacity

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Establishes a preclinical program to boost development of therapeutics in response to pandemic threats

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Enhances the nation’s collection, production, sharing and analysis of coronavirus data

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Directs FEMA to create federally-supported community vaccination centers

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Directs the Department of Education and HHS to provide guidance for safely reopening and operating schools, childcare providers and institutions of higher education

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Calls on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to release clear guidance on Covid-19, decide whether to establish emergency temporary standards, and directs OSHA to enforce worker health and safety requirements

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Requires mask wearing in airports and on certain modes of transportation, including many trains, airplanes, maritime vessels and intercity buses. International travelers must provide proof of a negative Covid-19 test prior to coming to the US

January 21

Coronavirus

No

Creates the Covid-19 Health Equity Task Force to help ensure an equitable pandemic response and recovery

January 21

Coronavirus

No

A presidential directive to restore America’s leadership, support the international pandemic response effort, promote resilience for future threats and advance global health security and the Global Health Security Agenda

January 20

Coronavirus

No

Launches a “100 Days Masking Challenge” asking Americans to wear masks for 100 days. Requires masks and physical distancing in federal buildings, on federal lands and by government contractors, and urges states and local governments to do the same.

January 20

Coronavirus

Yes

Stops the United States’ withdrawal from the World Health Organization, with Dr. Anthony Fauci becoming the head of the delegation to the WHO

January 20

Coronavirus

No

Creates the position of Covid-19 Response Coordinator, reporting directly to Biden and managing efforts to produce and distribute vaccines and medical equipment

January 20

Economy

No

Extends the existing nationwide moratorium on evictions and foreclosures until at least March 31

January 20

Economy

No

Extends the existing pause on student loan payments and interest for Americans with federal student loans until at least September 30

January 20

Environment

Yes

Rejoins the Paris climate accord, a process that will take 30 days

January 20

Environment

Yes

Cancels the Keystone XL pipeline and directs agencies to review and reverse more than 100 Trump actions on the environment

January 20

Equity

Yes

Rescinds the Trump administration’s 1776 Commission, directs agencies to review their actions to ensure racial equity

January 20

Equity

No

Prevents workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity

January 20

Census

Yes

Requires non-citizens to be included in the Census and apportionment of congressional representatives

January 20

Immigration

No

Fortifies DACA after Trump’s efforts to undo protections for undocumented people brought into the country as children

January 20

Immigration

Yes

Reverses the Trump administration’s restrictions on US entry for passport holders from seven Muslim-majority countries

January 20

Immigration

Yes

Undoes Trump’s expansion of immigration enforcement within the United States

January 20

Immigration

Yes

Halts construction of the border wall by terminating the national emergency declaration used to fund it

January 20

Immigration

No

Extends deferrals of deportation and work authorizations for Liberians with a safe haven in the United States until June 30, 2022

January 20

Ethics

No

Requires executive branch appointees to sign an ethics pledge barring them from acting in personal interest and requiring them to uphold the independence of the Department of Justice

January 20

Regulation

Yes

Directs OMB director to develop recommendations to modernize regulatory review and undoes Trump’s regulatory approval process

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo

Covid. Lombardia errore nel calcolo dell’Rt. I 14,180 casi dichiarati erano 4,918.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-24.

Gufo_019__

Il buon saggio Andreotti soleva dire che a pensar male si fa peccato, ma ci si azzecca.

È molto difficile vedere un brandello di buona fede in quanto è accaduto. Davvero molto difficile.

*

«Le persone catalogate con «inizio sintomi» non uscivano più dalle statistiche»

«Non veniva compilata la descrizione dello stato clinico: «Non ci era stato chiesto»»

«In Regione Lombardia la domanda rimane nell’aria per giorni: com’è possibile che abbiamo un Rt – l’indice che calcola la diffusione del virus – a 1,4, mentre più o meno per lo stesso periodo l’Rt sui ricoveri in ospedale è sotto soglia (0,93), i casi assoluti fermi a 13 mila e rotti, lo stesso i contagi ogni 100 mila abitanti (a quota 133)?»

«Il problema è che il numero di casi indicati dalla Regione su cui viene calcolato dall’Istituto superiore di sanità l’Rt è sovrastimato»

«Vengono contati più infetti di quelli che realmente ci sono»

«Se il campo non è compilato, in assenza di informazioni, quando guariscono, non vengono depennati»

«Nessuno mai prima ci ha detto che altrimenti i guariti non sarebbero stati conteggiati»

«Sulla responsabilità della situazione assurda, la relazione dell’Istituto superiore di sanità di ieri, è netta: «Il 20 gennaio 2021, la Regione Lombardia ha inviato come di consueto l’aggiornamento del suo database – si legge nel documento -. Si constata una rettifica dei dati relativi anche alla settimana 4-10 gennaio 2020 (quella decisiva per la zona rossa, ndr ), che riguarda il numero di casi in cui viene riportata una “data di inizio sintomi” (…) per cui viene data una indicazione di stato clinico laddove prima era assente»»

«la Lombardia compila il campo che fino a questo momento è rimasto vuoto»

«Per il periodo 15-30 dicembre la Lombardia passa da 14.180 casi dichiarati a soli 4.918»

* * * * * * *

E tutto questo bailamme emerge solo dopo che il governo Conte ha iniziato a traballare.

Nel programma di trasmissione dati qualcuno ha ‘omesso‘ oppure ‘rimosso‘ il controllo sul campo non compilato.

Ed è passato un intero anno prima che qualcuno facesse uno straccetto di controllo.

Così è stato possibile assassinare l’intero comparto turistico ed alberghiero, senza poi contare i danni alla produzione.

Adesso, chi ripaga i danni subiti?

*


Corriere. Covid, Lombardia errore nel calcolo dell’Rt: migliaia di guariti sono stati conteggiati come ancora positivi.

Le persone catalogate con «inizio sintomi» non uscivano più dalle statistiche. Non veniva compilata la descrizione dello stato clinico: «Non ci era stato chiesto».

Un numero, e proprio il più importante per l’ingresso in zona rossa, in controtendenza rispetto agli altri indicatori. Da una parte una forte crescita, dall’altra numeri stabili. In Regione Lombardia la domanda rimane nell’aria per giorni: com’è possibile che abbiamo un Rt – l’indice che calcola la diffusione del virus – a 1,4, mentre più o meno per lo stesso periodo l’Rt sui ricoveri in ospedale è sotto soglia (0,93), i casi assoluti fermi a 13 mila e rotti, lo stesso i contagi ogni 100 mila abitanti (a quota 133)? Il fatto che il dato dell’Rt preso in considerazione dal ministero della Salute sia vecchio stavolta non basta a spiegare la situazione. Il dilemma viene sciolto alla fine con una lunga telefonata.

Al cellulare ci sono l’epidemiologo Stefano Merler della Fondazione Bruno Kessler di Trento (che fa i conti per il ministero della Salute e l’Istituto superiore di sanità) e l’epidemiologo Danilo Cereda dell’assessorato alla Sanità della Lombardia (autore dei report di Regione Lombardia sui contagi). Il problema è che il numero di casi indicati dalla Regione su cui viene calcolato dall’Istituto superiore di sanità l’Rt è sovrastimato. Vengono contati più infetti di quelli che realmente ci sono. Sembra paradossale, ma è la verità: tra i casi ci sono anche centinaia di guariti. Sono soprattutto coloro che dal 12 ottobre, in base alle nuove norme del ministero, possono interrompere l’isolamento tra i 10 e i 21 giorni dalla comparsa dei sintomi senza più il doppio tampone negativo. Tutti loro nei report compilati da Cereda compaiono come persone con «inizio sintomi», ma senza la descrizione dello stato clinico (asintomatico, paucisintomatico, sintomi).

Se il campo non è compilato, in assenza di informazioni, quando guariscono, non vengono depennati. In sintesi: entrano nel conteggio, ma non escono mai. Perché Regione Lombardia non mette la descrizione dei sintomi? «Quel campo non è obbligatorio, è sbagliato forzarlo», spiegano dagli uffici della Prevenzione di Regione Lombardia: «L’informazione la forniamo nel momento in cui i medici ce la segnalano». Per riuscire a superare il problema negli ultimi giorni la direzione generale di Regione Lombardia decide di compilare quel campo. In accordo con l’Istituto superiore di sanità. Perché soltanto adesso? La giustificazione: «Nessuno mai prima ci ha detto che altrimenti i guariti non sarebbero stati conteggiati».
Nell’allegato tecnico che accompagna il ricorso di Regione Lombardia al Tar, integrato nelle ultime ore, l’assessorato alla Sanità scrive: «Finora la sovrastima dell’Rt ( che si trascina dal 12 ottobre, ndr ) è stata mascherata dal fenomeno più rilevante in termini numerici dell’aumento dei casi della seconda ondata (oltre 300 mila) – sottolinea la Lombardia -. Pertanto tale fenomeno si è osservato solo adesso evidenziando in tal modo la sovrastima del Rt». Insomma: finora mai nessuno della Regione s’è accorto della questione.

Sulla responsabilità della situazione assurda, la relazione dell’Istituto superiore di sanità di ieri, è netta: «Il 20 gennaio 2021, la Regione Lombardia ha inviato come di consueto l’aggiornamento del suo database – si legge nel documento -. Si constata una rettifica dei dati relativi anche alla settimana 4-10 gennaio 2020 (quella decisiva per la zona rossa, ndr ), che riguarda il numero di casi in cui viene riportata una “data di inizio sintomi” (…) per cui viene data una indicazione di stato clinico laddove prima era assente». Insomma: la Lombardia compila il campo che fino a questo momento è rimasto vuoto. I cambiamenti riducono in modo significativo il numero di casi inclusi nel calcolo dell’Rt. Per il periodo 15-30 dicembre la Lombardia passa da 14.180 casi dichiarati a soli 4.918. Risultato: «I dati forniti dalla Lombardia cambiano il numero di soggetti sintomatici notificati dalla stessa Regione. Alla luce della rettifica si rende necessaria una rivalutazione» della zona rossa. Ma è possibile che, a quasi un anno dallo scoppio dell’epidemia, in Lombardia ci siano ancora problemi sulla trasmissione di dati cruciali per la vita dei cittadini?

Pubblicato in: Brasile, Devoluzione socialismo

Brasile. Elezioni politiche. Bolsonaro sembrerebbe essere favorito.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-23.

Brasile. Minas Gerais 002

A novembre la produzione industriale del Brasile evidenziava un +2.8% anno su anno.

Brasile. Il sistema economico sembrerebbe essere in netta ripresa.

Brasile. Adesso è il terzo fornitore della Cina di petrolio.

Brasile. Bolsonaro nomina Kassio Nunes alla Suprema Corte.

Brasile. Bolsonaro sale molto nei sondaggi. Liberal angustiati e tormentati.

Brasile. Jair Bolsonaro. Datafolha. Popolarità mai così alta al 37%, Consenso 47%.

Brasile. Giugno. PMI in crescita, ma ancora in fascia di contrazione.

Brasile. Archiviati decenni di socialismo si avvia alla rinascita economia.

Tra un mese si terranno in Brasile le elezioni politiche e le formazioni del Presidente Jair Bolsonaro sembrerebbero essere favorite.

«This is the beginning of Brazil’s liberation from socialism, political correctness and a bloated state»

2020-11-07__ Pil ppa 013

* * * * * * *

«Despite a deep recession and the world’s second-deadliest COVID-19 outbreak, candidates backed by Brazil’s right-wing president Jair Bolsonaro are expected to win control of Congress next month, politicians and analysts said on Monday»

«Bolsonaro is openly supporting center-right Congressman Arthur Lira for speaker of the lower chamber against centrist Baleia Rossi, who has the backing of current Speaker Rodrigo Maia and lawmakers keeping their distance from the president»

«Lira, who cast himself as fiscally conservative in a written exchange with Reuters, has more than the 257-vote majority needed »

«Yet polls show Bolsonaro has retained public support in the crisis, with 37% of those polled calling him a “good” or “great” president»

«His favored candidate in the Senate, Rodrigo Pacheco of the Democrats party, has a clear lead to become president of the Senate, by 46 senators to 33 for his rival Simone Tebet»

* * * * * * *

«This is the beginning of Brazil’s liberation from socialism, political correctness and a bloated state»

Un mese passa rapidamente.

*


Bolsonaro allies set to win control of Brazil’s Congress.

Despite a deep recession and the world’s second-deadliest COVID-19 outbreak, candidates backed by Brazil’s right-wing president Jair Bolsonaro are expected to win control of Congress next month, politicians and analysts said on Monday.

Bolsonaro is openly supporting center-right Congressman Arthur Lira for speaker of the lower chamber against centrist Baleia Rossi, who has the backing of current Speaker Rodrigo Maia and lawmakers keeping their distance from the president.

Lira, who cast himself as fiscally conservative in a written exchange with Reuters, has more than the 257-vote majority needed, according to risk consultancy Arko. That means an uphill battle for Rossi and the left-wing parties he is courting, which favor more help for low-income Brazilians hurt by the pandemic.

With more than 8.5 million confirmed COVID-19 cases and over 209,000 deaths – second only to the United States – the second wave of Brazil’s outbreak is likely to raise pressure on the government to spend more, widening its huge budget deficit.

Hospitals in the jungle city of Manaus are overwhelmed again, prompting pot-banging protests in Brazil’s largest cities over the handling of the pandemic by Bolsonaro, who has repeatedly denied the gravity of the virus.

On the economic front, Ford Motor Co announced last week it was shutting production in Brazil and cutting about 5,000 jobs, in a symbolic blow for a country that likely suffered its worst recession on record in 2020.

Yet polls show Bolsonaro has retained public support in the crisis, with 37% of those polled calling him a “good” or “great” president in both August and December surveys by pollster Datafolha. That solid support, along with a growing willingness to discuss traditional horse-trading in Congress, have helped him secure a political base of center-right lawmakers.

His favored candidate in the Senate, Rodrigo Pacheco of the Democrats party, has a clear lead to become president of the Senate, by 46 senators to 33 for his rival Simone Tebet, according to Arko.

Pacheco even has the backing of the leftist Workers Party (PT) that see him opposing Bolsonaro’s more controversial views such as easing gun ownership rules and denying climate change.

“Pacheco is not an extreme free-market exponent and would not agree to the blanket privatization of state companies,” PT Senator Jean Paul Prates said in a telephone interview.

Lira has said his priority if elected speaker of the lower house on Feb. 1 was an emergency bill that would give the federal and local governments more room to handle spending but avoid then breaching Brazil’s legally mandated spending cap.

He told Reuters, however, that Congress had to find an alternative to extending last year’s emergency transfers to low-income Brazilians that cost 322 billion reais ($61 billion) and blew a record hole in the government’s finances.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Cina. 2020. Investimenti diretti esteri +6.2%.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-01-23.

2021-01-22__ Cina Investimenti Esteri 001

Con il termine ‘Investimenti diretti esteri‘ si intende il capitale straniero realmente utilizzato, ossia quelle somme effettivamente impiegate secondo gli accordi ed i contratti, tra i quali, liquidità, materiali e capitali invisibile come manodopera e tecnologie che entrambe le parti convengono di prendere come investimento.

Come si constata, gli investimenti stranieri in Cina hanno ripreso a pieno ritmo durante l’ultimo semestre dello scorso anno. Nonostante crisi economica, pandemia da Covid-19 e lockdown, la finanza occidentale ha ripreso ad alimentare la crescita cinese, essendo la Cina uno dei pochi stati che accolgono bene i capitali esteri, consentendo loro un buon margine di guadagno.

Gli effetti di una disparità di remunerazione del capitale investito è ben evidenziata da questa tabella, relativa all’anno 2015.

2021-01-22__ Cina Investimenti Esteri 002

Si consideri con attenzione come nel gennaio del 2015 gli investimenti diretti stranieri essero raggiuto la quota del 29.4%. Ripetiamo: la crescita cinese  stata in larga parte possibile grazie alla finanza occidentale, che ha diretto in Asia gli investimenti in patria non più possibili.