I Nāga (नाग “serpente”, femminile “nagini”) sono un’antica razza di uomini-serpente presente nella religiosità e nella mitologia vedica e induista; storie di Naga fanno ancora parte della tradizione popolare di molte regioni a predominanza indù (India, Nepal, Bali) e buddhista (Sri Lanka, Sud-Est asiatico).
I Nāga sono particolarmente popolari nel Sud dell’India, dove si crede che donino fertilità ai loro fedeli. Secondo leggende indù, sono servi di Varuna, dio vedico delle tempeste.
Nag is a third-generation, fire-and-forget, anti-tank guided missile developed by India’s state-owned Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to support both mechanised infantry and airborne forces of the Indian Army.
The missile incorporates an advanced passive homing guidance system and possesses high single-shot kill probability. It is designed to destroy modern main battle tanks and other heavily armoured targets.
Nag can be launched from land and air-based platforms. The land version is currently available for integration on the Nag missile carrier (NAMICA), which is derived from a BMP-2 tracked infantry combat vehicle.
The helicopter-launched configuration, designated as helicopter-launched NAG (HELINA), can be fired from Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH) and HAL Rudra (ALH WSI) attack helicopter.
The Nag missile was indigenously developed under the Indian Ministry of Defence’s integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP), which also involved the development of four other missiles that are Agni, Akash, Trishul and Prithvi.
Bharat Dynamics (BDL) produced imaging infrared seekers for the weapon.
The first test of Nag was conducted in November 1990. A test launch of the missile from a tube in programmed control mode was performed at the Interim Test Range, Balasore, Odisha in September 2001.
Two Nag missiles were successfully test fired in June 2002.
User trials of the Nag anti-tank missile against static and moving targets were conducted in 2007 and 2008 respectively, while the development tests were concluded in August 2008.
Seeker evaluation tests for the missile were conducted at the Pokhran Test Range in Rajasthan in July 2013. Tests on the HELINA were carried out at the Chandan Firing Range in Rajasthan in July 2015.
A Nag weapon with a modified seeker successfully destroyed a thermal target system (TTS) at a range of 4km during test firing conducted in the Mahajan Field Firing Range, Rajasthan, in January 2016.
The anti-tank missile took part in the Bahrain International Airshow in Bahrain in January 2016. It will undergo final user trials under different weather conditions in 2016.
Nag anti-tank guided missile design and features
The Nag anti-armour guided weapon’s airframe is built with lightweight and high-strength composite materials. The missile features top-attack capability and has high immunity to countermeasures.
The missile is equipped with four foldable wings and has a length of 1.85m, diameter of 0.20m, wing span of 0.4m and weight of 43kg.
A blunt nose cone houses the guidance system, while the middle portion accommodates a compact sensor package and the main charge of the warhead. A booster rocket motor is located towards the rear. Four tail fins are fitted at the rear to stabilise the missile while in flight.
A real-time image processor with fast and efficient algorithms is installed next to the guidance section to provide automatic target detection and tracking capabilities. The digital autopilot offers guidance, stability and control for the missile during the flight.
Nag is also outfitted with an electric actuation system for flight control.
Guidance and warhead
A passive imaging infrared (IIR) homing seeker guides the missile to the target after its launch in all lighting conditions. The missile can be optionally offered with a millimetre wave active radar seeker.
The Namica variant has lock-on-before launch capability, while the air-launched configuration uses lock-on after launch technology.
An 8kg tandem-shaped charge high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead, with a precursor and a main charge, provides the weapon with a high kill probability.
The precursor charge penetrates the explosive reactive armour (ERA) of the tanks and the main charge is intended to destroy the main armour.
Propulsion and performance of Nag guided weapon
The Nag anti-armour guided missile is fitted a with high-energy propulsion system consisting of booster and sustainer propellants. The sustainer propellant burns a nitramine smokeless extruded double base (EDB).
The weapon can fly at a speed of 230m/s and has the capability to engage both static and moving targets under all weather conditions during the day and at night. The range of the land version is 4km, while HELINA can reach up to 7km.
Up to eight ready-to-fire missiles can be carried in two quadruple armoured box launchers mounted on the NAMICA anti-tank guided missile.
Each launcher can fire four missiles in one minute. The NAMICA vehicle can be optionally equipped with an additional four missiles.
* * * * * * *
«The Indian Army intends to procure up to 8,000 Nags, although it most likely will place an initial order for only 500 ATGM systems»
«the Indian Army has a requirement for around 68,000 anti-ATGMs of various types and over 850 launchers»
«Nag has been developed at a cost of ₹3 billion (US$45.9 million)»
«The cost of third-generation ATGWs runs to thousands of dollars, so ATGWs are generally bolstered by cheaper anti-armour rocket launchers such as the RPG-7»
* * * * * * *
Gli indiani hanno dimostrato negli ultimi anni una spiccata attitudine a riuscire a progettare e costruire armi efficienti a costi davvero bassi.
Questo è un aspetto spesso poco valutato nei commenti e nei report.
Se è vero che un carro armato ha un grande volume di fuoco e contro la fanteria sembrerebbe essere quasi invulnerabile, se è altrettanto vero che tutti i moderni carri armati sono dotati di efficienti sistemi di difesa, è altrettanto vero che il costo di un missile tipo Javelin è molto elevato. A questo ultimo si richiede quindi una ben maggiore capacità distruttiva, ma anche esso non è infallibile.
Un altro aspetto da valutarsi è che al momento, per nostra grande fortuna, questi sistemi di arma sono stati testati contro eserciti fatiscenti, dotati di carri armati obsoleti.
Ma una cosa è entrare in azione contro l’esercito di Saddam Hussein, ed una totalmente differente è confrontarsi con un esercito equipollente per armamento ed addestramento.
An indigenously designed and developed anti-tank guided missile was successfully tested on February 28.
India’s Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) successfully tested its indigenously designed and developed third-generation anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) Nag in desert conditions against two tank targets on February 28, according to an Indian Ministry of Defense (MoD) press release.
The tests “have once again proved its capability,” the statement reads. “With this, the developmental trials of the missile have been completed and it is now ready for induction.” The Indian Army has so far not publicly commented on the successful Nag ATGM test. Notably, DRDO had announced the completion of development trials already in September 2017.
Indian Army officials have repeatedly stated that they expect development trials to be concluded by the end of 2018. The Army has delayed the induction of the Nag, a fire-and-forget ATGM with an estimated range of 4 kilometers, due to numerous technical shortcomings including inadequate thermal sensors. The missile’s high price tag has also been a point of controversy.
The Nag ATGM, manufactured by India’s sole missile producer, state-owned Bharat Dynamics Limited, until the recent test had only been fired from an armored combat vehicle specifically designed for that purpose. As I reported in 2017:
The Nag Missile Carrier (NAMICA) is an Indian license-produced variant of the Soviet-era BMP-II armored infantry fighting vehicle. NAMICA can launch Nag missiles from a retractable armored launcher that contains four launch tubes (the armored vehicle can carry up to 12 missiles in total) and the guidance package including a thermal imager for target acquisition. The missile’s targeting system is based on visual identification prior to its launch (‘lock-on-before-launch system’).
DRDO has been working on the Nag ATGM for over a decade. The Indian Army intends to procure up to 8,000 Nags, although it most likely will place an initial order for only 500 ATGM systems. As I reported in January, the Indian Army has a requirement for around 68,000 anti-ATGMs of various types and over 850 launchers.
“The service is reportedly pushing for a fast-track procurement of 2,500 third-generation shoulder-fired ATGMs and 96 launchers through a government-to-government contract,” I noted. “Weapon systems under consideration include the Israeli Spike ATGM and the FGM-148 Javelin ATGM.”
In December 2017, the Indian government scrapped a $500 million deal with Israeli defense contractor Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. for 321 Spike ATGM systems and 8,356 missiles in favor of an indigenous ATGM system currently under development by DRDO.
The cancellation of the deal was allegedly the result of intense lobbying by DRDO, which has vowed to expedite delivery of the Nag ATGM system. The Indian Army originally selected the Spike ATGM over the U.S.-made FGM-148 Javelin ATGM system in October 2014, expecting the Nag ATGM not to be ready for operational deployment for some time.
Nel 2000 il pil indiano era 476.636 miliardi Usd ed a fine 2016 valeva 2,263.792 miliardi: in sedici anni è aumentato di 4.8 volte.
Nel 2017 il Pil indiano sarebbe cresciuto almeno al ritmo del 6%, circa. Il pil ppa procapite ammonta a 7,174 dollari americani.
«Growth accelerated in the quarter ended December to 7.2%, the government said Wednesday. That’s faster than China’s growth over the same period, and a big jump from the 6.5% India recorded the previous quarter.»
«The latest GDP numbers point to a clear strengthening of India’s recovery from a sharp slump in the first half of 2017, when growth fell from 7% to a three-year low of 5.7% after two disruptive policy changes by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.»
«India is expected to further widen the gap over China in 2018, with the International Monetary Fund predicting last month that it will grow by 7.4% this year.»
«Recent efforts to simplify the system mean India will soon “be leaving all those worries behind,”»
«This government has really pushed for major structural reforms, and they should start paying rich dividends in about a year»
* * * * * * *
Sullo sviluppo dell’India si potrebbero scrivere trattati. Riprendiamo soltanto due considerazioni.
Il Governo indiano ha intrapreso tutta una lunga serie di riforme strutturali volte a semplificare l’ordinamento e la gestione della cosa pubblica.
I risultati sono sotto gli occhi di tutti: il sistema economico indiano si sta sviluppando ad un ritmo che in Occidente sarebbe impossibile. Si è sviluppato, e prospero, anche durante la crisi economica iniziata nel 2009.
Si verifica ancora una volta, come se poi ce ne fosse stato bisogno, che quando lo stato si semplifica e si rimpicciolisce l’economia ne trae un inaspettato vigore: lo stato, e le sue tasse, sono i nemici primi del benessere di Cittadini.
La seconda considerazione ha un fondo amaro.
Da decenni l’Occidente ha perso quella che una volta era stata la sua grande caratteristica: saper imparare dai fatti, saper imparare dai propri errori.
Il modo di intendere e sviluppare la dottrina economica orientale potrebbe bene essere uno stimolo anche per gli occidentali, se solo sapessero e volessero sottoporre a revisione critica il proprio modus cogitandi et operandi.
Growth accelerated in the quarter ended December to 7.2%, the government said Wednesday. That’s faster than China’s growth over the same period, and a big jump from the 6.5% India recorded the previous quarter.
The latest GDP numbers point to a clear strengthening of India’s recovery from a sharp slump in the first half of 2017, when growth fell from 7% to a three-year low of 5.7% after two disruptive policy changes by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
India is expected to further widen the gap over China in 2018, with the International Monetary Fund predicting last month that it will grow by 7.4% this year.
So far, so good.
“[It’s] clearly a strong pickup,” said Priyanka Kishore, lead Asia economist at Oxford Economics.
“There is still some anecdotal evidence out there of [the tax overhaul] still being a bit of a worry for certain industries, especially the smaller businesses,” Kishore added.
Recent efforts to simplify the system mean India will soon “be leaving all those worries behind,” he said.
Modi’s administration has set its sights even higher.
“This government has really pushed for major structural reforms, and they should start paying rich dividends in about a year,” Amitabh Kant, one of the government’s top policy advisors, told CNN’s John Defterios in an interview earlier this week.
Growth of 10% or more, Kant said, is “very doable.”
Sarebbe impossibile tentare di ottenere un quadro obbiettivo senza aver acquisito tutte le possibili fonti: un po’ come durante un processo si sente l’accusa, sicuramente, ma anche e soprattutto la difesa.
La via della ricerca di cosa possa essere considerato essere vero è lunga, difficile, piena di insidie, e gli errori sono la norma: il problema non è tanto il non fare errori, quanto almeno cercare di non rifare gli stessi.
L’India ha 1,335,250,000 abitanti: di questi il 79.8% sono di religione induista ed il 14.23% sono di religione islamica: i mussulmani sono quindi centonovanta milioni. I mussulmani costituiscono la maggioranza nel Jammu e Kashmir e nelle Laccadive, mentre formano grosse minoranze negli Stati di Uttar Pradesh (30 milioni, circa un quinto della popolazione), Bihar (13 milioni e mezzo, un sesto della popolazione), Bengala Occidentale (un quarto della popolazione), Assam (poco meno di un terzo) e Kerala (un quarto). Jammu e Kashmir sono regioni con grandi tensioni sociali e militari, alimentate anche da interventi stranieri. Come solitamente accade in simili circostanze, tutte le parti contendenti cercano di utilizzare le religioni per i loro fini di bassa bottega.
In India è in corso un movimento legislativo e giurisprudenziale che tende a ridimensionare gli effetti di alcune applicazioni prima tollerate della Sharia in campo matrimoniale.
La antica costumanza del ripudio, divorzio rapido, è stata sanzionata dapprima con leggi e quindi con sentenze di tribunale.
Da una parte si dichiara di voler salvaguardare i diritti delle donne in accordo ad una certa quale corrente di pensiero occidentale, dall’altra di voler criminalizzare gli islamici.
* * * * * * *
«These days, a popular joke making the rounds in India is that the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) loves Muslim women, but not Muslim men»
«The joke makes fun of BJP’s attempts to portray its rightwing Prime Minister Narendra Modi as a crusader against religious orthodoxy, seeking to liberate Muslim women from the clutches of patriarchy»
«The BJP started crafting this narrative in August last year, after India’s Supreme Court banned “triple talaq”, or instant divorce, practised by some in the Muslim community»
«Four months after the Supreme Court decision, India’s BJP-controlled lower house of parliament passed a bill that seeks to criminalise the practice»
«If the bill is voted into law, men found guilty of divorcing their wives through “triple talaq” could face jail time of up to three years»
* * * * * * *
«The governing party believes it will deter men from resorting to the practice, and credits Modi for having the “courage” to reform Muslim personal law and challenge patriarchy»
«But it was easy for many Indian Muslims to see the hypocrisy in this claim»
«the contents of the bill led many to believe that it was put together not to help Muslim women, but further criminalise Muslim men – it allows anyone, not only the wife, to lodge a complaint, and requires the husband to pay maintenance to his wife even while he is imprisoned»
«throughout his tenure as India’s prime minister, Modi has done nothing to challenge patriarchal practices affecting Hindu (and other) women»
«His party has opposed, for example, the criminalisation of marital rape, which according to BJP functionaries, “cannot be suitably applied in the Indian context”.»
* * * * * * *
Dovrebbero essere abbastanza chiari alcuni elementi.
– In India è in corso una lotta aspra tra componente induista, sulla quale l’attuale governo poggia la sua base elettorale, e quella mussulmana, in gran parte avversa al governo Modi.
– Tutta una lunga serie di assunti al momento in gran voga in Occidente sono alieni alla mentalità indiana: “cannot be suitably applied in the Indian context“. Tuttavia nulla vieta di utilizzarli in parte, secondo convenienza.
Questi fatti dovrebbero indurci ad una considerazione generale che trascende i fatti riportati.
Bene o male, piaccia o non piaccia, ogni popolo ha un suo retaggio religioso, storico, culturale che lo caratterizza anche quando non sia formalmente espresso ed anche quando esso sia formalmente ed attivamente contrastato.
Le azioni fatte in questo settore costituiscono invariabilmente azioni alle quali seguono controreazioni eguali e contrarie. Non sempre la reazione è temporalmente immediata: spesso anzi si slatentizza dopo un certo quale tempo, ma nessun statista dovrebbe mai ignorare questo fenomeno.
Non sono rinvenibili nella storia statisti che non abbiano recepito ed onorato le tradizioni popolari.
Casi da manuale sono il comportamento dei romani, che inglobavano intere provincie in un impero che accentrava politica estera, difesa e, parzialmente, le finanze, oppure l’impero cinese, che aveva adottato eguale comportamento. Né romani né cinesi si sognarono mai di imporre la propria religione. Sono imperi durati migliaia di anni. Una lezione storica che non dovrebbe essere dimenticata.
«Back in the 1950s, Hindu personal laws were reformed by the central government, but those of Muslims were left untouched. The Congress party – heading the government at that time – took this decision because, following the bloody partition riots of 1947, it did not want to appear to be interfering in the religious practices of India’s minorities»
These days, a popular joke making the rounds in India is that the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) loves Muslim women, but not Muslim men.
The joke makes fun of BJP’s attempts to portray its rightwing Prime Minister Narendra Modi as a crusader against religious orthodoxy, seeking to liberate Muslim women from the clutches of patriarchy.
The BJP started crafting this narrative in August last year, after India’s Supreme Court banned “triple talaq”, or instant divorce, practised by some in the Muslim community. Four months after the Supreme Court decision, India’s BJP-controlled lower house of parliament passed a bill that seeks to criminalise the practice. If the bill is voted into law, men found guilty of divorcing their wives through “triple talaq” could face jail time of up to three years.
The governing party believes it will deter men from resorting to the practice, and credits Modi for having the “courage” to reform Muslim personal law and challenge patriarchy.
But it was easy for many Indian Muslims to see the hypocrisy in this claim.
First of all, the bill was, at least in part, the result of decades of campaigning by Muslim women’s groups and victims against the practice. Also, the contents of the bill led many to believe that it was put together not to help Muslim women, but further criminalise Muslim men – it allows anyone, not only the wife, to lodge a complaint, and requires the husband to pay maintenance to his wife even while he is imprisoned.
Second, throughout his tenure as India’s prime minister, Modi has done nothing to challenge patriarchal practices affecting Hindu (and other) women. His party has opposed, for example, the criminalisation of marital rape, which according to BJP functionaries, “cannot be suitably applied in the Indian context”.
Modi is yet to speak out in defence of Hindu women dragged into the “love jihad” frenzy within some Hindu communities.
Hindu groups allege that “love jihad” is a conspiracy by Muslim men to lure Hindu women into marriages with Muslims, with the sole aim of converting them to Islam. Occasionally, they claim that radical Muslim groups are behind “love jihad”.
Late in December last year, in the city of Ghaziabad, near New Delhi, Hindu activists clashed with police while protesting the marriage of a Muslim man and a Hindu woman, which they claimed was an act of “love jihad”.
The bride’s family insisted that the marriage was consensual, but BJP officials claimed that the families had not received “permission” to hold an inter-religious marriage, and it was a case of “forced conversion”. The bride hadn’t converted to Islam before the marriage, but they did not seem to care.
Even if she did, the couple did not need to ask for anyone’s permission to get married, as the Indian constitution allows the country’s citizens to convert to another religion. They were married under the Special Marriage Act, under which inter-faith couples can marry without converting. But this does not deter Hindu fundamentalists from targeting inter-faith couples and harassing – even violently attacking – any Muslim man who enters into a relationship with a Hindu woman.
Also in December, this time in Rajasamand, Rajasthan, 36-year-old Shambhulal Regar hacked a 50-year old Muslim man named Afrazul and burned his body for allegedly attempting to commit “love jihad”. Regar claimed he killed Afrazul “to save a Hindu woman from becoming a victim of “love jihad”. The police later discovered that Regar mistook Afrazul for another Muslim man, who allegedly had an affair with the woman.
The campaign against “love jihad” continues to get more brutal with each passing day. In January, three Muslim brothers were beaten at a court in Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh – simply because one of them wanted to marry a Hindu woman. The assailants belonged to the Vishva Hindu Parishad, an affiliate of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the parent body of the BJP.
According to RSS-supported Hindu fundamentalists, a Muslim man’s love for a Hindu girl cannot be real. It has to be fake. It has to be an attempt to convert an innocent girl to Islam, recruit her for a “terror” group, or even transform India into a Muslim country.
These claims, and Prime Minister Modi’s telling silence on the issue, are fanning paranoia about Muslims in India. This paranoia is also hurting, and even killing, Hindu women that the proponents of the “love jihad” myth are allegedly trying to protect.
Targeting Hindu women
Earlier this month, in the southwestern state of Karnataka, a 20-year-old Hindu woman named Dhanyashree was driven to suicide by Hindu fundamentalists over a single photograph.
Her WhatsApp profile photograph was closely cropped with only her eyes showing against a black background. It created the illusion that she was wearing a veil. Members of the Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha, BJP’s youth wing, demanded that she remove the photograph.
She was harassed and rumours were started that she was in a relationship with a Muslim boy. Unable to bear it, she committed suicide.
BJP officials, rather than seeking justice for Dhanyashree – as they allegedly do for Muslim victims of triple talaq – chose to defend the men who precipitated her suicide.
A BJP leader from Chikmagalur, C T Ravi, told Indian media, “What has happened in the Dhanyashree case is unfortunate. A worker of the BJP, Anil, has been arrested for it. But he has not done anything criminal; he has not committed any murder. He was just trying to inform the girl’s family about the dangers of Love Jihad, which has claimed so many Hindu girls. His intention was not to provoke her to suicide.”
Dhanyashree is not the only woman victim of India’s “love jihad” insanity. Across India, many other Hindu women are being victimised for their relationships with Muslim men.
The alleged ISIL connection
In August last year, Akhila, a Hindu girl from Kerala, who shared a flat with two Muslim sisters, converted to Islam, changed her name to Hadiya and married a Muslim man.
The Kerala high court nullified the marriage, after the woman’s father filed a petition alleging that his daughter converted to Islam as part of a plan to send her to Syria, to join the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS).
The high court said the girl was “weak and vulnerable” and susceptible to exploitation, and that “marriage being the most important decision in her life, can also be taken only with the active involvement of her parents”. She was ordered to return to live with her parents.
Hadiya’s husband went in appeal to the Supreme Court, which ordered the National Investigation Agency (NIA), a federal counter-terror outfit, to probe inter-faith marriages, including hers. Subsequently, a three-member bench of Supreme Court summoned Hadiya and inquired what she wanted. Hadiya replied, “I want to go with my husband. Nobody forced me to convert.” She also expressed apprehensions that her parents wouldn’t allow her to continue with her studies. The Supreme Court allowed Hadiya to return to her college.
On January 23, the three-member bench further refined its position to say it could do little even if Hadiya had been “brainwashed”. It added, “Whether it’s an independent choice or not, only she knows. We can’t get into it. If she comes to court and says she married by choice, that’s the end of it.”
However, the NIA is to continue probing all other aspects of “love jihad” and is said to be probing 90 inter-faith marriages involving Muslims in Kerala.
Kerala has been in the eye of controversy since 2016, when a 21-member group, including a few recent converts, left their respective hometowns to join ISIL. Hindu right-wing groups have been using this incident as a tool to criminalise all inter-faith marriages and infantilise any Hindu women who appear to have relations with Muslim men, by claiming that these women have been “tricked” or “brainwashed”.
Women’s rights promotion as a facade
The BJP and Modi’s liberal line on Muslim women’s rights is nothing but a salve for a grievance that they have nursed and publicised, for their own interests, for decades.
Back in the 1950s, Hindu personal laws were reformed by the central government, but those of Muslims were left untouched. The Congress party – heading the government at that time – took this decision because, following the bloody partition riots of 1947, it did not want to appear to be interfering in the religious practices of India’s minorities.
But Hindu groups claimed that the Congress refused to reform Muslim personal laws in order to garner Muslim votes. This made Hindus feel discriminated against, in a country where they are the majority. Today, for many Hindus, the criminalisation of triple talaq is a step towards righting this historical wrong. And Modi is now using this historical grievance to increase the support he has among India’s Hindus.
The prime minister knows that India’s Muslims did not vote for him in the past and they are not likely to vote for him in the future. All he is trying to do is to make his base – Hindu nationalists – happy. It has nothing to do with his respect for Muslim women or women’s rights.
«Report sees India overtaking both U.K., France next year»
«The growing importance of Asia’s major economies will continue in 2018 and beyond, according to a league table that sees the region dominating in terms of size in just over a decade»
«The report by the Centre for Economics and Business Research in London sees India leapfrogging the U.K. and France next year to become the world’s fifth-biggest economy in dollar terms. It will advance to third place by 2027, moving ahead of Germany»
«Also by 2032, South Korea and Indonesia will have entered the top 10, supplanting the Group of Seven nations of Italy and Canada»
«China will also have overtaken the U.S. to hold the No. 1 spot.»
«Also by 2032, South Korea and Indonesia will have entered the top 10, supplanting the Group of Seven nations of Italy and Canada»
«Shanghai will replace Paris in the top five of global city economies by 2035»
* * * * * * * * * * * *
L’Occidente sta tramontando culturalmente, politicamente ed economicamente.
Si faccia attenzione!
Al momento attuale, a tutt’oggi, l’Occidente è ancora forte ed economicamente rilevante. Ma è in declino.
Per meglio spiegarci, pensate al luglio 1943
Le truppe tedesche occupavano gran parte della Russia europea. Ma i tedeschi avevano perso ad El-Alamein, a Stalingrado ed, infine, a Kursk erano state annientate quasi tutte le loro forze corazzate.
Se era evidente che avevano perso la guerra, ci vollero altri due anni di lacrime esangue per arrivarne a compimento.
Mutatis mutandis, la situazione attuale.
In occidente la classe politica latita: in Germania non riescono nemmeno a fare uno straccetto di governo, così, tanto per mandare qualcuno a tagliare i nastri.
Si faccia buona cura a non imitare i tedeschi che hanno capito di aver perso la guerra quando i russi hanno parcheggiato i loro carri armati sulla verticale del bunker della cancelleria: in quel momento non ci sarà più nulla da fare.
– CEBR publishes World Economic League Table and predictions
– Report sees India overtaking both U.K., France next year
The growing importance of Asia’s major economies will continue in 2018 and beyond, according to a league table that sees the region dominating in terms of size in just over a decade.
The report by the Centre for Economics and Business Research in London sees India leapfrogging the U.K. and France next year to become the world’s fifth-biggest economy in dollar terms. It will advance to third place by 2027, moving ahead of Germany.
In 2032, three of the four largest economies will be Asian — China, India and Japan — and, by that time, China will also have overtaken the U.S. to hold the No. 1 spot. India’s advance won’t stop there, according to the CEBR, which sees it taking the top place in the second half of the century.
Also by 2032, South Korea and Indonesia will have entered the top 10, supplanting the Group of Seven nations of Italy and Canada.
Shanghai will replace Paris in the top five of global city economies by 2035 in a sign the balance of the world’s economy is shifting east, according to an Oxford Economics study.
The top 780 cities in the world, which already produce almost 60 percent of global activity, will add almost half a billion more people and $32 trillion in output over roughly the next couple of decades, Mark Britton, an economist at Oxford Economics, writes in a research note published this week.
The eye-popping headline figures mask significant disparities between cities studied, Britton wrote. Among the big winners: emerging Asia, with three other Chinese cities entering into the top 10: Beijing, Guangzhou, and Tianjin.
“The world’s urban center will continue to shift eastwards, particularly as growth in a number of cities in the West is likely to be constrained by aging, and in some cases, declining, population,” Britton wrote.
The changing power balance is shown by the forecast that the combined output of Asian cities will overtake that of urban centers in Europe and North America in about a decade, according to Britton. A decade ago, the cities in the West claimed twice the aggregate GDP of those in Asia.
Non-Chinese Asian cities will also post impressive growth, with places like Mumbai and Kuala Lumpur adding $4.7 trillion in GDP through 2035. But China’s urban star power will increase by about $14 trillion over that period, and 15 of its cities will join the top-100 rankings, on top of 18 already on the list.
The estimates are based on constant 2015 prices and exchange rates.
Two cities in Latin America – Santiago and Rio de Janeiro – will drop out of the top-100 rankings, and while the Middle East looks to be making gradual improvement, cities there could get a boost if development plans like Saudi Arabia’s are implemented. There will be rapid urbanization in African nations, but it will take time for that to translate into big economic gains, Britton estimates.
That challenge for policy makers – leveraging their populations to spur the economy – could make or break some of these cities, Britton warned.
“Rapid population growth in emerging cities requires considerable management to ensure the infrastructure can accommodate the additional people,” he wrote. “This includes the provision of adequate housing, support services and transport networks, whilst also developing and maintaining the city as an attractive place to live and work.”
Reuters aveva dato l’annuncio con gli usuali toni melensi e dolciastri dei giornali liberal. Pareva che a fare l’affare sarebbe stata la Tata, che sarebbe stata nobilitata dal marchio tedesco.
Sarebbe sembrato un matrimonio di amore.
«Germany’s Thyssenkrupp and India’s Tata Steel agreed on Wednesday to merge their European steel operations, creating the continent’s No.2 steelmaker with revenues of 15 billion euros ($18 bln).»
«We see opportunities to increase or to at least keep the volumes we have today, because there’s a huge market for high quality steel»
Ma la realtà dei fatti è ben differente. Opposta. Ci sta raccontando un sacco di frottole. E poi se le devono anche rimangiare.
«The deal, which is preliminary, will help the companies address overcapacity in Europe’s steel market, which faces cheap imports, subdued construction demand and inefficient legacy plants. The merger will also result in up to 4,000 job cuts, or about 8 percent of the joint workforce»
«“We want to avoid our steel team restructuring itself to death,” Thyssenkrupp CEO Heinrich Hiesinger told reporters »
«“No one is able to solve the structural issues in Europe alone. We all suffer from overcapacity and that means that everyone is making the same restructuring efforts,” Hiesinger told broadcaster n-tv »
«Setting up plants in Brazil and Alabama in 2005 created €12 billion ($14.3 billion) in losses, while cheap steel imports from China sent the company reeling »
«Brought in to save the German steel maker from bankruptcy, CEO Heinrich Hiesinger agreed a deal with Indian rival Tata Steel that will break up an icon of German industry»
* * * * * * * * *
«Brought in to save the German steel maker from bankruptcy»
La realtà è ben differente da quanto riportato da Reuters.
Handelsblatt, il giornale della confindustria tedesca, almeno parla chiaro: pane al pane e vino al vino.
«Brought in to save the German steel maker from bankruptcy»
La ThyssenKrupp stava semplicemente per fallire, e fallire per bancarotta.
L’icona della produzione tedesca stava per disintegrarsi nella polvere e, quel che peggio per i politici, a pochi giorni dalle elezioni.
Finisce così il sogno tedesco della ThyssenKrupp, “a maker of steel, elevators and submarines”.
E siamo solo al dodicesimo anno dell’era Merkel, che si prolungherà per altri quattro anni: il tempo di dover vendere le fedi di nozze ed anche le dentiere.
Con la ThyssenKrup la Tata rileva anche tutto il comparto militare.
In futuro i tedeschi si difenderanno con gli archi e le frecce: frecce dalla punta di pietra, non certo di acciaio.
Brought in to save the German steel maker from bankruptcy, CEO Heinrich Hiesinger agreed a deal with Indian rival Tata Steel that will break up an icon of German industry.
A grand plan to break into the US steel market brought ThyssenKrupp, a maker of steel, elevators and submarines, to the brink of bankruptcy in 2010. Setting up plants in Brazil and Alabama in 2005 created €12 billion ($14.3 billion) in losses, while cheap steel imports from China sent the company reeling.
An experienced Siemens manager, Heinrich Hiesinger was brought in to revive ThyssenKrupp, an icon of German industry, which had produced gun and mortar shells during the Franco-Prussian War of 1871 and specialized in smooth running railroad car wheels without welds. ThyssenKrupp’s three-circles logo is an homage to the train wheels, which helped turn the Essen-based company into an industrial giant in the 19th Century.
With those glory days in mind, Mr. Hiesinger started as CEO in January 2011. He knew his job would be tough because German labor laws give special rights to steel workers, making it complicated to take quick action. It took him three years to divest the company’s Alabama operations and in February he agreed to sell the Brazilian plant, which was originally seen as a supplier to US customers.
The 57-year old engineer, son of a farmer, announced another ground-breaking deal on Wednesday. After almost two years of negotiations with Tata Steel, a UK subsidiary of the giant Indian conglomerate, Mr. Hiesinger signed a memorandum of understanding to merge ThyssenKrupp’s remaining steel production operations with those of Tata, creating the second largest steel company in Europe after ArcelorMittal.
ESSEN, Germany/MUMBAI (Reuters) – Germany’s Thyssenkrupp (TKAG.DE) and India’s Tata Steel (TISC.NS) agreed on Wednesday to merge their European steel operations, creating the continent’s No.2 steelmaker with revenues of 15 billion euros ($18 bln).
The deal, which is preliminary, will help the companies address overcapacity in Europe’s steel market, which faces cheap imports, subdued construction demand and inefficient legacy plants. The merger will also result in up to 4,000 job cuts, or about 8 percent of the joint workforce.
The transaction will not involve any cash, Tata Steel said, adding both groups would contribute debt and liabilities to achieve an equal shareholding and remain long-term investors.
“We want to avoid our steel team restructuring itself to death,” Thyssenkrupp CEO Heinrich Hiesinger told reporters.
“No one is able to solve the structural issues in Europe alone. We all suffer from overcapacity and that means that everyone is making the same restructuring efforts,” Hiesinger told broadcaster n-tv.
European steel prices ST-MBEUDNHRC-MB are about 35 percent below their pre-financial crisis peak.
Wednesday’s long-awaited memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the two steelmakers outlines annual synergies of 400 million-600 million euros, though one top 25 investor in Thyssenkrupp expected synergies to be higher.
“The two companies are being very conservative in their estimates,” the investor said.
The new joint venture, Thyssenkrupp Tata Steel, will be based in Amsterdam, with core profits estimated at 1.5 billion euros in the first year.
“Excellent news,” tweeted Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte.
It will be Europe’s biggest steelmaker after ArcelorMittal (MT.AS), with combined production capacity of 27 million tonnes, giving it 25 percent market share in Europe, versus ArcelorMittal’s 38 percent share.
Tata Steel Europe had been a strain on its parent for a decade, burning through approximately $1 billion of cash a year.
The Indian parent will transfer 2.5 billion euros of debt to the new company and is counting on dividend income from the joint venture to help service its remaining debt, Koushik Chatterjee, a group executive director, told Reuters.
That will free up cashflow to allow Tata Steel to focus on meeting growing demand in India, where Chairman N. Chandrasekaran said it will aim to double its manufacturing capacity in five years through plant expansions and acquisitions.
Thyssenkrupp shares closed up 2.4 percent at 25.86 euros, having earlier hit a high of 26.58 euros, bolstered by hopes the joint venture will also ease the burden on its balance sheet, which will be freed of 4 billion euros in mostly pension liabilities.
“We believe Thyssenkrupp’s medium-term goal is to completely spin-out steel ops, leaving Thyssenkrupp as a near pure-play capital goods business, and today’s proposed merger structure is attractively ”IPO-able“, in our view,” Jefferies analyst Seth Rosenfeld said in a note, reiterating his “buy” rating.
Thyssenkrupp, whose operations span car parts, elevators, construction steel and submarines, is minority-owned by activist shareholder Cevian and has faced calls to split off other parts of the business, most notably its elevator unit.
Cevian declined to comment on the merger, but a source familiar with the matter said it was broadly supportive of Hiesinger’s plan, though it will come down to the nitty gritty of the agreement whether they support it in the end.
Shares in Tata Steel closed up 1.7 percent at 687.65 rupees, having earlier hit a high of 691.80 rupees.
The company reached a landmark deal last month allowing it to set up a new pension scheme, which will reduce its 15 billion pounds ($20 billion) in British pension liabilities, long seen as the main hurdle in merger talks that lasted more than a year and a half.
Thyssenkrupp will not be liable for any future funding demands of a new pension scheme sponsored by Tata Steel UK, its chief financial officer said.
The British government and unions said they welcomed the merger so long as commitments made by Tata Steel UK to safeguard jobs and extend blast furnace operations at Britain’s largest steelworks in Port Talbot, Wales, were maintained.
Roy Rickhuss, chair of the steel coordinating committee representing UK unions Unite, GMB and Community, said the unions recognized the industrial logic of the deal, but would still press Tata to confirm it will invest in the Port Talbot steelworks, a vital regional employer.
Earlier this year, Tata made commitments to safeguard jobs and investments in Port Talbot for five years, in return for the unions agreeing to close their final salary pension scheme to future accrual.
Stephen Kinnock, member of parliament for Aberavon, Wales, said he would press Tata to stand by these commitments.
Hans Fischer, Tata Europe’s CEO, said the company was not planning to cut capacity, but to instead focus on higher value products, though he declined to give guarantees about jobs or production at Port Talbot post the five year deal.
Thyssenkrupp in its statement flagged potential additional synergy savings beyond 2020 from upstream steel capacity adjustments and Jefferies Rosenfeld said he believes these “are most likely at Port Talbot”.
“We see opportunities to increase or to at least keep the volumes we have today, because there’s a huge market for high quality steel,” said Fischer.
The MoU will be followed by negotiations about the details of the merger as well as due diligence before a contract can be signed at the beginning of 2018, Thyssenkrupp said.
Negotiations with German unions, who have campaigned against the plans and only this week signaled a willingness to consider them, are expected to be tough and tied to far-reaching job and plant guarantees.
The deal will require approval of Thyssenkrupp’s supervisory board, Tata Steel’s board of directors and European regulators.
«Social changes are slow to occur and especially slow in large countries like India. Until the 1970s, systems across the world – even in the developed world – had permitted Marital rape and criminalized homosexuality to various levels. Since then activists have fought on those fronts and have achieved great progress.
India is a couple of decades behind the curve as the discussions on those topics have not permeated the society beyond just a thin layer at the top. Discussions on a variety of other social topics – ranging from dowry to widow burning to untouchability – was a priority for our reformers for the most part.
Since the discussions have not happened and social understanding not yet developed, even the courts have been pretty slow to ensure progress. Indian Supreme Court’s decision to uphold the 150 year old sodomy/unnatural sex laws is just an example of how much behind such discussions are. The judges were unable to contemplate LGBT due to their unfamiliarity. Same happens in case of marital rape.
In summary, many of these laws got into the books world over at a time when women were not considered equal subjects. In the past couple of decades, west has moved away from many such laws. In India, the variety of existing social problems didn’t let the society focus on such changes enable all these changes in our law books. However, I believe it is just a matter of time as activists prepare the population to understand the issue. Awareness spread precedes legal victories.»
«The systematic pushback against women’s rights and liberties in India is going great guns. After the tepid attempt by the Supreme Court to dilute the impact of the Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, 2005 and Section 498A, by ordering the constitution of “family welfare committees” to look into cases before charges can be pressed, we now have the infuriating and grossly anti-women observation by the apex court that “marital rape cannot be considered as a criminal act”.
The Supreme Court was really the last straw of hope for reforms in outdated approach towards marital rape after Parliament had hung up its boots, saying the country isn’t ready to accept marital rape as a crime. The Union minister of women and child development, Maneka Gandhi, made an infamous volte-face on the issue when she said last year that marital rape “cannot be applied in the Indian context”, because of factors including “level of education and illiteracy, poverty, social customs and religious beliefs”.
Marriage over marital rape
This, despite the 2015 hoopla around the WCD ministry trying in to bring in “comprehensive” legislation to criminalise marital rape, and bring the law at par with a number of European and Western democracies, where women enjoy equal rights within marriage.
For example, marital rape is a crime in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, Sweden, Belgium, Argentina, Bhutan, Brazil, Canada, France, Hungary and several other countries. The list of countries where marital rape isn’t a crime is hardly enviable, including Egypt, Afghanistan, Indonesia, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, etc.
Needless to point out that most thriving and healthy democracies have penalised marital rape, and only authoritarian or theocratic states still retain the right of the husband to have forced sex on the wife. That India is part of the latter club is a terrible shame.
However, Maneka Gandhi’s U-turn proved that her ministry had capitulated to the larger misogynist trend in the BJP-RSS government. Now, the Supreme Court’s observation drives a nail through the coffin of demanding that marital rape be criminalised.
The two-judge bench of Justices MB Lokur and Deepak Gupta has said: “Parliament has extensively debated the issue of marital rape and considered that it was not an offence of rape. Therefore, it cannot be considered as a criminal offence.”
Raping minor/wives isn’t rape
The apex court was responding to a petition by the NGO Independent Thought, drafted by lawyers including the noted Supreme Court advocate Gopal Subramaniam, who was a co-panellist on the Justice Verma Committee report that firmed up the anti-rape legislation in the wake of the December 16, 2012 gangrape and murder of Jyoti Singh in Delhi.
The petition wanted the court to intervene and read down Section 375 (2) of the Indian Penal Code, which is the clause in the rape law that makes the exception for a man to have sex with a girl aged 15-17 if she’s married to him. “Without any remuneration, we have submitted the report to the government and that too without any extension.
It was an exhaustive work,” Subramaniam said. Basically, Section 375 (2) of the IPC allows men to rape their minor wives, and because marital rape isn’t yet a crime in India, but raping a minor is a statutory offence, the institution of marriage gets precedence over the health and well being of a girl child, just because she has been married off well before the legal age of marriage and consent, 18.
The Centre vehemently defended Section 375 (2) of the IPC, and like the debates in Parliament earlier, it fell back on tradition. MoS Home, Haribhai Parthibhai Chaudhary, a BJP MP from Gujarat and the minister of state, home affairs, is on record saying:
“It is considered that the concept of marital rape, as understood internationally, cannot be suitably applied in the Indian context due to various factors, including level of education, illiteracy, poverty, myriad social customs and values, religious beliefs, mindset of the society to treat the marriage as a sacrament.”
However, Section 375 (2) of IPC is against the provision of anti-rape and anti-sex trafficking legislations, such as Immoral Trafficking (Prevention) Act, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, because neither of the latter two legislations makes the distinction between married and unmarried minor girl children.
This is exactly the point that was highlighted by the petitioners, but it seems both the Centre and the Supreme Court, weren’t ready to pave the way for a paradigm shift in the understanding of marriage as an institution and in ensuring the rights of women as citizens, and not as biological determinants.»
* * * * * * *
Tratto caratteristico dei liberal democratici americani è l’ossessione per le perversioni sessuali, che patrocinano sia in sede legislativa sia soprattutto attraverso le ogn (ngo) appositamente istituite, che poi si arrogano la facoltà di parlare a nome della nazione intera.
Non a caso Cina, India e Russia hanno adottato leggi che regolano il rilascio dei permessi ad agire sui loro rispettivi territori. Con i paesi africani, ammontano a sei settimi della popolazione mondiale.
«The Russian president has signed into law a bill defining the term political activity of non-governmental organizations and allowing charity groups receiving funding from abroad not to register as foreign agents.
The new law lists political activity as participation in street rallies and marches and any activity aimed at influencing the result of an election or a referendum. The list also includes elections monitoring, participation in the work of political parties, public appeals to state agencies seeking changes in laws, circulating appraisals of existing laws or state policies and attempts to influence views on political issues through opinion polls.
The act also names the spheres where no activity can be recognized as political. These are culture, science, sport, fine arts, healthcare, environmental protection, volunteering and charity. “The definition of political activity must not be vague, it must not be expandable, and there must be only one way to understand it.“» [Fonte]
Le ong in Occidente usualmente agiscono attraverso due consolidate vie:
– si fanno riconoscere dall’autorità civile, se amica, quindi si fanno finanziare con denaro pubblico, ed infine si fanno nominare come consulenti della amministrazione. Di lì possono svolgere il ruolo politico per il quale i loro finanziatori le hanno istituite.
– una volta legalmente riconosciute, le ong possono costituirsi in giudizio. Questa è la loro arma più efficiente, perché nessun giudice liberal rigetterebbe mai un loro ricorso.
Seguendo queste elementari direttive, le ong hanno governato per decenni l’Occidente ed hanno cercato, fortunatamente senza successo, di conquistare il mondo.
Il codice penale indiano è inequivocabilmente chiaro, ed il giudizio della Corte è stato sequenziale.
Secondo il diritto e la giurisprudenza indiana il rapporto matrimoniale è finalizzato alla procreazione ed al reciproco aiuto. Nel caso di impossibilità oggettiva al mantenimento dello stato matrimoniale, esiste un’apposita legislazione sul divorzio, ma fino a tanto che sussiste la convivenza, questa deve svolgersi in accordo alle regole matrimoniali.
Se l’Occidente volesse essere rispettato, dovrebbe iniziare a rispettare leggi e tradizioni degli altri popoli.
«Several women’s charities are contesting this and have launched a petition that is being heard at the Delhi High Court.
Campaigners have requested that marital rape is made illegal on the grounds that sexual violence violates human rights.
They argued that, in other countries, married women are still entitled to the full range of civil liberties and human rights and are not required to have sex at the will of their husband»
Alcune considerazioni brevissime, ma non per questo irrilevanti.
– Lo stato coniugale si fonda su di una libera rinuncia ad una parte della propria libertà per il bene comune della famiglia. Per esempio, il coniuge ritiene una sua libertà di agire economico, ma solo nei limiti nei quali soddisfa le necessità familiari. Lo stesso concetto vale per la disponibilità del proprio corpo.
– Il fatto che in alcuni paesi esteri all’India il principio su esposto non sia al momento più in vigore non implica automaticamente che esso debba essere abolito anche in India. Con lo stesso metro, gli Stati Uniti dovrebbero allora proibire le ong sul loro territorio.
– Infine una considerazione giuridica. Se tutti i codici e le giurisprudenze mondiali sono concordi nel ritenere la violenza sessuale un reato, tutti altrettanto concordi esigono che debbano esistere serie ed inequivocabili prove a supporto della denuncia per arrivare a condanna. Solo in taluni stati degli Stati Uniti delle Corti di Giustizia con giudici liberal sono arrivati a condanna assumendo fosse vera la denuncia sporta dalla femmina, ancorché non dimostrata: ma tale prassi giudiziaria è da condannarsi. Gli Indiani sono troppo civili per condannare qualcuno senza prove.
The Indian Government has tried to block a petition in High Court to criminalise marital rape because it says it could put husbands at risk of “harassment”.
Indian penal law currently stipulates that sexual intercourse with a wife over the age of 15 cannot be classed as rape.
Several women’s charities are contesting this and have launched a petition that is being heard at the Delhi High Court.
Campaigners have requested that marital rape is made illegal on the grounds that sexual violence violates human rights.
They argued that, in other countries, married women are still entitled to the full range of civil liberties and human rights and are not required to have sex at the will of their husband.
According to the Times of India, Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code has the exception clause sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape”.
Judges hearing the case asked the Government to detail its stance on the issue.
In their submission, the Government lawyers said: “What may appear to be marital rape to an individual wife, it may not appear so to others.
“As to what constitutes marital rape and what would constitute marital non-rape needs to be defined precisely before a view on its criminalisation is taken.”
The submission goes on to say that, by criminalising marital rape, it could encourage it to “become a phenomenon which may destabilize the institution of marriage” and be “an easy tool for harassing the husbands”.
They added: “That the fact that other countries, mostly western, have criminalised marital rape does not necessarily mean India should also follow them blindly.”
The petition has also been opposed by several men’s welfare charities who said it could lead to husbands being victimised.
«For decades, resources have been monopolized by developed nations, leaving developing nations lacking infrastructure and social development.
Contributing more than half of global growth over the past ten years, the BRICS nations are finding their own solutions to address the governance disparity.
The bloc’s New Development Bank (NDB), which was launched in 2014 with a focus on infrastructure and sustainable development projects, stands as a good example of what a new kind of world governance would look like.
In contrast to the quota system of other international financial institutions based on the role of a certain member, members of the NDB have equal voting power, a distinctive feature of the bank.
China has put forward the “BRICS Plus” proposal this year by inviting the leaders of Egypt, Guinea, Mexico, Tajikistan and Thailand to attend the Dialogue of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries during the summit and engage in dialogue with the BRICS members.
This will allow the BRICS summit to be an effective platform for voicing the needs, demands and aspirations of both the developing and underdeveloped nations in the world, and enable the organization to play a more decisive role in global governance.»
«Xi will chair the Dialogue of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries on Sept. 5, which will be attended by the leaders from the five BRICS countries, as well as the leaders of Egypt, Mexico, Tajikistan, Guinea and Thailand.»
* * * * * * *
«Time for BRICS to assume a leadership role»
Da un punto di vista meramente economico, se si considera il pil per potere di acquisto, il mondo genera 108,036,500 milioni Usd, la Cina 17,617,300 (16.31%) e gli Stati Uniti 17,418,00 (16.12%). L’Eurozona rende conto di 11,249,482 (10.41%) ed il Gruppo dei G7 di 31.825,293 (29.46%). Però i Brics conteggiano un pil ppa di 32,379,625 Usd, ossia il 29.97% del pil ppa mondiale. I Brics valgono come i paesi del G7.
Di conseguenza, la voce dell’Occidente vale nel mondo al massimo per il 29.46%, ma quella degli Stati Uniti vale solo il 16.12% e quella dell’Eurozona uno scarno 10.41%.
Fatevi adesso un piccolo conto: quando valgono i Brics Plus?
Chinese President Xi Jinping has shared his vision for the BRICS cooperation which he believes will enter a second “golden decade” if the emerging-market countries work together to overcome the challenges of weak growth and threats to world peace.
Addressing the BRICS Business Forum in Xiamen on Sunday, with Brazilian President Michel Temer and South African President Jacob Zuma in audience, Xi said after ten years a fully-fledged BRICS cooperation framework is taking shape.
With Russia’s Vladimir Putin and India’s Narendra Modi joining in, the leaders of the world’s five major developing countries will chart way forward for the bloc at the ninth BRICS summit scheduled for Sept. 3-5.
Xi on Sunday refuted the assertion that BRICS is losing luster.
He said despite headwinds causing growth setbacks, the BRICS countries are “fully confident” about their growth potential and the future outlook.
BRIC was first coined in 2001 to describe four emerging economies with fast growth and great potential. The concept turned into a formal cooperation framework in 2006. Four years later, South Africa joined. BRIC became BRICS.
Xi said the past decade has seen the BRICS countries making headway in pursuing common development. Their combined GDP grew 179 percent, trade increased 94 percent and urban population expanded 28 percent during the period.
The development of the BRICS countries over the past decade has delivered tangible benefits to more than 3 billion people.
Xi said three important practices of the shared value should be carried forward — treating each other as equals, seeking results-oriented cooperation, and bearing in mind the well-being of the world.
“Dialogue without confrontation, partnership without alliance,” Xi summed up the cooperation principle in a simple phrase.
He said the principle has gained growing endorsement and has become a positive energy in the international community.
Rising Up To Challenges
The Chinese president said the global economy remains in a period of adjustment featuring weak growth and no apparent new drivers. Due to sluggish growth, protectionism and inward-looking mentality are on the rise. Uneven development and a deficit of fairness have become more acute.
He challenged BRICS countries to create new impetus for growth and continue to improve global economic governance.
“We should not ignore problems arising from economic globalization or just complain about them. Rather, we should make joint efforts to find solutions,” Xi said.
He said the BRICS countries should promote the building of an open global economy, advance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, build new global value chains, and rebalance economic globalization.
“Only openness delivers progress, and only inclusiveness sustains such progress,” Xi said.
The long road to peace is not smooth, Xi said, calling on the BRICS countries to play a constructive part in the process of resolving geopolitical hotspot issues and make due contributions.
He envisioned flames of war dying and displaced refugees returning home as dialogue and consultation settle issues in Syria, Libya and the Palestine-Israel conflict.
Making Bigger Pie
The Chinese president said the development of emerging market and developing countries is not intended to “move the cheese of anyone” but to “make the pie of the global economy bigger.”
Over the past ten years, the share of the five BRICS countries in the global economy has more than doubled. They have contributed to more than half of global growth.
Xi said more emerging market and developing countries should be involved because BRICS, as a platform with global influence, concerns more than five countries.
During the Xiamen summit, China will hold the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries, where the leaders of Egypt, Guinea, Mexico, Tajikistan and Thailand will join the BRICS leaders in discussing global development cooperation and South-South cooperation.
While outreach programs have existed in past BRICS summits since 2013, it is the first time participating leaders have come from around the world, but not just neighbors of the host country.
Xi said this “BRICS Plus” approach should be promoted to build an open and diversified network of development partners for the bloc.
Marching On With Reform
Turning to China, Xi said the country had made the “right choice” on deepening reform and will march on in strides.
“The past decade has not only seen solid progress in the BRICS cooperation; it has also witnessed the unfolding of all-round reform and opening up in China and its rapid economic and social development,” Xi told the forum.
He said China’s economic aggregate grew by 239 percent over the past ten years and the lives of its 1.3 billion-plus people have been significantly improved.
In the first half of 2017, the Chinese economy expanded by 6.9 percent and added 7.35 million new urban jobs.
Xi said China has been making increasingly more contribution to regional and global economy.
He said the Belt and Road Initiative, for example, is not a tool to advance any geopolitical agenda, but a platform for practical cooperation.
The initiative is not a foreign aid scheme, but one that advocates interconnected development with extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits.
“Going forward, China will continue to put into practice the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and inclusive development,” he said.
“We will adapt to and steer the new normal of economic development, push forward supply-side structural reform, accelerate the building of a new system for an open economy, drive economic development with innovation, and achieve sustainable development,” Xi said.
Chinese President Xi Jinping met with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin on Sunday, calling for enhancing mutual support and strategic coordination.
The two leaders also agreed to appropriately deal with the latest nuclear test conducted by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).
Putin is in the southeastern Chinese coastal city of Xiamen, Fujian Province, to attend the ninth BRICS summit and the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries scheduled for Sept. 3-5.
The two sides should consolidate the high-level mutual political trust, firmly strengthen mutual support and enhance strategic coordination, Xi said.
The role of bilateral cooperation mechanisms should be well played to advance projects in key areas including energy, aerospace and aviation, as well as nuclear power.
He urged advancing the integration of the Belt and Road Initiative with the Eurasian Economic Union.
Mutual understanding and friendship between the two peoples should be promoted through closer people-to-people and cultural exchanges and those at local levels, he said.
Xi also called on enhancing military cooperation as well as coordination on multilateral arenas.
China is willing to join hands with Russia to raise the bilateral relations to a higher level, promoting respective development and jointly safeguarding regional and world peace and stability, he said.
On BRICS cooperation, Xi said it is in line with the interests of the BRICS countries and the expectation of international community, especially the emerging market and developing countries, to enhance the group’s cooperation and enable the BRICS countries to play a more important role in international affairs.
The BRICS countries should consolidate solidarity and cooperation to send out positive signals to the world, chart the course and define the priorities for cooperation based on the overall situation, strengthen coordination to enhance international influence, and improve mechanisms of BRICS cooperation, said Xi.
China is willing to work with Russia and other BRICS countries to achieve fruitful results at the Xiamen summit and implement the outcomes effectively so that the BRICS can usher in a second “golden decade” of cooperation.
For his part, Putin said it is significant for China and Russia to strengthen comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination and boost communication and coordination on major international and regional issues.
He said Russia stands ready for closer cooperation with China in such areas as investment, energy, agriculture, infrastructure, and aerospace and aviation.
The two countries should also increase exchanges in culture, education, sports, media and tourism as well as those at local levels. Military exchanges should be closer, he said.
While discussing international and regional issues, the two leaders agreed to appropriately deal with the DPRK’s latest nuclear test.
The DPRK on Sunday successfully detonated a hydrogen bomb that can be carried by an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), DPRK’s Central Television announced. This was the sixth nuclear test the DPRK has undertaken.
China’s Foreign Ministry issued a statement, expressing firm opposition to and strong condemnation of the nuclear test.
Xi and Putin agreed to stick to the goal of denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and keep close communication and coordination to deal with the new situation.
After the meeting, the two leaders visited an exhibition on intangible cultural heritage originated from southern Fujian Province.
Chinese President Xi Jinping on Monday called on BRICS countries to synergize their development strategies to stimulate growth potential.
Xi made the remarks while addressing the ninth BRICS summit in the southeastern Chinese city of Xiamen, which was also attended by leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa.
The five countries should find areas where their respective development policies and priorities converge, and work to build a big market for trade and investment, achieve smooth flow of currency and finance, and realize infrastructure connectivity, Xi said.
“Despite our differences in national conditions, our five countries are in a similar stage of development and share the same development goals. We all face an arduous task in growing the economy,” Xi noted.
He said strengthening the complementarity of their development strategies will bring out their comparative strengths in resources, market and labor force, release the growth potential of the five countries and the creativity of their 3 billion people, and open up huge space for development. P Xi said the five countries need to plan well at the macro level and take concrete actions in key areas.
“With a focus on structural reform and sustainable development, we need to expand our converging interests and share experience on innovation, entrepreneurship, industrial development and production capacity to boost our economic development,” said Xi.
He said it is important to strike a balance between the speed of growth and the quality and efficiency of growth. By implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, BRICS countries have the opportunity to achieve balanced economic, social and environmental progress, and bring about interconnected and inclusive development, said Xi.
Chinese President Xi Jinping met with Thai Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha on Monday, calling for enhanced bilateral cooperation in various fields.
Prayut is in the southeastern Chinese coastal city of Xiamen to attend the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries scheduled for Sept. 5.
China appreciates Thailand’s active participation in the Belt and Road Initiative, and is willing to strengthen cooperation with Thailand in areas of investment, railway, Internet finance, digital economy and e-commerce, Xi said.
Chinese President Xi Jinping said Monday China and Mexico should synergize development strategies on the basis of their cooperative achievements since the two sides forged diplomatic ties 45 years ago.
Xi made the remarks when meeting with Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto, who came to the southeastern Chinese coastal city of Xiamen to attend the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries scheduled for Sept. 5.
China wants to build stronger partnerships within and beyond the five BRICS countries during the upcoming BRICS Xiamen Summit, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said in Beijing Wednesday.
Speaking at a press briefing on the summit, Wang said that China expects outcomes in several areas, including strengthening economic and security cooperation, increasing cultural and people-to-people exchanges, enhancing institutional building, as well as promoting stronger partnerships with other emerging market countries and developing countries.
China will hold the BRICS Business Forum from Sept. 3 to 4, which will be the largest so far, Wang said.
Chinese President Xi Jinping will attend the opening ceremony of the forum and deliver a keynote speech, reviewing the progress that BRICS countries have made in the past ten years and looking to the future. Leaders of some other countries will also address the forum.
The BRICS Xiamen Summit opens on Sept. 4.
Xi will chair a small meeting of BRICS leaders, discussing world economy, global governance, international and regional hotspot issues, and national security and development. A larger meeting will focus on deepening cooperation, promoting cultural and people-to-people exchanges, as well as enhancing institutional building.
The BRICS leaders will also attend the opening ceremony of the BRICS Cultural Festival and Photo Exhibition, a meeting of the BRICS Business Council and a signing ceremony, which will be followed by a welcome banquet hosted by Xi and his wife, Peng Liyuan.
The BRICS mechanism has entered a new stage featuring the three pillars of economic cooperation, political and security cooperation, and people-to-people exchanges, Wang said. He added that there will be an increase in cultural activities involving BRICS countries this year as China holds the BRICS chairmanship.
China held the 2017 BRICS Games in its southern city of Guangzhou in June, marking the first comprehensive multilateral sports and cultural exchanges under the framework of BRICS cooperation.
China has also held a media forum, film festival, traditional medicine meeting and young diplomats forum, to promote friendship and understanding between the peoples of BRICS countries.
“The leaders of the BRICS countries will continue to accumulate consensus on strengthening people-to-people exchanges during the upcoming BRICS Xiamen Summit,” Wang said.
Xi will chair the Dialogue of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries on Sept. 5, which will be attended by the leaders from the five BRICS countries, as well as the leaders of Egypt, Mexico, Tajikistan, Guinea and Thailand.
“It is in the interests of all sides to strengthen cooperation among emerging markets and developing countries through the BRICS platform, therefore China has proposed the ‘BRICS plus’ concept based on past experiences,” Wang said.
The dialogue will focus on deepening cooperation and promoting common development, and a statement will be released on the outcomes achieved on implementing a sustainable development agenda, promoting South-South cooperation, building partnerships and improving global governance.
Xi will hold a press conference after the dialogue to summarize the outcomes of the BRICS Xiamen Summit.
“China stands ready to work with other BRICS countries to make BRICS cooperation bigger, stronger and more solid to benefit not only the five BRICS countries, but also the whole world,” Wang said.
BRICS Plus, as a model of expansion, was proposed by China on the basis of successful practices in former BRICS Summits. It is sought to establish widespread partnerships between BRICS member countries and other developing countries through dialogues and cooperation, expand our circle of friends, and shape the BRICS mechanism into an influential cooperation platform for South-South cooperation, so as to better reflect the common ground and collective will of the developing countries.
Then how do other developing countries make of the proposal? What opportunities does the BRICS Plus promise to them? To get some insight about these, China Today interviewed ambassadors of Iran, Georgia, Nepal, and South Sudan to China as well as two diplomats from Argentina and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Iranian Ambassador to China Ali Asghar Khaji
“Since its founding, the BRICS cooperation mechanism has been representing a new cooperation concept, and played an important role in giving a voice in the international community on behalf of the developing world. The Iranian government showed its support to the BRICS Plus proposal when it was first put forward. As an important developing country in the region of North Africa and West Asia, Iran is poised to strengthen its cooperation with China under the framework of the Belt and Road and the BRICS Plus. In addition, we also hope China as a leading developing country, can play a bigger role in advancing cooperation among developing countries on such aspects as economy, security and social development.”
«Mike Bloomberg began his career in 1966 at Salomon Brothers, after graduating from Harvard Business School and Johns Hopkins University. After being let go from the firm in 1981, he began Bloomberg L.P., an information technology start-up that is now a multi-billion dollar global data and media company that connects influential decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people, and ideas. Bloomberg L.P.’s great strength – quickly and accurately delivering data, news and analytics through innovative technology – is at the core of everything the company does. With more than 19,000 employees in nearly 200 offices, it delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world.»
«The success of Bloomberg L.P. has provided Mike Bloomberg with the resources and experience to pursue philanthropy in a more meaningful way than he ever could have imagined when he wrote that first $5 check. Mike Bloomberg has often said: “The thing about great wealth is that you can’t take it with you.” That’s why he plans to give his away. He created Bloomberg Philanthropies to encompass all of his charitable giving activities, including his personal giving, corporate giving, and the Bloomberg Family Foundation. Bloomberg Philanthropies’ unique data-driven approach to global change grows out of his experience as an entrepreneur and a champion of innovation.
In addition to Bloomberg Philanthropies’ five areas of focus – public health, arts and culture, the environment, education and government innovation – Mike Bloomberg has continued to support projects of great importance to him, including his alma mater, Johns Hopkins University, where he served as the chairman of the board of trustees from 1996-2001. To date, he has contributed more than $1 billion to Johns Hopkins. The university’s School of Hygiene and Public Health – the largest public health facility in the U.S. – is now the Bloomberg School of Public Health in recognition of Mike Bloomberg’s commitment and support. Mike Bloomberg also leads a number of bi-partisan coalitions that are taking action on urgent national and international issues, and in 2014 was appointed to be the UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Cities and Climate Change.»
* * * * * * *
La legge indiana sulle ogn è molto chiara.
«Indian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can be set up under various Indian laws. ….
Societies Registration Act, 1860 is a central act for registering not-for-profit organisations. Almost all the states in India have adopted (with modifications, if any) the central Act for creating state level authorities for registering various types of not-for-profit entities. According to the act any seven persons who subscribe to the Memorandum of Association (MOA) can register a society. The memorandum should include names of the society, its objectives, its names, addresses and occupations of the members subscribing to it as well as the first governing body to be constituted on registration.
Conferring of corporate personality to associations that promote cultural and charitable objectives, but exempting them from the operation of some cumbersome requirements (which are essentially for regulation of business bodies but are difficult for compliance by non-profit companies), are the noteworthy features that are provided under the companies act, 2013. ….
According to section 25(1) (Companies Act, 1956): “Where it is proved to the satisfaction. of the Central Government that an association is about to be formed as a limited company for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other useful objectives, intends to apply its profits, if any, or other income in promoting its objectives, and to prohibit the payment of any dividend to its members, the Central Government may, by license, l direct that the association may be registered as a company with limited liability, without addition to its name of the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited”.
Intelligence Bureau, in a report accused “foreign-funded” NGOs of “serving as tools for foreign policy interests of western governments” by sponsoring agitations against nuclear and coal-fired power plants and anti-GMO agitation across the country. The NGOs, are said to be working through a network of local organisations to negatively impact GDP growth by 2–3%. The report says,
A significant number of Indian NGOs funded by donors based in US, UK, Germany and Netherlands have been noticed to be using people-centric issues to create an environment, which lends itself to stalling development projects….
In April 2015, the Government of India shared a list of over 42,000 NGOs with Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) to check suspicious foreign funding amid the crackdown on some top international donors for flouting the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA), 2011. These 42,273 NGOs were put under watch after intelligence reports claimed that several charity organisations are diverting funds for purposes other than the permitted use of foreign contribution.
Following the enquiry, permits of about 8,875 NGOs have been revoked for a variety of reasons ranging from non-filing of returns or non-compliance with Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA).» [Fonte]
Riassumendo, l’India ha già revocato il permesso a 8,875 ong, in gran parte finanziate da Stati Uniti, Regno Unito ed Olanda. Agivano in contrasto alle direttive del governo.
Una menzione speciale la ong Greenpeace. Ecco la motivazione della proibizione ad agire sul suolo indiano.
«It alleged that Greenpeace was leading a “massive effort to take down India’s coal-fired power plant and coal mining activity” by using foreign funds to “create protest movements under ‘Coal Network’ umbrella at prominent coal block and coal-fired power plant locations in India”. The Intelligence Bureau said the foreign NGOs and their Indian arms were serving as tools to advance Western foreign policy interests. “Greenpeace aims to fundamentally change the dynamics of India’s energy mix by disrupting and weakening the relationship between key players,” the IB report said.» [Fonte]
* * * * * * *
«India has been investigating how Bloomberg Philanthropies, founded by billionaire Michael Bloomberg, funds local non-profit groups for anti-tobacco lobbying, government documents show, making it the latest foreign non-government organization to come under scrutiny»
«they were acting against India’s national interests»
Tranne che nell’Occidente, in quello ancora liberal democratico, nel resto del mondo le ogn sono ritenute essere strumenti politici partigiani e faziosi, e son quindi trattate alla stregua di organizzazioni criminali, cosa che spesso corrisponde al vero, specie poi dal punto di vista fiscale
L’Occidente liberal e le sue ong sta avviandosi mestamente al tramonto così ben preconizzato da Spengler, mentre l’Oriente, i Brics Plus stanno crescendo ogni giorno che passa.
Ancora un po’ di tempo, ed anche l’Occidente dovrà adeguarsi ed adottare le leggi cinesi, indiane, per non dire quelle russe, sulle ong.
NEW DELHI (Reuters) – India has been investigating how Bloomberg Philanthropies, founded by billionaire Michael Bloomberg, funds local non-profit groups for anti-tobacco lobbying, government documents show, making it the latest foreign non-government organization to come under scrutiny.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government has since 2014 tightened surveillance of non-profit groups, saying they were acting against India’s national interests. Thousands of foreign-funded charities’ licenses have been canceled for misreporting donations.
Critics, however, say the government has used the foreign funding law as a tool to silence non-profit groups which have raised concerns about the social costs of India’s rapid economic development.
The intelligence wing of India’s home ministry last year drafted a note on Bloomberg Philanthropies, raising concerns that the foundation was running a campaign to “target” Indian tobacco businesses and “aggressively” lobby against the sector.
Though the three-page note, reviewed by Reuters, said the Bloomberg initiative’s “claimed intention to free India of tobacco cannot be faulted” given the known risks from tobacco, it highlighted the sector’s importance, noting it brings in nearly $5 billion in annual revenue for governments, and provides a livelihood for millions of people.
“Foreign interests making foreign contributions … for purposes of lobbying against an established economic activity raises multiple concerns,” the note said, including, it said, an “adverse economic impact” on 35 million people.
The June 3, 2016 note, marked “SECRET” and circulated to top government officials, including in Modi’s office, has not previously been reported. The probe continued until at least April this year, another government document showed.
Rebecca Carriero, a spokeswoman for Michael Bloomberg and New York-based Bloomberg Philanthropies, declined to comment as they were unaware of any investigation.
A home ministry spokesman said “queries which relate to security agencies cannot be answered.” Modi’s office did not respond to an email seeking comment.
The ministry’s note was one of the factors behind the rejection of a foreign funding license renewal of at least one Bloomberg-funded India charity last October, said a senior government official aware of the investigation.
Michael Bloomberg, one of the world’s richest people and a former New York City Mayor, has committed nearly $1 billion to support global tobacco control efforts. One of his focus countries is India, where tobacco kills 900,000 people a year.
Other than funding Indian NGOs, Bloomberg’s charity has in the past worked on improving road safety and supported federal tobacco-control efforts. In 2015, Modi called Michael Bloomberg a “friend”, and the two agreed on working together on India’s ambitious plan to build so-called smart cities.
BIGGER WARNINGS, DIFFERENT VIEWS
The home ministry note said the Bloomberg charity successfully lobbied for the introduction of bigger health warnings on cigarette packs, “contrary” to the recommendations of a parliamentary panel.
While the panel called for the size of warnings to be more than doubled to 50 percent of a pack’s surface area, the health ministry sought a higher figure of 85 percent. Despite protests from India’s $10 billion cigarette industry, the Supreme Court last year ordered manufacturers to follow the more stringent health ministry rules.
That, the note said, was the first of the three-phase Bloomberg campaign targeting India’s tobacco industry. It did not explain how exactly the Bloomberg charity lobbied.
While the note mirrored some of India’s tobacco lobby’s positions – such as how anti-smoking policies could adversely impact farmers – the government official said the investigation was not done at the behest of the industry.
“Anti-tobacco lobby wants to kill revenue generating activities,” the official said.
A health ministry official, however, said: “We don’t see tobacco as an economic activity.” He added that the health ministry was unaware of the home ministry’s note on Bloomberg Philanthropies.
India has stepped up scrutiny of NGOs registered under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA).
In 2015, the home ministry put the Ford Foundation on a watch list and suspended Greenpeace India’s FCRA license, drawing criticism from the United States.
Earlier this year, the government banned foreign funding for the Public Health Foundation of India, a group backed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, saying it used foreign donations to “lobby” for tobacco-control policy issues, “which is prohibited under FCRA.”
In the Bloomberg case, the home ministry note included a chart showing how funds flowed from Bloomberg Philanthropies to its partner, the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, which was then funding five local FCRA-registered NGOs. These NGOs, the note said, were being used by the Bloomberg charity for “anti-tobacco lobbying activities.”
The FCRA license of at least one of them – the Institute of Public Health (IPH) Bengaluru – was not renewed in October, in part due to the home ministry’s note, the government official said.
The IPH said it was told by the home ministry that its license was not being renewed on the basis of a “field agency report”, but no details were given. It was unaware of the investigation on Bloomberg Philanthropies.
In April, the home ministry wrote to the federal health ministry, citing an “inquiry into foreign funding” for lobbying to change laws in India. The letter, seen by Reuters, mentioned the Bloomberg initiative and directed the health ministry to report on anti-tobacco lobbying by foreign donors in other countries where tobacco is widely used.
The health ministry has not yet sent that report, another government official said. The health ministry did not respond to questions.