Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio, Senza categoria

Cina. Riprese le importazioni di gorgonzola italiano.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-10-19.

gorgonzola

«L’Ambasciata italiana di Pechino ci ha appena comunicato che si potranno riavviare le esportazioni di Gorgonzola e degli altri formaggi erborinati in Cina»

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«Il blocco a sorpresa sui formaggi erborinati operato a fine agosto dalle autorità di Pechino e da noi denunciato aveva messo a rischio un mercato molto promettente per i formaggi italiani»

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«La situazione – sottolinea Assolatte – è stata sbloccata dal Ministero della Sanità cinese, che, in una nota, conferma che questi prodotti – pur superando i limiti previsti dalla normativa locale per i fermenti e i lieviti previsti – sono sicuri e possono essere commercializzati in Cina»

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«Risolto il problema contingente …. resta immutata l’esigenza a più lungo termine di collaborare con AQSIQ (l’agenzia cinese per la sicurezza alimentare) per far aggiornare l’attuale normativa sui prodotti caseari, evitando così il possibile ripetersi di nuovi blocchi alle nostre esportazioni»

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Le vendite casearie italiane in Cina tra il 2015 ed il 2016 sono ammontate  2,650 tonnellate, con un incremento del 42%. Nei primi sette mesi del 2017 sono aumentate del +32%.

È un mercato che al momento ha un volume di poco più di una ventina di milioni di euro, ma che si preannuncia come molto promettente. Deve battere la concorrenza interna cinese, sicuramente, ma anche quella dei tradizionali produttori del caseario, quali la Francia e la Germania, che pure hanno prodotti di alta qualità.

Il problema resta però un altro, al momento risolto solo grazie al buon senso cinese.

In Italia la produzione del formaggio deve sottostare alle normative domestiche ed a quelle dell’Unione Europea. Queste direttive sono conflittuali con quelle di molti altri paesi. Nel caso in esame, per esempio, l’Unione Europea tollera una quantità di fermenti e lieviti molto maggiore che non i restanti paesi del mondo.

Il vezzo della burocrazia europea di non prendere in considerazione alcuna le normative dei paesi extra-comunitari, quasi che non esistessero e non fossero oggetto di esportazioni, sta dimostrando i suoi limiti.

Esattamente come dovrebbe cessare l’uso della normativa comunitaria per proteggere prodotti locali.

Francesi e tedeschi, nel caso in oggetto, non sanno produrre prodotti simili al gorgonzola senza utilizzare alte quote di fermenti e lieviti. La normativa europea sembrerebbe essere stata fatta per tutelarne la possibilità di produzione in Europa, ma alla fine penalizza le esportazioni anche di chi saprebbe produrre gorgonzola senza ricorrere all’impiego di eccessivi additivi.


Ansa. 2017-10-18. La Cina riapre le porte al gorgonzola e agli altri formaggi erborinati

Assolatte, mercato cinese in ascesa, +32% vendite in 7 mesi

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“L’Ambasciata italiana di Pechino ci ha appena comunicato che si potranno riavviare le esportazioni di Gorgonzola e degli altri formaggi erborinati in Cina”. Lo rende noto Assolatte, ricordando che “Il blocco a sorpresa sui formaggi erborinati operato a fine agosto dalle autorità di Pechino e da noi denunciato aveva messo a rischio un mercato molto promettente per i formaggi italiani”.

“La situazione – sottolinea Assolatte – è stata sbloccata dal Ministero della Sanità cinese, che, in una nota, conferma che questi prodotti – pur superando i limiti previsti dalla normativa locale per i fermenti e i lieviti previsti – sono sicuri e possono essere commercializzati in Cina”. “Si tratta di un risultato – prosegue Assolatte – che arriva al termine di un intenso lavoro da noi sollecitato attivamente che ha coinvolto i Ministeri interessati e il Direttore Generale del Ministero della Salute nella sua recente visita in Cina”.

“Risolto il problema contingente – precisa Giuseppe Ambrosi, presidente di Assolatte – resta immutata l’esigenza a più lungo termine di collaborare con AQSIQ (l’agenzia cinese per la sicurezza alimentare) per far aggiornare l’attuale normativa sui prodotti caseari, evitando così il possibile ripetersi di nuovi blocchi alle nostre esportazioni”.

Su questo tema – aggiunge Assolatte – le ambasciate italiana e francese stanno lavorando ad un incontro tecnico a Pechino, nel corso del quale le autorità nazionali e comunitarie, con le delegazioni degli imprenditori, illustreranno alle controparti cinesi le caratteristiche di sicurezza che l’industria casearia conferisce ai formaggi erborinati.

“La notizia della positiva soluzione di questa emergenza ci fa ben sperare per il futuro. Il mercato cinese si sta facendo sempre più interessante per le nostre imprese – conclude Ambrosi – Dai dati Assolatte si rileva che tra 2015 e 2016 le vendite di formaggi italiani sono aumentate del 42%, arrivando a 2650 tonnellate. E nei primi 7 mesi di quest’anno c’è stato un ulteriore balzo in avanti: +32% rispetto all’analogo periodo 2016, superando le 2,2 mila tonnellate”.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Commercio, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Unione Europea

Trump. Dazi del 220% sugli aerei Bombardier.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-27.

2017-08-04__Trump TELEMMGLPICT000136310797-xlarge_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqHwnvh86NCImGNxSron0kTyxqUYn5PGopOSNBtx07gTA

Chi si fosse illuso che la affermazione “America First” fosse uno slogan sarà rimasto amaramente deluso.

Non lo è per niente, ed alle parole seguono i fatti.

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Cercheremo di spiegarci nel più puro, ricercato, cauto e liberal linguaggio politicamente corretto: leggete quindi tra le righe quanto non si potrebbe dire a chiara voce.

Gli stati europei hanno fatto dell’industria aeronautica uno dei più orrendi carrozzoni politici della storia umana, ove la norma è incompetenza e corruzione. Personale liberal e socialista, quote rose ovunque perché “femmina è bello!”, cimitero di costosissimi elefanti dismessi dai ranghi politici, cessi ripartiti per tutte le possibili tipologie, vere o presunte, di sesso degenerato ma pur sempre oltremodo costoso.

I risultati sono prodotti di qualità inferiore a quella offerta dal mercato, e questo sarebbe il meno.

Questa industria aeronautica sopravvive di sovvenzioni dell’Unione Europea e dei vari stati, e ciò nonostante è in triboli perpetui.

Ha quasi cessato di essere un insieme di aziende produttive: sono solo aziende tenute in piedi per mantenere clientes, personale, amici, amanti e grandi elettori. È un immenso voivodato liberal e socialista.

Le partecipate italiane, quelle dei tempi dei centro-sinistra organici, sarebbero gigli in odore si santità a confronto e l’industria aeronautica europea sta avviandosi a grandi passi ad eguagliare la gestione fatta dal partito democratico italiano nelle banche. I pirati della Malesia erano galantuomini.

Viste dall’esterno, assomigliano in tutto e per tutto ad associazioni per delinquere di stampo mafioso.

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Ci si rende perfettamente conto di quanto questo linguaggio politicamente corretto possa essere criptico, ma confidiamo sull’intelletto dei signori Lettori.

Ci scusiamo di aver parlato in così forbiti termini politicamente corretti, ma nel contempo abbiamo la quasi certezza che qualcuno troverà pur sempre qualcosa da ridire: nel caso lo seppelliremo sotto i faldoni dei bilanci, che tanto hanno incrementato l’industria degli inchiostri rossi.

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«Bombardier received an unfair subsidy in the form of £135m investment pledge by the UK Government and Northern Ireland’s power sharing administration»

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«The firm also received $1bn from the Quebec government in 2015»

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«Bombardier received unfair state subsidies from the UK and Canada, allowing the sale of airliners at below cost price in America.»

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«Bombardier vowed to fight the ruling which it described as “absurd”. The company is due to start delivery of up to 125 new jets to Delta Airlines next year as part of a $5.6bn (£4.2bn) deal signed in 2016.»

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«this allowed Bombardier to supply aircraft at in implausibly low price of around £19m, making it impossible for Boeing to compete. Those aircraft will now cost around £61m once the interim tariff is applied»

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«L’amministrazione Trump ha deciso di imporre dazi antidumping del 220% sugli apparecchi CSeries della canadese Bombardier»

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È finita un’era: cerchiamo di rendercene conto.



Sole 24 Ore. 2017-09-27. Trump impone dazi del 220% sugli aerei Bombardier. May: «delusa»

L’amministrazione Trump ha deciso di imporre dazi antidumping del 220% sugli apparecchi CSeries della canadese Bombardier. La decisione è arrivata dal Dipartimento del Commercio dopo le proteste di Boeing per presunte sovvenzioni sleali che avrebbero avvantaggiato il costruttore canadese. Secondo il colosso dell’aeronautica statunitense, un ordine di 75 CSeries da parte di Delta Air Lines (del valore di cinque miliardi di dollari) sarebbe stato “viziato” da pratiche scorrette da parte di Bombardier, esattamente come accaduto negli anni Novanta con l’europea Airbus.

La decisione del Dipartimento del Commercio contro Bombardier diventerà effettiva solo se la International Trade Commission statunitense darà ragione a Boeing in una decisione finale attesa per l’anno prossimo.

Intanto il primo ministro inglese Theresa May si è detta «amaramente delusa» per la decisione del governo americano di imporre dazi antidumping del 220% sui prodotti della canadese Bombardier, che impiega migliaia di dipendenti in Irlanda del Nord. «Sono amaramente delusa per la decisione su Bombardier», ha twittato May. «Il governo continuerà a lavorare con il gruppo per salvaguardare i posti di lavoro in Irlanda del Nord», ha aggiunto.

La CSeries è una famiglia di aeroplani di linea a fusoliera stretta (narrow-body) composta da due modelli: CS100 e CS300, in fase di test e prima produzione da parte di Bombardier Aerospace. Il progetto fu annunciato nel 2004, mentre la progettazione e lo sviluppo sono cominciate nel 2008. Il CS110 ha una capienza 100-125 posti e il CS130 di 120-145 posti, a seconda delle configurazioni. I nuovi CSeries montano nuovi motori ecologici costruiti con materiali compositi.

Il progetto CSeries ha costretto Airbus, nel dicembre 2010, a rivisitare i suoi A320 proponendo la versione ri-motorizzata A320neo, per il rischio di perdere quote di mercato nel campo dei velivoli narrow-body della categoria sotto ai 150 posti. La risposta di Airbus al progetto CSeries, ha a sua volta costretto anche Boeing, nell’agosto 2011, ad offrire una versione ri-motorizzata della sua gamma di aerei a fusoliera stretta, proponendo il Boeing 737 MAX.


Independent. 2017-09-27. US Bombardier ruling: Theresa May ‘bitterly disappointed’ at Trump administration tariff decision

Bombardier employs around 4,200 people in Belfast and thousands more jobs in Northern Ireland are supported through the manufacturer’s supply chain.

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Prime Minister Theresa May is “bitterly disappointed” by a US Department of Commerce decision to impose a tariff of nearly 220 per cent on a new model of passenger jet manufactured by Bombardier, one of Northern Ireland’s biggest employers, Downing Street said. 

The comment came after Ms May was accused of being “asleep at the wheel” as unions warned that thousands of jobs could be put at risk by the US move.

Canadian multinational Bombardier employs around 4,200 people in Belfast and thousands more jobs in Northern Ireland are supported through the manufacturer’s supply chain, according to trade unionists.

Ms May had lobbied US President Donald Trump over the dispute, which was sparked by complaints from rival Boeing that Bombardier received unfair state subsidies from the UK and Canada, allowing the sale of airliners at below cost price in America.

Bombardier vowed to fight the ruling which it described as “absurd”. The company is due to start delivery of up to 125 new jets to Delta Airlines next year as part of a $5.6bn (£4.2bn) deal signed in 2016.

Union leaders slammed the prime minister for failing to do more to lobby for British workers.

GMB national officer, Ross Murdoch described the decision as a “hammer blow to Belfast” and accused Ms May of being “asleep at the wheel when she could and should have been fighting to protect these workers”.

Jimmy Kelly, Unite regional secretary, said: “The decision taken by the US department of commerce was not unexpected – unfortunately it is unlikely to be overturned by president Trump whose protectionist tendencies are well-known.

“The threat of punitive tariffs on the C-Series will cast a shadow over Bombardier’s future unless the company can source alternative and substantial sales outside the US market.”

It is understood the Prime Minister raised the issue in a telephone call with US President Donald Trump earlier this month following presure from Democratic Unionist Party leader Arlene Foster, whose 10 MPs are propping up Ms May’s minority government.

Mrs Foster said: “This is a very disappointing determination, but it is not the end of the process and there are further steps that will follow.

“The C-Series is a hugely innovative aircraft that is vital to Bombardier’s operations in Belfast. It is this innovation that sets the C-Series apart and it is not in direct competition with Boeing.”

Bombardier’s deal to supply billions of pounds worth of jets is in jeopardy after the US Commerce Department ruled that Bombardier received an unfair subsidy in the form of £135m investment pledge by the UK Government and Northern Ireland’s power sharing administration. The firm also received $1bn from the Quebec government in 2015.

US authorities say this allowed Bombardier to supply aircraft at in implausibly low price of around £19m, making it impossible for Boeing to compete. Those aircraft will now cost around £61m once the interim tariff is applied.

US secretary of commerce Wilbur Ross said on Wednesday: “The US values its relationships with Canada, but even our closest allies must play by the rules.

“The subsidisation of goods by foreign governments is something that the Trump Administration takes very seriously, and we will continue to evaluate and verify the accuracy of this preliminary determination.”

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Logistica

‘Clima’. I grandi dimenticati. Anche navi ed aerei sono inquinanti.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-17.

2016-11-30__Aminali_006

Riportiamo un articolo pubblicato tre anni or sono su di un argomento sul quale è sceso un silenzio tombale.

Ma il fatto di non parlarne più non significa minimamente che il problema non esista più.

«sia le turbine a reazione dei velivoli (alimentate a kerosene, carburante petrolifero simile al gasolio), che i grandi motori diesel navali (alimentati con olio combustibile poco raffinato di origine petrolifera, il cosiddetto”bunker oil”), a differenza delle auto, emettono quantitativi enormi di idrocarburi (HC), ossido di carbonio (CO), ossidi di azoto (NOx), ossidi di zolfo (SOx), particolato (PM), anidride carbonica (CO2), poiché sono del tutto privi di dispositivi assimilabili ai catalizzatori ed ai filtri anti-particolato, atti a ridurre drasticamente le emissioni allo scarico»

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«Stime per difetto hanno quantificato che il traffico aereo di un aeroporto come Fiumicino o Malpensa emetta giornalmente gas inquinanti pari alla quantità che emetterebbero circa 350 mila auto non catalizzate»

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«un solo aereo di linea inquina come circa 600 auto non catalizzate»

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IL CIA World Factbook riporta la tabella del censimento delle navi mercantili attualmente in funzione.

Sono attive 32,561 navi, ciascuna delle quali inquina mediamente come diciannovemila automobili non catalitiche.

Ciò significa un inquinamento pari a quello di 619 milioni di automobili non catalitiche.

Si consideri che il parco autovetture mondiali è stimato essere circa un miliardo, in gran parte catalizzate.

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Così stando le cose, nessuno si stupirebbe che a breve si varino progetti per avere aerei e navi elettrici.




Nogeo Ingegneria. 2014-04-28. Aerei e navi emettono di tutto – ma tutti a far finta di niente.

Auto tartassata: ma nulla si fa contro le principali fonti inquinanti.

Le istituzioni si accaniscono solo contro le auto, mentre su altri settori molto più inquinanti domina l’impunità e un silenzio assordante

Le istituzioni, spinte da demagogia ambientalista, si accaniscono, da oltre 20 anni, solo contro le auto mentre su altri settori molto più inquinanti, domina l’impunità e un silenzio assordante. Mi chiedo se ai vari legislatori europei (i più accaniti contro le emissioni delle auto), sia mai venuto in mente di valutare obiettivamente, senza condizionamenti o preconcetti di tipo ideologico, magari con il supporto tecnico-scientifico di veri esperti non di parte, quanto possano inquinare molto più delle auto, gli aerei e le navi, tanto per restare nell’ambito dei mezzi di trasporto. Hanno costoro una sia pur vaga idea della enorme quantità di prodotti della combustione immessi nell’atmosfera dal traffico aereo e marittimo in un solo giorno o in un intero anno? La domanda è volutamente oziosa poichè è fin troppo evidente che gli esperti indipendenti lo sappiano bene, ma le istituzioni fanno finta di niente.

AEREI E NAVI EMETTONO DI TUTTO – Ebbene, proviamo a spiegarlo a beneficio di chi ignora tale aspetto e crede, a causa della falsa informazione dei media, che le automobili siano la unica fonte di ogni problema ambientale e soprattutto del presunto riscaldamento globale. Ma prima è doveroso fare una fondamentale distinzione anche qualitativa fra le emissioni di scarico degli aerei e delle navi rispetto a quelle delle auto, e ciò rende ancor più inaccettabile il voler ignorare tale aspetto, perché non si tratta solo di CO2. Infatti, sia le turbine a reazione dei velivoli (alimentate a kerosene, carburante petrolifero simile al gasolio), che i grandi motori diesel navali (alimentati con olio combustibile poco raffinato di origine petrolifera, il cosiddetto”bunker oil”), a differenza delle auto, emettono quantitativi enormi di idrocarburi (HC), ossido di carbonio (CO), ossidi di azoto (NOx), ossidi di zolfo (SOx), particolato (PM), anidride carbonica (CO2), poiché sono del tutto privi di dispositivi assimilabili ai catalizzatori ed ai filtri anti-particolato, atti a ridurre drasticamente le emissioni allo scarico. Per gli aerei non potrebbe essere diversamente, stante la logica di funzionamento di un turboreattore, mentre per quanto riguarda le navi affronteremo il grave problema in altra occasione. I gas suddetti sono realmente tossici e pericolosi per la salute, a differenza della CO2 (anidride carbonica) che, giova ricordarlo, non è un gas inquinante, né tanto meno tossico, ma solo ad effetto serra come il vapore acqueo presente in atmosfera (le nuvole) che è di gran lunga l’elemento naturale ad effetto serra più diffuso. La CO2 è talmente innocua per la salute che la ingeriamo con piacere e volontariamente, in grandi quantità, con le bevande gassate, i vini spumanti, ecc. (per poi tornare all’aria libera dopo essere espulsa dal nostro organismo in modo poco elegante). Peraltro, è assai singolare che nessun ambientalista o istituzione abbia nulla da obiettare sulla enorme produzione industriale di CO2 destinata alle bevande (ma anche per altri scopi), ma ritorneremo presto sull’argomento.

DUE PESI E DUE MISURE – Beninteso, noi non vogliamo criminalizzare il trasporto aereo, né quello marittimo ai quali riconosciamo ovviamente una primaria e insostituibile funzione economica e commerciale. Tuttavia, è impossibile ignorare la stridente disparità di trattamento di cui godono tali attività rispetto al martoriato settore automotive privato. Inoltre, da sempre abbiamo preso le dovute distanze dalle teorie catastrofiste, invero semplicistiche quanto sospette (grossi interessi pseudo-ambientalisti in gioco), contestate peraltro da fior di scienziati ed esperti del clima, secondo cui le emissioni di CO2 derivanti dalle attività umane sarebbero le uniche responsabili dei cambiamenti climatici. Questi, come dimostrano le conoscenze acquisite, sono sempre avvenuti, in epoche diverse, a prescindere dalle attività umane, visto che si tratta di processi ciclici naturali che si evolvono di norma nel corso di svariati secoli o anche millenni da non poter essere valutati obiettivamente nell’arco di poche generazioni. Dunque, non cadiamo nel facile tranello di cercare altri capi espiatori. Noi vogliamo sottolineare e denunciare la mala fede, l’incompetenza, l’ottusa demagogia e il doppio-pesismo delle istituzioni che da vari anni hanno preso di mira solo il settore automotive, penalizzando e colpendo pesantemente non solo i costruttori, costringendoli ad investire enormi capitali al fine di rispettare normative e limiti sempre più stringenti e dall’esito pratico assai dubbio, ma anche gli utilizzatori finali del bene automobile con imposizioni legislative talvolta arbitrarie e spesso demenziali, costi, limiti e divieti di libera circolazione del tutto ingiustificati e penalizzanti, che hanno effetti devastanti sulla libera mobilità privata, l’economia dell’intero settore e indirettamente sulle filiere di altre attività industriali e commerciali. Basti pensare ai danni economici sul commercio causati dall’inutile e demagogico periodico blocco delle circolazione veicolare privata in molte città italiane. L’aver escluso artatamente il trasporto aereo (ed altri settori) dalle restrizioni stabilite dal Protocollo di Kyoto, è la più evidente dimostrazione che i Paesi coinvolti hanno la coda di paglia e, al di là dei proclami ufficiali con cui tutte le istituzioni mondiali si dichiarano convinti ambientalisti, di fronte a interessi enormi i cosiddetti difensori della “eco-sostenibilità” ricorrono a provvedimenti di facciata e sono pronti a chiudere tutti e due gli occhi per puro opportunismo. Peraltro, giova sottolineare che negli USA, in concomitanza con la buona ripresa economica e industriale degli ultimi anni, le emissioni di CO2 sono aumentate, con tanti saluti al Protocollo di Kyoto ed alla vocazione “ambientalista” del Presidente Obama.

UN GIORNO IN AEROPORTO VALE 350 MILA AUTO – Stime per difetto hanno quantificato che il traffico aereo di un aeroporto come Fiumicino o Malpensa emetta giornalmente gas inquinanti pari alla quantità che emetterebbero circa 350 mila auto non catalizzate! Figuriamoci se si prendono in considerazione aeroporti ben più trafficati come New York, Londra, Parigi. In altri termini, un solo aereo di linea inquina come circa 600 auto non catalizzate. Ma le auto, ormai da oltre 20 anni, sono tutte catalizzate per legge, quindi al suddetto rapporto, per essere più realistico, andrebbe aggiunto, per difetto, almeno uno zero. E’ ben noto che l’industria automobilistica mondiale, nell’ultimo ventennio, ha dovuto investire cifre enormi per ridurre le emissioni e continua a farlo, in un processo di obblighi legislativi e normative che appare senza fine. Viceversa, il comparto aereo avrebbe ottenuto il permesso dai vari organi internazionali, di triplicare il traffico fino al 2050, come afferma SDC (Sustainable Development Commission) nominata dal governo britannico. Negli ultimi 10-15 anni i viaggi low cost hanno incrementato a dismisura il traffico aereo e il conseguente inquinamento atmosferico e si può affermare che il trasporto su ali sia la fonte di emissioni di gas serra e di sostanze inquinanti più in crescita.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Mondiale, Russia, Sistemi Economici

Brics. Il Summit di settembre a Xiamen. Ripudio dell’Occidente.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-25.

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Abbiamo già riferito del Simposio di Quanzhou, preparatorio al Summit dei Brics da tenersi a Xiamen il 3  5 settembre prossimo.

Cina. Quanzhou. I Brics decidono cosa farsene dell’Occidente.

«Delegates to a BRICS seminar, organised by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the southeast city of Quanzhou analysed and debated the Chinese model of rapid development as the template for the rapid growth, especially of the global South»

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«It highlights the theme: “BRICS: stronger partnership for a brighter future.”»

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«BRICS members account for about 23 per cent of the world economy, and contributed to more than half of global growth in 2016»

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«Peking University professor and former World Bank chief economist Justin Lin Yifu pointed out at the seminar that among nearly 200 developing economies since the end of the Second World War, only two have transitioned from low-income to high-income economies, with China possibly emerging as the third by 2025»

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«He attributed the failure to avoid either the middle-income or low income trap, to pursuit of western mainstream economic theories — structuralism, and neoliberalism. He stressed that a right balance between the role of the market and the state was required to achieve breakthroughs, Xinhua reported»

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«Mr. Lin highlighted that the “secret of China’s success is its use of both ‘invisible hand’ and ‘visible hand,'”. He added that technological innovation and industrial upgrading can proceed smoothly, only when the market and the state played their complementary roles»

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«The weak hatchling will never take off if it depends on government aid, financial grants, and welfare allowances»

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Molte le novità. Se riporteremo solo alcune.

In primo luogo, si constata come nel 1990 il pil nominale cine ammontasse a 398.623 miliardi Usd, mentre nel 2016 tale valore era salito a 11,218.281: è aumentato di ventotto volte. Per comparazione il pil nominale in tale lasso di tempo è cresciuto di 6.9 volte in India, 3.1 volte negli Stati Uniti e di 2.2 volte in Germania.

In secondo luogo, si constata come in Cina l’accesso al potere politico avvenga tramite una selezione strettamente meritocratica all’interno del Pcc, vera e propria fucina di idee politiche, economiche e sociali. La Cina non ha bisogno alcuno né del suffragio universale né del concetto occidentale di “democrazia“. I politici cinesi hanno un tasso culturale che surclassa quello dei loro omologhi occidentali, e che consente di concepire e perseguire programmi strategici. I politici cinesi non necessitano di essere simpatici alla maggioranza, né ne sono schiavi. Una sorta di concezione platonica della politica.

In terzo luogo, la Cina ha gelosamente custodito il suo retaggio storico, culturale e sociale che ha retto per oltre quaranta secoli. Non ha permesso alle ong occidentali di infiltrarsi nel suo tessuto sociale. Non solo. La legge sul matrimonio della Repubblica popolare cinese definisce il matrimonio come unione tra un uomo e una donna, richiede ai genitori che adottano bambini dalla Cina di essere uniti in matrimoni eterosessuali. Se fino al 1997 l’omosessualità era considerata reato penale, mentre la sua militanza tuttora lo è, le disposizioni penali sul teppismo comprendono l’omosessualità.

In quarto luogo, la Cina rigetta, e quindi non segue le “mainstream economic theories“. In particolare il debito sovrano ammonta al 42.61% del pil nominale in Cina, 15.94% in Russia, 78.32% in Brasile, 69.54% in India, e 50.47% in Sud Africa.

In quinto luogo, constata come “technological innovation and industrial upgrading” abbiano un senso solo quando il mercato le richieda, per cui la Cina le introduce esclusivamente al bisogno.

In sesto luogo, vi è un fermo rigetto dei “government aid, financial grants, and welfare allowances“. E questo è una grossolana differenza con i paesi occidentali che pone i cinesi ed i Brics in antitesi con la Weltanscahuung liberal democratica.

* * * * * * *

Concludendo.

È significativo il titolo con cui il The Hindu tratta del prossimo Summit di Xiamen.

Ahead of Xiamen summit, BRICS discuss new rules of global governance

I Brics si apprestano a dettare al mondo, Occidente compreso, le nuove regole del governo globale, e queste saranno l’opposto di quelle propugnate dall’Occidente.

Per ulteriori approfondimenti 林毅夫.


The Hindu. 2017-08-18. Ahead of Xiamen summit, BRICS discuss new rules of global governance

The BRICS summit is being held in China’s coastal city of Xiamen from September 3-5. It highlights the theme: “BRICS: stronger partnership for a brighter future.”

*

As the countdown for the September summit of the Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (BRICS) grouping begins, scholars, academics and government officials have been brainstorming ways in which the emerging economies can set the global agenda, based on new rules of governance.

Delegates to a BRICS seminar, organised by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the southeast city of Quanzhou analysed and debated the Chinese model of rapid development as the template for the rapid growth, especially of the global South.

The BRICS summit is being held in China’s coastal city of Xiamen from September 3-5. It highlights the theme: “BRICS: stronger partnership for a brighter future.”

BRICS members account for about 23 per cent of the world economy, and contributed to more than half of global growth in 2016.

Peking University professor and former World Bank chief economist Justin Lin Yifu pointed out at the seminar that among nearly 200 developing economies since the end of the Second World War, only two have transitioned from low-income to high-income economies, with China possibly emerging as the third by 2025.

He attributed the failure to avoid either the middle-income or low income trap, to pursuit of western mainstream economic theories — structuralism, and neoliberalism. He stressed that a right balance between the role of the market and the state was required to achieve breakthroughs, Xinhua reported.

Mr. Lin highlighted that the “secret of China’s success is its use of both ‘invisible hand’ and ‘visible hand,'”. He added that technological innovation and industrial upgrading can proceed smoothly, only when the market and the state played their complementary roles.

Robert Kuhn, a China expert from the United States, focused on the pursuit of “Four Comprehensives” by Chinese leaders as an overarching framework to achieve rapid development goals. The “Four Comprehensives” cover efforts to pursue a moderately prosperous society, reform, rule of law and Party discipline, he observed.

While acknowledging China’s success, most participants also underscored that there is no one-size-fits-all development model that can be fully replicated to achieve growth. Essop Goolam Pahad, the editor of South Africa’s Thinker Magazine, pointed out that a change of mindset was essential as communities and their leader must believe that development is possible, whatever the odds. “The weak hatchling will never take off if it depends on government aid, financial grants, and welfare allowances,” he observed.

The brainstorming in Quanzhou has been preceded by a conference, earlier this month of the BRICS trade minister in Shanghai, which focused on the continued relevance of globalisation. In the wake of protectionist sentiments in the U.S. and Europe, it underscored the need for a united stand of the emerging economies against protectionism, and backing for a multilateral trade system.

In late July, a BRICS security meeting was held in Beijing, with discussions on global governance, anti-terrorism, the internet, energy, national security and development. A month earlier, finance ministers and central bank governors agreed to strengthen cooperation in several fiscal and financial areas, including the BRICS New Development Bank and regulatory collaboration.

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Putin, Russia

Rosneft. Роснефть. Chi la possiede e chi la comanda.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-23.

Putin 1002

Al Bar della Mandragola si inizia a parlare di politica e tutti si litigano, rossi contro blu e blu contro rossi: alzano la voce, passerebbero alle vie di fatto. Vecchie amicizie si rompono sull’altare dei sublimi concetti. Si formano fazioni anche molto combattive.

Nel frattempo, al Le Bernardin oppure al Masa di New York, i capi dei partiti politici cenano assieme a spese dei contribuenti e si mettono di accordo su come ripartire gli utili.

Questo i pecoroni di orwelliana memoria non riusciranno mai a capirlo. E non leggeranno nemmeno i link riportati, indispensabili per la comprensione dell’articolo.



*

Rosneft: ma cosa è mai?

Nel settore energetico estrattivo la Russia ha due aziende: la Gazprom e la Rosneft.

La prima si occupa di estrarre e distribuire gas naturale, la seconda estrarre e distribuire petrolio e derivati.

Questo è il sito ufficiale della Rosneft: visitarlo chiarisce molti elementi.

Company Annual Report.

Information Note on the Extraordinary General Shareholders Meeting of Rosneft Oil Company, September, 29, 2017

*

«Rosneft (Russian: Росне́фть, IPA: [rɐˈsʲnʲefʲtʲ]) is an integrated oil company majority owned by the Government of Russia. Rosneft is headquartered in Moscow’s Balchug district near the Kremlin, across the Moskva River. Rosneft became Russia’s leading extraction and refinement company after purchasing assets of former oil giant Yukos at state-run auctions. As of 2016, Rosneft was the 51st largest company in the world with $64.75 billion in sales during the fiscal year.» [Fonte]

*

Nel 2016 la Rosneft aveva una revenue di 64.749 miliardi Usd, con un net income di 5.51 miliardi Usd.

A fine 2016 la proprietà era per il 50% del Governo Russo, il 19.75% della BP, lo 0.54% del Qatar e Glencore, il 19% di un socio restato anonimo.

Che anonimo poi non lo è mica molto: è la QHG Oil Ventures Pte. Ltd.

«Qhg Oil Ventures Pte. Ltd. was established on 8 December 2016 (Thursday), This company is Live Company as on 22 January 2017 (Sunday). It’s registered address is at 1 Temasek Avenue #34-01 Millenia Tower Singapore.» [Fonte]

*

«Formerly Known As Catalpo Pte. Ltd. Qhg Shares Pte. Ltd.» [Fonte]

*

«December 5QHG Holding created. One partner is QHG Cayman Limited registered in the Cayman islands.

December 7 and 8Russia Announces a sale of 19.5% of the state owned oil company, Rosneft to Glencore and Qatar Investment Authority. However, contributions by both don’t seem to equate to the amount of sale (only about 300 million Euro) It is impossible to find all the owners for 10.2 bn Euros, however, Russia and Rosneft benefit from the lifting of sanctions by accessing the market for oil, including drilling in the Arctic Ocean. Also, there is a benefit from Russia having the Ukraine as most gas pipelines from Russia to the rest of Europe go through the Ukraine.

December 8 – Carter Page visits Moscow to “meet with business leaders and thought leaders” including “top managers of Rosneft”.» [Fonte]

*

Rosneft, Intesa Sanpaolo in prima fila. Maxi-prestito a Glencore e Qatar

«Il consorzio internazionale acquisisce il 19,5% del colosso energetico russo. Dal gruppo italiano fino a 5,2 miliardi. L’interesse dei gruppi internazionali.

Intesa Sanpaolo ha vinto la partita: supporta con un finanziamento fino a un massimo di 5,2 miliardi di euro il consorzio formato da Glencore, leader mondiale nell’attività di produzione e trading di materie prime, e dal Fondo sovrano del Qatar (Qia) per l’acquisizione del 19,5% del capitale di Rosneft. Valore complessivo dell’operazione 10,2 miliardi di euro.»

«Funny how Dec 2016 was such a “popular month” for meeting with Russian Bankers, and such.

Glencore couldn’t come up with its half of the Capital by the way, so a Russian Bank floated it a “bridge loan”, until the Italian Bank could approve the Glencore loan — in spite of the Sanctions on the “collateral”.

Though Glencore and QIA appear to 50/50 owners (at the outer shell level) — it seems that Glencore was primarily responsible for the “paperwork” … resulting in the creation of the Cayman Account (and its own brokering of the shares)» [Fonte]

*

«Glencore International plc è una società mineraria e di scambio merci multinazionale anglo-svizzera con sede a Baar in Svizzera e gli uffici registrati a Saint Helier, Jersey. La società fu fondata nel 1974 da Marc Rich & Co AG. È la più grande compagnia commerciale al mondo, nel 2010 aveva quote del 60% nel mercato globale dello zinco, 50% nel rame e 3% nel petrolio. Glencore ha in tutto il mondo strutture di produzione per gas naturale, petrolio, carbone, minerali, metalli e prodotti agricoli, oltre ad industrie per la lavorazione del cibo.» [Fonte]

Glencore ha una revenue di 152.948 miliardi Usd.

Perché Glencore va a gonfie vele?

«In 2011, Glencore was listed on the London Stock Exchange. In the same year, chairman Simon Murray opposed quotas for women on boards, claiming that women ‘are not so ambitious in business as men because they’ve got better things to do. Quite often they like bringing up their children and all sorts of other things”, remarks for which he later apologised. By 2014, Glencore was the only blue chip company with no female member of the board, giving it what the Financial Times called “pariah status”.» [Fonte]

*

Questo è il Board of Directors attuale, e qui sono riportate le loro remunerazioni.

Andrey Belousov. Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rosneft

Igor Sechin. Chief Executive Officer, Chairman of the Management Board, Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rosneft

Matthias Warnig. Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rosneft, Independent Director

Oleg Viyugin. Member of the Board of Directors of Rosneft, Independent Director

Robert Dudley. Member of the Board of Directors of Rosneft

Guillermo Quintero. Member of the Board of Directors of Rosneft

Donald Humphreys. Member of the Board of Directors of Rosneft, Independent Director

Ivan Glasenberg. Member of the Board of Directors of Rosneft

Faisal Alsuwaidi. Member of the Board of Directors of Rosneft

*

Due note a margine.

Come Glencore, anche Rosneft ha un Board interamente maschile.

Matthias Warnig è “graduated from the Bruno Leuschner Higher School of Economics, where he specialised in National Economics (qualified economist).”; Robert Dudley è “graduated from Illinois University and Thunderbird School of Global Management”; Guillermo Quintero è “graduated from University of Southern California in 1979. BSc in chemical engineering with specialization in polymer science.”; Donald Humphreys ottenne il “degrees from Oklahoma State University, Wharton School and Pennsylvania University.”.

Nessuno di questi dirigenti cha hanno studiato all’estero hanno frequentato università ad indirizzo liberal.

Qualche pettegolezzo.

«veterans of oil giants BP Plc and Exxon Mobil Corp., to Cold Warriors such as former East German Stasi agent Mattias Warnig and Igor Sechin, a long-time ally of President Vladimir Putin»

*

«On Thursday they will be joined by Glencore Plc Chief Executive Officer Ivan Glasenberg, who built the world’s largest commodity trader, and Faisal Alsuwaidi, who oversaw Qatar’s development into a global gas giant before taking on his current role as president of research and development at the non-profit Qatar Foundation.» [Fonte]

*

Infine:

«I quattro stati arabi che boicottano il Qatar potrebbero adottare nuove misure contro l’emirato che secondo loro stringe legami col terrorismo.

Arabia saudita, Emirati Arabi Uniti, Egitto e Bahrain hanno diffuso un comunicato congiunto dal Cairo in cui sostengono che la loro lista di 13 richieste adesso sia scaduta e assicurano che prenderanno nuovi provvedimenti.» [Fonte]

* * * * * * *

Di qualche giorno fa la ultima notizia:

Germania. L’ex-cancelliere Spd Schröder nel board della russa Rosneft.


Rosneft. 2017-06-22. Information Note on the Annual General Shareholders Meeting of Rosneft Oil Company, June 22, 2017.

Information notice on the Annual General Shareholders Meeting (includes Agenda)

Company Annual Report (to Item 1 of the Agenda)

Report on Related Party Transactions entered into during the reporting year (to Item 1 of the Agenda)

Annual accounting statements – appendix within the Company Annual Report (to Item 2 of the Agenda)

Company auditor opinionappendix within the Company Annual Report (to Item 2 of the Agenda)

Opinion of Rosneft Oil Company Board Audit Committee with regards to the Company Auditor’s Report (to Item 2 of the Agenda)

Opinion of the Company’s Audit Commission on the results of review of the Company business and financial performance of the year 2016 and of consistency of annual accounting statements contained in the Company Annual Report as of 12/31/2016 and related party transaction report of the Company (to Items 1 and 2 of the Agenda)

Recommendations by the Company Board of Directors on distribution of Rosneft Oil Company profits based on the results of the year 2016 including recommendations on the amount of dividends on the Company shares on the results of the year 2016 and their payment procedure (extract from the minutes of the session of the Company Board of Directors on the said item) including information bearing witness of occurrence of conditions required for payment of dividends on the Company shares (to Items 3 and 4 of the Agenda)

Recommendations of the Board of Directors of the Company on the amount of remuneration and compensations paid to the members of the Audit Commission of the Company (extract from the minutes of the session of the Company Board of Directors on the said item) (to Item 6 of the Agenda)

Details of the candidates for membership with the Company Board of Directors and Audit Commission including of availability of their written consents to election (to Items 7 and 8 of the Agenda)

Information on the candidate for the Company Auditor (to Item 9 of the Agenda)

Information on related party transactions (to Item 10 of the Agenda)

Draft changes to the Company Charter, table with comparison of changes to be made and existing version of the Company Charter with justification of the necessity to make a decision on approval of changes to the Company Charter (to Item 11 of the Agenda)

Position of the Company’s Board of Directors with respect to the agenda of the Annual (2016 results) General Shareholders meeting, including information about special opinions of the members of the Board of Directors of the Company on each issue on the agenda of the Annual (2016 results) General Shareholders meeting

Draft resolutions of the Annual General Shareholders meeting, specifying the initiators of including the issues in the agenda of annual (2016 results) General Shareholders meeting and the parties proposing nomination of candidates to the management and control bodies.

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Giovanni P. Dieselgate. Braccio di ferro Usa – Germania. L’Italia latita.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-21.

Tribunale 010

«German state prosecutors have agreed to prolong the custody of an Audi technician following a U.S. governmental request for extradition in ongoing investigations of diesel emissions test cheating»

*

«Authorities in Germany hereby responded to a plea made by the U.S. Department of Justice for the preliminary arrest of the Italian national Giovanni P. to enable his extradition at a later stage»

*

«Giovanni P. has been held in police custody for over a month as the only suspect to have been arrested in Germany in the course of the “dieselgate” emission cheating scandal»

*

«The news of judicial cooperation between Berlin and Washington to instead pro-long Giovanni P.’s police custody comes only two days after his defense council filed a complaint against their client’s detention»

*

«They argued that granting the U.S. request became a necessity under international law in order to prevent Giovanni P. from leaving the country following the lodging of a complaint against his arrest»

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«If the suspect were to travel to his native Italy, for example, the U.S. Department of Justice would be unable to continue its extradition process»

*

«Giovanni P. is one of 50 suspects in the “dieselgate” scandal currently under investigation in Germany, including prominent figures such former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn»

* * * * * * *

Cerchiamo di ragionare.

– Un’operazione quale quella di manipolare i test sulle emissioni dei motori sembrerebbe essere di troppo ampia portata per essere imputabile ad un’unica persona.

– Sembrerebbe essere del tutto inverosimile che Herr Martin Winterkorn, Ceo di Volkswagen, fosse completamente all’oscuro di quanto stava accadendo: non risulta essere il prototipo di Biancaneve.

– Altrettanto inverosimile sembrerebbe essere la situazione per cui su cinquanta sospetti solo uno sia stato incarcerato, per di più con allungamento dei termini della detenzione preventiva, specie poi in una Germania iper garantista.

– Da un punto di vista giuridico la situazione sembrerebbe essere notevolmente aggrovigliata. Giovanni P. sembrerebbe essere di nazionalità italiana: ci si domanda quindi perché gli Stati Uniti ne reclamino l’estradizione alla Germania mentre non potrebbero farlo se Giovanni P. fosse in Italia. Infine, a qual diritto?

– Si resta pensierosi del fatto che ne dia notizia un’agenzia cinese a fronte del silenzio dei media occidentali.

* * * * * * *

Un malpensante potrebbe anche accarezzare l’idea che questo tipo di indagine potrebbe essere inquinato da istanze politiche.


Xinhua Net. 2017-08-21. Germany considers extraditing Audi technician of Italian national to U.S.: report

BERLIN, Aug. 18 (Xinhua) — German state prosecutors have agreed to prolong the custody of an Audi technician following a U.S. governmental request for extradition in ongoing investigations of diesel emissions test cheating, the newspaper Sueddeutsche Zeitung reports on Friday.

Authorities in Germany hereby responded to a plea made by the U.S. Department of Justice for the preliminary arrest of the Italian national Giovanni P. to enable his extradition at a later stage.

Giovanni P. has been held in police custody for over a month as the only suspect to have been arrested in Germany in the course of the “dieselgate” emission cheating scandal.

Questioned by Munich state prosecutors ten times over his alleged involvement in defrauding tens of thousands of diesel car owners, he has raised serious allegations against senior Audi managers. The defendant has also presented authorities with a folder of extensive evidence in the hopes of being released.

The news of judicial cooperation between Berlin and Washington to instead pro-long Giovanni P.’s police custody comes only two days after his defense council filed a complaint against their client’s detention.

Giovanni P.’s attorney Walter Lechner reacted with dismay to the development and accused Munich state prosecutors of employing the U.S. plea as an opportunistic means to keep the suspect under arrest. The state prosecutor had consequently made itself a “minion of the U.S. judiciary”, Lechner complained.

German justice authorities defended the move as standard judicial procedure. They argued that granting the U.S. request became a necessity under international law in order to prevent Giovanni P. from leaving the country following the lodging of a complaint against his arrest. If the suspect were to travel to his native Italy, for example, the U.S. Department of Justice would be unable to continue its extradition process.

Giovanni P. is one of 50 suspects in the “dieselgate” scandal currently under investigation in Germany, including prominent figures such former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn.

The Munich state prosecutors responsible for Giovanni P.’s case believe he was a crucial actor in Audi’s installation of illicit software to falsify diesel vehicles’ emissions levels. In stark contrast, the suspect’s defense claims that their client was a victim of scheming executives for whom the low-level technician has become a “pawn sacrifice”.

Giovanni P.’s attorneys also rejected the notion that he was a flight risk and stressed that the suspect was keen to remain in Germany and continue to cooperate with authorities there.

The U.S. request for the technician’s preliminary arrest raises serious accusations such as conspiracy to commit fraud and breaches of environmental regulations.

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Trump

Trump. Ordine esecutivo sulle infrastrutture.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-18.

2017-08-04__Trump TELEMMGLPICT000136310797-xlarge_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqHwnvh86NCImGNxSron0kTyxqUYn5PGopOSNBtx07gTA

L’Executive Order del Presidente Trump, riportato in calce in extenso, ha questo incipit:

«America needs increased infrastructure investment to strengthen our economy, enhance our competitiveness in world trade, create jobs and increase wages for our workers, and reduce the costs of goods and services for our families.  

The poor condition of America’s infrastructure has been estimated to cost a typical American household thousands of dollars each year.  

Inefficiencies in current infrastructure project decisions, including management of environmental reviews and permit decisions or authorizations, have delayed infrastructure investments, increased project costs, and blocked the American people from enjoying improved infrastructure that would benefit our economy, society, and environment.  

More efficient and effective Federal infrastructure decisions can transform our economy, so the Federal Government, as a whole, must change the way it processes environmental reviews and authorization decisions.»

* * *

«U.S. President Donald Trump on Tuesday rolled back rules regarding environmental reviews and restrictions on government-funded building projects in flood-prone areas as part of his proposal to spend $1 trillion to fix aging U.S. infrastructure»

*

«Trump’s latest executive order would speed approvals of permits for highways, bridges, pipelines and other major building efforts»

*

«It revokes an Obama-era executive order aimed at reducing exposure to flooding, sea level rise and other consequences of climate change»

* * *

In parole povere, Mr Trump sta deobamizzando gli Stati Uniti.

Eliminare tutta la burocrazia inutile, velocizzare la concessione dei permessi, rimettere in modo l’adeguamento infrastrutturale del paese e, sopratutto, tutto il settore dell’edilizia industriale. Il tutto senza vincoli ideologici, cosa questa non da poco.

Un progetto di spesa da 1,000 miliardi di dollari.

Bene scrive il giornalista di Reuters: fine dell’era Obama, quando l’unico pensiero era per il ‘clima’ e per il feeling sessuale dei liberal democratici.

Investimenti produttivi al posto di aumento delle spese correnti.

Non ci si illuda che gli effetti possano vedersi nel breve termine, ma la strada giusta è stata ingranata.

Certo, i lucrosi stipendi dei liberal democratici che si erano indovati in tutto l’apparato burocratico americano avranno serissimi contraccolpi, fino al loro licenziamento. Un atto dovuto agli Elettori ed ai Contribuenti.


Reuters. 2017-08-15. Trump infrastructure push rolls back environmental rules

WASHINGTON/NEW YORK (Reuters) – U.S. President Donald Trump on Tuesday rolled back rules regarding environmental reviews and restrictions on government-funded building projects in flood-prone areas as part of his proposal to spend $1 trillion to fix aging U.S. infrastructure.

Trump’s latest executive order would speed approvals of permits for highways, bridges, pipelines and other major building efforts. It revokes an Obama-era executive order aimed at reducing exposure to flooding, sea level rise and other consequences of climate change.

“It’s going to be quick. It’s going to be a very streamlined process. And by the way, if it doesn’t meet environmental safeguards, we’re not going to approve it – very simple,” Trump said at a press conference at Trump Tower in New York.

President Trump promised in his election campaign to press for widespread deregulation to spur business spending. The former New York real state developer has complained that it takes too long to get permits for big construction projects.

Business groups praised the streamlining of regulations, while environmental groups and others criticized the order, saying it would lead to riskier projects, waste taxpayer dollars and result in a “climate catastrophe.”

The American Petroleum Institute said in a statement that the order reflects recommendations the oil industry lobby group submitted to the Commerce Department in March. The National Association of Home Builders also praised the Trump administration’s move, saying the flood rules had raised the cost of housing.

But the environmental group Oil Change International said the order would silence local communities that have safety and environmental concerns about major projects like pipelines.

“If Trump has his way, we’ll be facing a fossil fuel buildout that locks America into climate catastrophe,” said Janet Redman, U.S. Policy Director at Oil Change International.

The order would set a two-year goal for completing permits needed on major infrastructure plans, and create a “one Federal decision” protocol that would appoint a lead federal agency to work with other agencies to complete the environmental reviews and permitting for infrastructure projects.

The Trump administration has issued dozens of rules and orders to reverse Obama-era regulations addressing climate change and its consequences such as rising sea levels and more severe storms.

The administration proposes $200 billion in government funding over 10 years as part of a goal of getting $1 trillion in public and private infrastructure spending.

The Obama-era standard required that builders factor in scientific projections for increased flooding and ensure projects can withstand rising sea levels and stronger downpours.

It required all federal agencies apply the standard to public infrastructure projects from housing to highways.

Rafael Lemaitre, former director of public affairs at FEMA who worked on the Obama-era order, said Trump is undoing “the most significant action taken in a generation” to safeguard U.S. infrastructure.

“Eliminating this requirement is self-defeating; we can either build smarter now, or put taxpayers on the hook to pay exponentially more when it floods. And it will,” he said.


The White House. 2017-08-15. Presidential Executive Order on Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure

EXECUTIVE ORDER

– – – – – – – 

ESTABLISHING DISCIPLINE AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW AND PERMITTING PROCESS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to ensure that the Federal environmental review and permitting process for infrastructure projects is coordinated, predictable, and transparent, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1.  Purpose.  America needs increased infrastructure investment to strengthen our economy, enhance our competitiveness in world trade, create jobs and increase wages for our workers, and reduce the costs of goods and services for our families.  The poor condition of America’s infrastructure has been estimated to cost a typical American household thousands of dollars each year.  Inefficiencies in current infrastructure project decisions, including management of environmental reviews and permit decisions or authorizations, have delayed infrastructure investments, increased project costs, and blocked the American people from enjoying improved infrastructure that would benefit our economy, society, and environment.  More efficient and effective Federal infrastructure decisions can transform our economy, so the Federal Government, as a whole, must change the way it processes environmental reviews and authorization decisions.

Sec. 2.  Policy.  It is the policy of the Federal Government to:

(a)  safeguard our communities and maintain a healthy environment;

(b)  ensure that Federal authorities make informed decisions concerning the environmental impacts of infrastructure projects;

(c)  develop infrastructure in an environmentally sensitive manner;

(d)  provide transparency and accountability to the public regarding environmental review and authorization decisions;

(e)  be good stewards of public funds, including those used to develop infrastructure projects, and avoid duplicative and wasteful processes;

(f)  conduct environmental reviews and authorization processes in a coordinated, consistent, predictable, and timely manner in order to give public and private investors the confidence necessary to make funding decisions for new infrastructure projects;

(g)  speak with a coordinated voice when conducting environmental reviews and making authorization decisions; and

(h)  make timely decisions with the goal of completing all Federal environmental reviews and authorization decisions for major infrastructure projects within 2 years.

Sec. 3.  Definitions.  The terms of this order shall be applied consistently with those defined under 42 U.S.C. 4370m and implementing guidance to the maximum extent possible.  The following definitions shall specifically apply:

(a)  “Authorization” means any license, permit, approval, finding, determination, or other administrative decision issued by a Federal department or agency (agency) that is required or authorized under Federal law in order to site, construct, reconstruct, or commence operations of an infrastructure project, including any authorization under 42 U.S.C. 4370m(3).

(b)  “CAP Goals” means Federal Government Priority Goals established by the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) Modernization Act of 2010, Public Law 111-352, 124 Stat. 3866, and commonly referred to as Cross-Agency Priority (CAP) Goals.

(c)  “Federal Permitting Improvement Steering Council” or “FPISC” means the entity established under 42 U.S.C. 4370m-1.

(d)  “Infrastructure project” means a project to develop the public and private physical assets that are designed to provide or support services to the general public in the following sectors:  surface transportation, including roadways, bridges, railroads, and transit; aviation; ports, including navigational channels; water resources projects; energy production and generation, including from fossil, renewable, nuclear, and hydro sources; electricity transmission; broadband internet; pipelines; stormwater and sewer infrastructure; drinking water infrastructure; and other sectors as may be determined by the FPISC.

(e)  “Major infrastructure project” means an infrastructure project for which multiple authorizations by Federal agencies will be required to proceed with construction, the lead Federal agency has determined that it will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq., and the project sponsor has identified the reasonable availability of funds sufficient to complete the project.

(f)  “Permitting timetable” means an environmental review and authorization schedule, or other equivalent schedule, for a project or group of projects that identifies milestones — including intermediate and final completion dates for action by each agency on any Federal environmental review or authorization required for a project or group of projects — that is prepared by the lead Federal agency in consultation with all cooperating and participating agencies.

Sec. 4.  Agency Performance Accountability.  Federal agencies should follow transparent and coordinated processes for conducting environmental reviews and making authorization decisions.  These processes must include early and open coordination among Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies and early engagement with the public.  Holding Federal agencies accountable for their progress on implementing the policy set forth in section 2 of this order should, among other things, produce measurably better environmental outcomes with respect to infrastructure development.

(a)  Performance Priority Goals.

(i)   CAP Goal.  A CAP Goal is a Federal tool for accelerating progress in priority areas that require active collaboration among multiple agencies to overcome organizational barriers and to achieve better performance than one agency could achieve on its own.  Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), in consultation with the FPISC, shall establish a CAP Goal on Infrastructure Permitting Modernization so that, where permitted by law:

(A)  Federal environmental reviews and authorization processes for infrastructure projects are consistent, coordinated, and predictable; and 

(B)  the time for the Federal Government’s processing of environmental reviews and authorization decisions for new major infrastructure projects should be reduced to not more than an average of approximately 2 years, measured from the date of the publication of a notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement or other benchmark deemed appropriate by the Director of OMB.

(ii)  Agency Goals.  All Federal agencies with environmental review, authorization, or consultation responsibilities for infrastructure projects shall modify their Strategic Plans and Annual Performance Plans under the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010 to include agency performance goals related to the completion of environmental reviews and authorizations for infrastructure projects consistent with the new CAP Goal on Infrastructure Permitting Modernization.  The agencies shall integrate the achievement of these performance goals into appropriate agency personnel performance plans, such as those of the agency Chief Environmental Review and Permitting Officers (CERPOs) or other appropriate officials, consistent with guidance to be provided by OMB, in consultation with the Office of Personnel Management.  Progress on these goals shall be reviewed and analyzed by agency leadership, pursuant to the GPRA Modernization Act of 2010.

(b)  Accountability.  Within 180 days of the establishment of the CAP Goal on Infrastructure Permitting Modernization, as described in subsection (a) of this section, or such longer period of time as determined by the Director of OMB, OMB, in consultation with the FPISC, shall issue guidance for establishing a performance accountability system to facilitate achievement of the CAP Goal.

(i)    Tracking of Major Infrastructure Projects.  The performance accountability system shall track each major infrastructure project.  The performance accountability system shall include, at a minimum, assessments of the agency’s performance with respect to each of the following areas, as applicable:

(A)  whether major infrastructure projects are processed using the “One Federal Decision” mechanism, as described in subsection 5(b) of this order;

(B)  whether major infrastructure projects have a permitting timetable;

(C)  whether major infrastructure projects follow an effective process that automatically elevates instances in which permitting timetable milestones are missed or extended, or are anticipated to be missed or extended, to appropriate senior agency officials;

(D)  whether agencies are meeting the established milestones in the permitting timetable;

(E)  the time it takes to complete the processing of environmental reviews and authorizations for each major infrastructure project; and 

(F)  the costs of the environmental reviews and authorizations for each major infrastructure project.

(ii)   Scoring.  The accountability system shall include a scoring mechanism that shall follow, at a minimum, the following procedures:

(A)  agencies will submit information to OMB, consistent with existing reporting mechanisms to the maximum extent possible, on the assessment areas described in subsection (b)(i) of this section;

(B)  at least once per quarter, OMB will produce a scorecard of agency performance and overall progress toward achieving CAP Goal targets;

(C)  where an agency’s inability to meet a permitting timetable milestone results in a significant delay of the project timeline, after consulting with the project sponsor and relevant agencies, agencies will submit (based on OMB guidance) an estimate of the delay’s costs to the project; and

(D)  the Director of OMB will consider each agency’s performance during budget formulation and determine whether appropriate penalties, including those authorized at 23 U.S.C. 139(h)(7) and 33 U.S.C. 2348(h)(5), must or should be imposed, to the extent required or permitted by law, for those that significantly fail to meet a permitting timetable milestone or in other situations deemed appropriate by the Director of OMB after considering the causes of any poor performance.

(iii)  Best Practices.  Agencies shall implement the techniques and strategies the FPISC annually identifies as best practices pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 4370m-1(c)(2)(B), as appropriate.  The performance accountability system shall track and score agencies on the incorporation and implementation of appropriate best practices for all infrastructure projects, including the implementation of such best practices at an agency’s field level.

Sec. 5.  Process Enhancements.  In furtherance of the policy described in section 2 of this order, Federal agencies shall follow a more unified environmental review and authorization process.

(a)  Processing of Major Infrastructure Projects.  In processing environmental reviews and authorizations for major infrastructure projects, Federal agencies shall:

(i)    use “One Federal Decision” described in subsection (b) of this section;

(ii)   develop and follow a permitting timetable, which shall be reviewed and updated at least quarterly by the lead Federal agency in consultation with Federal cooperating and participating agencies; and 

(iii)  follow an effective process that automatically elevates instances where a permitting timetable milestone is missed or extended, or is anticipated to be missed or extended, to appropriate senior agency officials of the lead Federal agency and the cooperating and participating Federal agency or agencies to which the milestone applies.

(b)  One Federal Decision.

(i)    Each major infrastructure project shall have a lead Federal agency, which shall be responsible for navigating the project through the Federal environmental review and authorization process, including the identification of a primary Federal point of contact at each Federal agency.  All Federal cooperating and participating agencies shall identify points of contact for each project, cooperate with the lead Federal agency point of contact, and respond to all reasonable requests for information from the lead Federal agency in a timely manner.

(ii)   With respect to the applicability of NEPA to a major infrastructure project, the Federal lead, cooperating, and participating agencies for each major infrastructure project shall all record any individual agency decision in one Record of Decision (ROD), which shall be coordinated by the lead Federal agency unless the project sponsor requests that agencies issue separate NEPA documents, the NEPA obligations of a cooperating or participating agency have already been satisfied, or the lead Federal agency determines that a single ROD would not best promote completion of the project’s environmental review and authorization process.  The Federal lead, cooperating, and participating agencies shall all agree to a permitting timetable that includes the completion dates for the ROD and the federally required authorizations for the project.

(iii)  All Federal authorization decisions for the construction of a major infrastructure project shall be completed within 90 days of the issuance of a ROD by the lead Federal agency, provided that the final EIS includes an adequate level of detail to inform agency decisions pursuant to their specific statutory authority and requirements.  The lead Federal agency may extend the 90-day deadline if the lead Federal agency determines that Federal law prohibits the agency from issuing its approval or permit within the 90-day period, the project sponsor requests that the permit or approval follow a different timeline, or the lead Federal agency determines that an extension would better promote completion of the project’s environmental review and authorization process.

(iv)   The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and OMB shall develop the framework for implementing One Federal Decision, in consultation with the FPISC.

(A)  The framework should be consistent with the model processes established under 42 U.S.C. 4370m-2, 23 U.S.C. 139, 33 U.S.C. 2348, the 2015 “Red Book” (officially entitled “Synchronizing Environmental Reviews for Transportation and Other Infrastructure Projects”), and CEQ guidance on efficient and timely environmental reviews under NEPA.

(B)  The framework shall also include guidance on the development of permitting timetables by the lead Federal agencies, in collaboration with Federal cooperating and participating agencies.  Permitting timetables shall identify estimated intermediate and final completion dates for all environmental reviews and authorizations that are reasonably anticipated as being needed for a project, including the process for granting extensions of any established dates.  The guidance shall specify that lead Federal agencies need not include the estimated intermediate and final completion dates of any such reviews or authorizations until the design of a project has sufficiently advanced so that they can be developed.  In such cases, the guidance shall instruct lead Federal agencies to estimate when the project’s design will be advanced enough to determine such dates.  The timelines shall account for any federally required decisions or permits that are assumed by, or delegated to, State, tribal, or local agencies and the extent to which any approval or permit to be issued by a Federal agency is dependent upon the issuance of such a decision or permit.

(C)  CEQ and OMB shall also develop guidance for applying One Federal Decision whenever the lead agency is a State, tribal, or local agency exercising an assignment or delegation of an agency’s NEPA responsibilities.

(c)  Dashboard.  All projects subject to 23 U.S.C. 139 and “covered projects” under 42 U.S.C. 4370m shall be tracked on the Dashboard established under 42 U.S.C. 4370m-2(b).  Other projects or classes of projects subject to special environmental review and authorization streamlining processes similar to those referenced in this subsection may also be tracked on the Dashboard at the discretion of the FPISC Executive Director.  The dates for milestones of all projects tracked on the Dashboard shall be updated monthly, or on another appropriate timeline as may be determined by the FPISC Executive Director.

(d)  Executive Order 13766.  For purposes of implementing Executive Order 13766 of January 24, 2017 (Expediting Environmental Reviews and Approvals for High Priority Infrastructure Projects), all infrastructure projects that meet the criteria for, and are subject to, 23 U.S.C. 139, 33 U.S.C. 2348, or 42 U.S.C. 4370m–4370m-12 shall qualify as high priority projects under Executive Order 13766.  Other projects or classes of projects subject to special environmental review and authorization streamlining processes, similar to those referenced in this subsection as may be determined by the FPISC Executive Director in consultation with OMB and CEQ, shall also qualify as high priority infrastructure projects under Executive Order 13766.  The CEQ Chairman’s responsibilities under sections 2 and 3 of Executive Order 13766 shall be satisfied by referring the project to the FPISC Executive Director, the Secretary of Transportation, or the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works, as appropriate.

(e)  Council on Environmental Quality.

(i)    Directives.  Within 30 days of the date of this order, the CEQ shall develop an initial list of actions it will take to enhance and modernize the Federal environmental review and authorization process.  Such actions should include issuing such regulations, guidance, and directives as CEQ may deem necessary to:

(A)  ensure optimal interagency coordination of environmental review and authorization decisions, including by providing for an expanded role and authorities for lead agencies, more clearly defined responsibilities for cooperating and participating agencies, and Government-wide applicability of NEPA decisions and analyses;
(B)  ensure that environmental reviews and authorization decisions involving multiple agencies are conducted in a manner that is concurrent, synchronized, timely, and efficient;

(C)  provide for agency use, to the maximum extent permitted by law, of environmental studies, analysis, and decisions conducted in support of earlier Federal, State, tribal, or local environmental reviews or authorization decisions; and

(D)  ensure that agencies apply NEPA in a manner that reduces unnecessary burdens and delays as much as possible, including by using CEQ’s authority to interpret NEPA to simplify and accelerate the NEPA review process.

(ii)   Dispute Resolution.  Except where dispute resolution processes are otherwise provided for in law, including under 42 U.S.C. 4370m-2, or by Executive Order or other Presidential directive, upon request of a lead Federal agency, cooperating agency, or participating agency, CEQ may mediate interagency disputes arising between Federal agencies concerning Federal environmental review or authorization decisions for any infrastructure project pertaining to any environmental law, regulation, order or policy, and shall facilitate resolution of any conflicting positions of the relevant agencies.

(iii)  Agency Procedures.  CEQ shall form and lead an interagency working group, consisting of the Director of OMB, agency CERPOs, and such other representatives of agencies as CEQ deems appropriate.  The working group shall review the NEPA implementing regulations and other environmental review and authorization processing policies of agencies that are members of the FPISC to identify impediments to efficient and effective environmental reviews and authorizations for infrastructure projects.  The working group shall also identify those agencies that require an action plan to address identified impediments.  Based on this review, agencies shall develop action plans that set forth the actions they will take and timelines for completing those actions, and they shall submit those action plans to CEQ and OMB for comment.  Each agency’s action plan shall, at a minimum, establish procedures for a regular review and update of categorical exclusions, where appropriate.

(f)  Federal Permitting Improvement Steering Council.

(i)   Organizational Support.  Unless otherwise determined by the Director of OMB, the General Services Administration (GSA) shall provide necessary administrative and organizational support to the FPISC, including personnel, procurement, and budget support.  The GSA Administrator, or the head of another agency designated by the Director of OMB, may delegate any authority to the FPISC Executive Director necessary for the operation and administration of the FPISC and the Office of the Executive Director, and the Executive Director may redelegate these authorities, as appropriate.

(ii)  Additional Duties.  In addition to the duties and responsibilities charged to the FPISC Executive Director under 42 U.S.C. 4370m–4370m-12 and this order, the FPISC Executive Director may, upon request of a FPISC member agency or a project sponsor, work with the lead agency or any cooperating and participating agencies to facilitate the environmental review and authorization process for any infrastructure project regardless of whether the project is a “covered project” under 42 U.S.C. 4370m, including by resolving disputes and promoting early coordination.  The FPISC Executive Director, the Director of OMB, or the Chairman of CEQ may establish any appropriate policies or procedures concerning the FPISC Executive Director’s facilitation of the environmental review and authorization process under this subsection.  Agencies must cooperate with the FPISC Executive Director with respect to the implementation of these additional duties.

(g)  Energy Corridors.  The Departments of the Interior and Agriculture, as appropriate, shall be the lead agencies for facilitating the identification and designation of energy right-of-way corridors on Federal lands for Government-wide expedited environmental review for the development of energy infrastructure projects.

(h)  The Department of the Interior shall provide to OMB a strategy and recommendations for a multi-agency reorganization effort that would further the aims of this order.  OMB, in consultation with the Department of the Interior, shall coordinate with the heads of other agencies affected to incorporate the strategy, as appropriate, into the comprehensive reorganization plan developed under Executive Order 13781 of March 13, 2017 (Comprehensive Plan for Reorganizing the Executive Branch).

Sec. 6.  Executive Order 13690 of January 30, 2015 (Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard and a Process for Further Soliciting and Considering Stakeholder Input), is revoked.

Sec. 7.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department, agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

DONALD J. TRUMP

THE WHITE HOUSE,
August 15, 2017.

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Problemia Energetici

Russia, Cina e Stati Uniti. Venezuela. I venezuelani sono comparse.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-15.

Gufo_022__

Il Venezuela è retto al momento da una dittatura. Come tutte le tirannidi, l’egemone si è circondato di persone fedeli e devote, che traggono consistenti benefici dall’essergli succubi in ogni desiderio, persone che lui ricompensa sia con denaro, sia con posti di potere, sia conferendo loro la totale immunità dei loro atti.

Quasi invariabilmente ci si sofferma sulla dittatura in atto trascurando l’analisi e la ricerca delle responsabilità del pregresso. Costantemente la storia evidenzia come le dittature attecchiscano quasi sempre in contesti caotici, spesso dopo periodi di torbidi con governi deboli e senza valido supporto.

In talune situazioni diventano il male minore. Si pensi solo alla dittatura di Napoleone.

Male minore attuale, ma quasi sempre male ben peggiore con l’andare del tempo.

Tratto caratteristico di ogni dittatura è la demonizzazione del passato, quasi che ciò potesse costituire giustificazione del presente. Manovra anche molto utilitaristica, perché ogni possibile oppositore sarebbe etichettato come “controrivoluzionario“. Nei fatti, la demonizzazione del passato è segno evidente di un regime dittatoriale.

Se all’attenzione del pubblico mondiale emergono le figure di spicco, la dittatura trova base consistente in un nugolo di microscopici personaggi senza storia che spadroneggiano impuniti ed impunibili sulla gente. Un caso per tutti: il fiduciario del governo dello stabile abitativo. È quello che può concedere o meno l’appartamento, l’uso di acqua, gas e corrente elettrica, distribuisce le tessere annonarie a piacer suo: una sorta di kapò la cui prima preoccupazione è quella di formarsi e mantenere in efficienza un harem privato e farsi un gruzzolo in valuta.

Mentre all’estero si percepiscono solo fatti eclamptici, quanti vivano sotto il regime dittatoriale conoscono per carne provata questo aspetto del potere. Spesso al punto da illudersi che il dittatore non ne sappia nulla.

Mr Maduro è un dittatore: attribuirgli una etichetta oppure un credo politico sarebbe solo un’operazione estetica, di mera cosmesi.

Innegabilmente, la schiera dei suoi supporter vive bene ed è trattata altrettanto bene: in questa enclave il dittatore è popolare e benvoluto.

* * * * * * *

L’immagine e la percezione di una dittatura all’estero è solo funzione di quanti amici e nemici essa ha fuori dal territorio che governa. Per esempio, la vecchia Unione Sovietica aveva schiere di partiti comunisti locali che la inneggiavano anche contro ogni evidenza. All’epoca, la stampa di ambedue le parti era consistentemente faziosa.

Ad oggi, leggendo i media occidentali, Maduro è identificato con satana in persona. Fuori dall’Occidente però media ed organi di comunicazione di massa sono decisamente più cauti.

Si assiste anche ad una serie di posizioni che definire ipocrite sarebbe financo poco: governi, nazioni, società e privati che a gran voce bollano la dittatura di Maduro e poi, sottobanco, commerciano allegramente con il Venezuela.

Il clou dell’ipocrisia è raggiunto dal debito estero venezuelano, nelle mani di investitori occidentali per la sua quasi interezza. Il fatto è che il Venezuela ha sempre onorato cedole e titoli in modo esemplare: è perfettamente conscio che in questo campo non può permettersi giochi strani.

«Venezuela-Bonds – Große Chance oder Totalausfall?» [Ariva]

* * * * * * *

«Collateral swap

Rosneft is also negotiating to swap its collateral in Citgo — a Venezuelan-owned, U.S.-based refiner — for more Venezuelan oilfield stakes and a fuel supply contract. The proposed deal, now in negotiations, aims to avoid complications from U.S. economic sanctions already in place against Russia and recently threatened against Venezuela.

What is Citgo?

Citgo is a subsidiary of PDVSA and its largest foreign asset. The refiner owns three refineries in Texas, Louisiana and Illinois, a pipeline and a retail fuel distribution network in the United States. Citgo has been solely owned by PDVSA since 1990.

How did Rosneft secure the collateral?

Venezuela pledged 49.9 percent of its shares in Citgo as collateral for a $1.5 billion loan from Rosneft last November.

What will Rosneft get in return?

PDVSA is offering the Russian oil giant ownership interests in two oil-and-gas projects and a lucrative fuel supply contract. The two projects, Mariscal Sucre in the Caribbean Sea and Tilaba in Lake Maracaibo, include three oilfields and two natural gas fields. Rosneft would also take increased management control over all the joint oil projects between the two state-owned firms.»

* * * * * * *

«As Caracas struggles to contain an economic meltdown and violent street protests, Moscow is using its position as Venezuela’s lender of last resort to gain more control over the OPEC nation’s crude reserves, the largest in the world»

*

«Venezuela’s state-owned oil firm, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), has been secretly negotiating since at least early this year with Russia’s biggest state-owned oil company, Rosneft, offering ownership interests in up to nine of Venezuela’s most productive petroleum projects, according to a top Venezuelan government official and two industry sources familiar with the talks»

*

«Moscow has substantial leverage in the negotiations: Cash from Russia and Rosneft has been crucial in helping the financially strapped government of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro avoid a sovereign debt default or a political coup»

*

«Rosneft delivered Venezuela’s state-owned firm more than $1 billion in April alone in exchange for a promise of oil shipments later»

*

«On at least two occasions, the Venezuelan government has used Russian cash to avoid imminent defaults on payments to bondholders»

*

«Russia’s growing control over Venezuelan crude gives it a stronger foothold in energy markets across the Americas. Rosneft now resells about 225,000 barrels per day (bpd) of Venezuelan oil – about 13 percent of the nation’s total exports, according to the PDVSA trade reports. That’s about enough to satisfy the daily demand of a country the size of Peru.»

*

«Maduro’s administration has grown increasingly dependent on Moscow in the past two years as China has curtailed credit to Venezuela because of payment delays and the corruption and crime faced by Chinese firms operating there»

*

«Rosneft currently owns substantial portions of five major Venezuelan oil projects. The additional projects PDVSA is now offering the Russian firm include five in the Orinoco – Venezuela’s largest oil producing region – along with three in Maracaibo Lake, its second-largest and oldest producing area, and a shallow-water oil project in the Paria Gulf»

*

«last month, Rosneft would swap its collateral on 49.9 percent of Citgo [PDVSAC.UL] – the Venezuelan owned, U.S.-based refiner – for stakes in three additional PDVSA oil fields, two natural gas fields and a lucrative fuel supply contract»

*

«Rosneft secured the collateral late last year on a loan of $1.5 billion to PDVSA»

* * * * * * *

Il giornalista di Reuters conclude secondo copione:

«russian oil deals undermine democracy»

Ma questa è la versione liberal democratica, tutta americana old fashion.

Guardate un po’ qua cosa riporta il The New York Times:

Goldman Buys $2.8 Billion Worth of Venezuelan Bonds, and an Uproar Begins

«Yet bonds issued by Venezuela’s national oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela, or Pdvsa, have attracted some of world’s most sophisticated investors. They are betting that the government will use its dwindling supply of dollars to pay bondholders instead of importing food and medicine for its people.»

*

«Goldman Sachs has defended the deal, saying that many other investors, including mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, own the bonds and that its asset management division bought the securities on the secondary market, without interacting with the Venezuelan government»

*

«Citgo is a subsidiary of PDVSA and its largest foreign asset. The refiner owns three refineries in Texas, Louisiana and Illinois, a pipeline and a retail fuel distribution network in the United States. Citgo has been solely owned by PDVSA since 1990»

*

Concludiamo.

Se è ovvio che tutti esercitino la Realpolitik, nessuno si scandalizza della propaganda. Ci si scandalizza quando si lasciano pescare con le mani nella marmellata. Il giornalista di Reuters non può trattarci come babbei.


Reuters. 2017-08-13. Special Report: Vladimir’s Venezuela – Leveraging loans to Caracas, Moscow snaps up oil assets

CARACAS/HOUSTON (Reuters) – Venezuela’s unraveling socialist government is increasingly turning to ally Russia for the cash and credit it needs to survive – and offering prized state-owned oil assets in return, sources familiar with the negotiations told Reuters.

As Caracas struggles to contain an economic meltdown and violent street protests, Moscow is using its position as Venezuela’s lender of last resort to gain more control over the OPEC nation’s crude reserves, the largest in the world.

Venezuela’s state-owned oil firm, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), has been secretly negotiating since at least early this year with Russia’s biggest state-owned oil company, Rosneft (ROSN.MM) – offering ownership interests in up to nine of Venezuela’s most productive petroleum projects, according to a top Venezuelan government official and two industry sources familiar with the talks.

Moscow has substantial leverage in the negotiations: Cash from Russia and Rosneft has been crucial in helping the financially strapped government of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro avoid a sovereign debt default or a political coup.

Rosneft delivered Venezuela’s state-owned firm more than $1 billion in April alone in exchange for a promise of oil shipments later. On at least two occasions, the Venezuelan government has used Russian cash to avoid imminent defaults on payments to bondholders, a high-level PDVSA official told Reuters.

Rosneft has also positioned itself as a middleman in sales of Venezuelan oil to customers worldwide. Much of it ends up at refineries in the United States – despite U.S. sanctions against Russia – because it is sold through intermediaries such as oil trading firms, according to internal PDVSA trade reports seen by Reuters and a source at the firm.

PDVSA and the government of Venezuela did not respond to requests for comment.

The Russian government declined to comment and referred questions to the foreign ministry and the ministries of finance and defense, which did not respond to questions from Reuters. Rosneft declined to comment.

Russia’s growing control over Venezuelan crude gives it a stronger foothold in energy markets across the Americas. Rosneft now resells about 225,000 barrels per day (bpd) of Venezuelan oil – about 13 percent of the nation’s total exports, according to the PDVSA trade reports. That’s about enough to satisfy the daily demand of a country the size of Peru.

Venezuela gives Rosneft most of that oil as payment for billions of dollars in cash loans that Maduro’s government has already spent. His administration needs Russia’s money to finance everything from bond payments to imports of food and medicine amid severe national shortages.

For a graphic detailing the decline of Venezuela’s oil industry, see: tmsnrt.rs/2fwsuCV

Venezuela’s opposition lawmakers say Russia is behaving more like a predator than an ally.

“Rosneft is definitely taking advantage of the situation,” said Elias Matta, vice president of the energy commission at Venezuela’s elected National Assembly. “They know this is a weak government; that it’s desperate for cash – and they’re sharks.”

Matta echoed many others in the opposition-majority congress who have blasted corporate deals they say are underpinning Maduro’s efforts to establish a dictatorship.

The Venezuelan government has said previously that Russia’s investment in its oil industry shows confidence in PDVSA’s financial stability and the nation’s business opportunities.

Maduro’s administration has grown increasingly dependent on Moscow in the past two years as China has curtailed credit to Venezuela because of payment delays and the corruption and crime faced by Chinese firms operating there, according to Venezuelan debt analysts and two oil industry sources.

Many multinational firms worldwide, meanwhile, have all but written off their Venezuelan operations amid the nation’s tanking economy and chronic shortages of raw materials.

Rosneft is making the opposite play – using Venezuela’s hard times as a buying opportunity for oil assets with potentially high long-term value.

“The Russians are catching Venezuela at rock bottom,” said one Western diplomat who has worked on issues involving Venezuela’s oil industry in recent years.

As other companies shutter operations here, Rosneft has expanded to an additional floor of its office tower and added staff. The Russian firm has poached PDVSA professionals and brought in more Russian executives, two sources close to Rosneft told Reuters.

The corporate expansion provides a striking contrast to the scene on the streets below these days, in the once-thriving business district of Caracas.

As Rosneft staffers work in swanky offices alongside posters of Russian President Vladimir Putin and a bust of Hugo Chavez – the late Venezuelan leader and socialist icon – crowds of young men outside often throw rocks and Molotov cocktails in escalating protests of Chavez’ successor.

Rosneft currently owns substantial portions of five major Venezuelan oil projects. The additional projects PDVSA is now offering the Russian firm include five in the Orinoco – Venezuela’s largest oil producing region – along with three in Maracaibo Lake, its second-largest and oldest producing area, and a shallow-water oil project in the Paria Gulf, the two industry sources told Reuters.

In a separate proposal first reported by Reuters last month, Rosneft would swap its collateral on 49.9 percent of Citgo [PDVSAC.UL] – the Venezuelan owned, U.S.-based refiner – for stakes in three additional PDVSA oil fields, two natural gas fields and a lucrative fuel supply contract, according to two sources with knowledge of the negotiations.

Under the proposal, Rosneft would also take increased management control over all the joint oil projects between the two firms.

Rosneft secured the collateral late last year on a loan of $1.5 billion to PDVSA.

The negotiations over a collateral swap are driven in part by a recent threat from U.S. President Donald Trump to sanction Venezuela’s oil sector as punishment for Maduro’s efforts to undermine the nation’s elected congress.

Rosneft has already been sanctioned by the United States over Russia’s annexation of Crimea from Ukraine in 2014. Such actions require U.S. firms to end business relations with sanctioned entities.

RUSSIAN OIL DEALS UNDERMINE DEMOCRACY

Maduro’s need for Russian cash played a key role in a move by his political allies earlier this year that destabilized Venezuela’s already teetering democracy, the top Venezuelan government official told Reuters.

In March, the nation’s Supreme Court – whose members are loyal to Maduro – took over the powers of the opposition-controlled National Assembly. A majority of elected Assembly members opposed any new oil deals with Russia and insisted on retaining power to veto them.

Days later – after fierce national protests against the action – the court returned most powers to the national legislature at Maduro’s public urging. But the court allowed the president to keep the legal authority to cut fresh oil deals with Russia without legislative approval.

The episode was pivotal in escalating daily street protests and clashes with authorities that have since caused more than 120 deaths.

Maduro needed sole authority to cut new oil deals to clear the way for Rosneft’s expansion, the top Venezuelan government official told Reuters.

“Pressure from Russia has played an important role in Nicolas Maduro’s decisions,” the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to make public comments.

Rosneft said this month that it has lent a total of $6 billion to PDVSA. In total, Russia and Rosneft have delivered Venezuela at least $17 billion in loans and credit lines since 2006, according to Reuters calculations based on loans and credit lines announced by the government.

Venezuela does not publish the full details of the debts it owes Russia.

Maduro has sought to limit the power of congress since the opposition won a majority in 2015.

In late July, he created a legislative superbody called the Constituent Assembly in an election that was widely criticized as a sham. Allies of the Socialist Party won all 545 seats in the new assembly, which has the power to rewrite the nation’s constitution, dissolve state institutions – such as the opposition-run Congress – and fire dissident state officials.

SPIRAL OF DEBT, DEPENDENCE

Venezuela’s oil-based economy has collapsed since international prices crashed to a low of $24 per barrel in early 2016 from more than $100 in 2014. Prices now hover at about $50, which hasn’t proven high enough to pull Venezuela out of its tailspin.

Nearly all of the nation’s export revenue comes from oil, so income has fallen sharply and a shortage of petrodollars has left Maduro’s government unable to finance the generous subsidies of food, medicines, fuels, power and other public services instituted by his predecessor, Chavez.

The erosion of subsidies has contributed to rapid inflation, which is forecasted to top 700 percent this year by the International Monetary Fund. Venezuela’s currency, the bolivar, has become nearly worthless.

Government spending cuts have also slashed budgets for maintaining the nation’s oilfields, refineries, ports and tankers, causing Venezuela’s oil output in the first half of 2017 to fall to nearly its lowest level in 27 years.

PDVSA is repaying a growing portion of its mounting debts to Russia with oil, according to internal PDVSA trade data reviewed by Reuters. The oil payments are choking off the cash flow from its petroleum business – thereby creating the need for more loans.

CIRCLING OIL ASSETS

The nation’s downward spiral has put Rosneft in a position to acquire Venezuelan oil assets on the cheap.

Of the package of stakes PDVSA has offered to Rosneft, the most valuable is a 10 percent stake in Petropiar, a multi-billion dollar project to produce and upgrade extra heavy crude in the Orinoco Belt.

The value of the stake is likely between $600 million and $800 million, based on the valuations of similar deals.

The rising volumes of Venezuelan crude that Rosneft receives have made the Russian firm a middleman in sales to refiners that once bought directly from PDVSA. The oil payments have also helped Rosneft grow a major oil trading business to complement its massive production apparatus.

In the process, the Russian firm has appropriated some of PDVSA’s hard-won international supply deals and valuable trading relationships with refiners as far afield as China, the PDVSA documents show.

At today’s prices, the Venezuelan oil exports that flow to Rosneft would be worth about $3.6 billion annually. And the flow of PDVSA crude to Rosneft is expected to keep increasing, according to the internal PDVSA documents.

Most of it is sold into the United States, according to the documents.

Rosneft also will soon start selling Venezuelan crude to India’s refiner Essar, taking PDVSA’s second largest customer in the Asian country.

“Russia is taking everything they have,” said an oil trader who regularly deals with PDVSA.

A DICEY INVESTMENT

The Russian strategy has its risks. Many of the world’s top energy firms took a hit when Chavez nationalized their assets, and an opposition-led government could later reverse or revise any deals Maduro cuts without their blessing.

Venezuela’s bond yields are among the highest in the world because of the nation’s high default risk. The bonds pay nearly 30 percentage points more than benchmark U.S. treasuries.

PDVSA’s many connections to the United States oil industry also raise the specter that the deals now under negotiation could run afoul of U.S. economic sanctions already in place against Russia and threatened against Venezuela.

The Petropiar project, for instance, is 30 percent owned by U.S. oil major Chevron Corp (CVX.N).

Should Rosneft take a stake in the project, it could be complicated for Chevron to ensure it is not violating U.S. sanctions. In the meantime, Chevron has sent guidelines to executives to ensure they comply with sanctions, an employee at Chevron told Reuters.

The guidelines advise staff, for instance, to avoid one-on-one meetings with sanctioned entities or officials, the employee said. In a statement, Chevron said it abides by “a stringent code of business ethics” and complies with applicable laws.

For now, Russia’s status as chief lender to PDVSA has put Rosneft in a position to supercharge its holdings and profits in the region.

If Venezuela’s government defaults on its debt payments – an increasingly likely scenario – Rosneft likely will be one of the entities at the front of the queue as a creditor because of its large collateral stake in U.S.-based Citgo, according to a confidential independent analysis of its debt commissioned by an investment fund and seen by Reuters.

Representatives of Citgo, PDVSA’S largest foreign asset, did not respond to requests for comment.

GUNS FOR OIL

Rosneft’s involvement in Venezuela can be traced back to a $4 billion arms-for-oil deal in 2006 that cemented the bond between the governments of Chavez and Putin. Chavez, a former military officer, signed the deal himself in Moscow.

Shunned by the United States – which since 2006 has refused to supply spare parts for Venezuela’s fleet of U.S.-built F-16 fighter jets – Chavez bought Russian Sukhoi fighter jets, helicopters, tanks and guns from Putin.

Top executives from Rosneft and PDVSA were later involved in negotiations related to the military purchases because Rosneft was the Russian entity receiving the Venezuelan oil cargoes used to pay for a portion of the weapons, the top Venezuelan government official told Reuters.

They included Rosneft President Igor Sechin, a powerful long-time advisor and deputy to Putin. Sechin is a trained linguist who began his career as a military interpreter and has a passion for the history of Latin America’s revolutionaries, according to two people who worked with him.

He had a direct line into Chavez until the former president’s death in 2013, the Venezuelan official told Reuters. Sechin has maintained close ties with Maduro and the two meet regularly, the official said.

Speaking to reporters in at a hydroelectric plant in Russia last week, Sechin called Rosneft’s growing investments in Venezuela an obvious and essential play.

“This is a country with the world’s hydrocarbon reserves,” he said, referring to a central component of oil and natural gas. “Any energy company should aim to work in this country … No one could force us from there.”

Russia was swift to defend Maduro’s government from international criticism after the Supreme Court moved to nullify congress, with Moscow issuing a statement saying foreign governments should not meddle in Venezuelan domestic politics.

Sechin was Maduro’s guest of honor at a ceremony last October to unveil a Russian-made granite statue of Chavez erected in the late president’s hometown of Sabaneta.

In the sweltering heat, a Russian choir dressed in black sang the Venezuelan anthem in heavily accented Spanish before Sechin addressed the crowds of mostly red-shirted Socialist Party supporters.

“Thank you for trusting us,” Sechin told the crowd in Spanish during the speech, broadcast on Venezuelan state television. “Russia and Venezuela, together forever!”

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Usa. A giugno il deficit commerciale scende a 43.6 miliardi Usd (-5.9%).

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-08.

2017-08-06__Debito_amricano__001

Una cosa sono le parole, ed una del tutto differente sono i fatti.

I numeri poi inchiodano alla realtà meglio di ogni altro possibile chiodo: si potrà discuterne, ma non ignorarli.

Ad oggi, il debito totale degli Stati Uniti ha raggiunto la cifra di 67,666 miliardi di dollari, contro un pil stimabile attorno ai 19,359 miliardi.

In questa somma sono compresi i 1,220 miliardi di debiti degli stati ed i 1,948 miliardi di debiti locali.

Sono cifre da capogiro, che ben rendono conto della gravità del problema.

Gli americani consumano molto più di quanto producano. Lo stesso identico problema che alla fine portò al collasso l’Impero Romano.

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«The U.S. trade deficit narrowed in June as exports hit the highest level in 2 years»

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«The Commerce Department said Friday that the trade gap slid 5.9 percent in June to $43.6 billion»

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«The Commerce Department said Friday that the trade gap slid 5.9 percent in June to $43.6 billion.

Exports of goods and services rose 1.2 percent to $194.4 billion, the highest amount since December 2014 on higher foreign demand for American soybeans, computer accessories and other products. Services exports reached a record $65.4 billion»

*

«The deficit means the United States is buying more goods and services from other countries than it is selling them. A shrinking trade gap boosts U.S. economic growth»

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Tutto si svolge nel tempo e tutto richiede i suoi tempi. Si semina in autunno per raccogliere nell’estate successiva.

Se è vero che l’essere umano viva il presente quasi dimentico del passato ed incurante del futuro, se è vero che il futuro sia spesso impredicibile per l’emergenza di fatti nuovi ed imprevisti, sarebbe altrettanto vero considerare che ogni persona ed ogni popolo si costruiscano il loro futuro con le azioni che decidano di compiere.

Questa libertà decisionale è alla fine ciò che determina la responsabilità personale e collettiva di quanto sia stato fatto.

Vi sono concetti di fondo ai quali è possibile derogare per periodi limitati, ma sempre ben consapevoli delle conseguenze: per esempio, come sia impossibile vivere sine die di debiti.

Si ponga una grande cura nel valutare i debiti: il loro contenuto logico e le loro conseguenze differiscono in modo sostanziale a seconda della loro natura.

Una cosa sono i debiti contratti per avviare una qualche attività produttiva che, una volta impiantata ed in essere, dovrebbe rendere a sufficienza per ammortizzare i debiti contratti e generare degli utili.

Una cosa totalmente diversa, opposta, sono i debiti contratti per finanziare spese correnti, non produttive.

Questo è il motivo per cui

«A shrinking trade gap boosts U.S. economic growth».

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L’entità dei debiti può essere determinata con una semplice contabilità, ma ai più è materia ostica la lettura dei bilanci.

Questo pone un severo problema sia per persone sia per collettività: quello della percezione del debito, e molto dipende dal modo con cui il debito è stato contratto.

Il nodo sono le clausole del rientro.

Il privato che contraesse un mutuo bancario sarebbe solitamente tenuto a rimborsare il creditore versandogli mese dopo mese un parziale rimborso cui si devono sommare gli interessi. In questa situazione la percezione del debito è ben evidente: nessuno può dimenticarsi di quanto deve ed ha anche la corretta percezione di quanto sia la sua reale capacità di indebitamento massimo. Non può permettersi dei ratei di portata tale da impedirgli di vivere.

La percezione del debito resta tuttavia offuscata nel caso che esso debba essere reso in toto dopo un certo quale lasso di tempo, versando o meno interessi. In questa situazione si potrebbe vivere “tranquilli” fino all’avvicinarsi della scadenza. Ma se non siano stati fatti i doverosi accantonamenti, al momento della resa di capitali ed interessi i triboli emergono immediatamente in tutta la loro gravità.

Quest’ultima è la situazione classica dei debiti pubblici.

A ciò si aggiunga un altro sentimento ben poco razionale ma altrettanto ben radicato nelle menti.

È l’illusione, la pia speranza, che al momento del rimborso qualche santo ci pensi, che i debiti siano una preoccupazione più dei creditori che dei debitori, che alla fine la Collettività si farà onere del rimborso. Ma le risorse non sono infinite.

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Sarebbe errato elevare canti trionfalistici sulla base di questo solo dato.

Le azioni dell’Amministrazione Trump, specie poi quella della svalutazione del dollaro, potranno essere giudicate soltanto tra qualche anno.

Salutiamo però questo primo evento foriero di una inversione di tendenza.


ABC News. 2017-08-04. US trade deficit narrowed to $43.6 billion in June

The U.S. trade deficit narrowed in June as exports hit the highest level in 2 years.

The Commerce Department said Friday that the trade gap slid 5.9 percent in June to $43.6 billion.

Exports of goods and services rose 1.2 percent to $194.4 billion, the highest amount since December 2014 on higher foreign demand for American soybeans, computer accessories and other products. Services exports reached a record $65.4 billion.

U.S. exports may be getting a lift from a pickup in global economic growth and a drop in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies. A weaker dollar makes American products a better bargain in foreign markets.

Overall imports slipped 0.2 percent to $238 billion on a drop in demand for cellphones and other household goods.

So far this year, the trade deficit is up 10.7 percent to $276.6 billion.

The deficit means the United States is buying more goods and services from other countries than it is selling them. A shrinking trade gap boosts U.S. economic growth.

President Donald Trump has vowed to bring down America’s trade deficits, saying they are caused by bad trade deals and abusive practices by China and other U.S. trading partners.

The deficit in goods with China rose 3.1 percent in June to $32.6 billion and is up 6.1 percent to $170.7 billion so far this year.

The goods deficit with Mexico slid 18.3 percent in June to $6 billion. The Trump administration is preparing to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico and Canada. Trump has complained that NAFTA encourages U.S. manufacturers to move to Mexico to take advantage of cheaper labor.

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Geopolitica Mondiale

Rep Ceka e Cina. Attiva la ferrovia Praga – Yiwu.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-08.

Gufo_022__

Quando giunse la notizia che Cristoforo Colombo aveva scoperto l’America navigando per conto degli spagnoli, il senato di Genova si radunò in seduta plenaria nella sala del Gran Consiglio.

Constatarono che nulla potevano fare e che sarebbe stata spesa inutile allestire una flotta di altura, vista la collocazione geografica della Repubblica. Prese però una decisione e si somma importanza: la Repubblica avrebbe dovuto favorire lo sviluppo del sistema bancario genovese, peraltro già florido.

Pochi anni dopo, agli inizi del ‘500, si ripeté la scena: Vasco da Gama aveva aperto la via marittima per le Indie ed era tornato con la nave stracarica di spezie comprate a prezzi irrisori. Questo evento segnò la fine del commercio terrestre delle spezie fatto dagli arabi fino al Mediterraneo, e dì li smistato da Genovesi e Veneziani all’Occidente. Il Senato constatò che era terminata una lunga fase commerciale, e si riconfermò nelle decisioni già prese.

Grazie al loro buon senso iniziava quello che fu poi denominato il Siglo de Oro.

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Gli elementi del successo genovese sono molteplici, ma due spiccano: il saper prendere atto di una realtà attuale e dei suoi sviluppi futuri, anche se agli inizi quella realtà era di minima portata, ed in secondo luogo il saper riciclare nell’unica attività che loro si poteva offrire: l’avventura finanziaria per cui i genovesi divennero i banchieri dei regni, in diretta concorrenza con i Fugger di Augusta.

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Questo lungo preambolo non è stato messo a caso: serve per aiutare a capire a fondo quanto è accaduto in questi giorni.

«The freight train X8074 from Prague arrives in Yiwu, east China’s Zhejiang Province, Aug. 4, 2017. The first freight train from Prague, the Czech Republic to Yiwu arrived at Yiwu west freight station at about 11:00 a.m. Friday after a 16-day journey»

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«The train carried 82 containers of crystal products, automobile accessories, beer and some other Czech products, with total value of about five million U.S. dollars»

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«opened up a safe, fast, economic, green railway international logistics channel»

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«As of the end of July 2017, Yiwu West freight station has been set up in the Central and European countries 214 times, a total of 17204 TEU delivery. Currently, from Spain, Spain, London, Czech Republic, Czech Republic, Prague back to Yiwu, China and Europe have achieved weekly»

* * * * * * *

Questa linea ferroviaria è stata progettata per regger fino a 500 convogli al giorno, 40,000 container al dì, circa duecento milioni di dollari. In un prossimo futuro si dipanerà fino alla Polonia a nord, Belgrado ed il Pireo, che è già cinese, a sud. Ma nulla vieta di pensare a linee raddoppiate oppure triplicate, operazioni rese ben più facili dall’avere già una linea attiva in essere.

Inoltre, il Kazakhstan, quel paese interno dell’Asia che confina a nord con la Russia, ad ovest con il Mar Caspio ed ad est con la Cina, si conquista una via di comunicazione eccellente, sia verso est sia verso ovest. Nessuno in Cina, principale finanziatrice dell’opera, si è mai posto problemi sul governo di Mr Nursultan Äbişulı Nazarbaev, il quale non rientra certo nei canoni valoriali di Frau Merkel, che infatti ha fatto il suo possibile per boicottare questa iniziativa, ma non essendo onnipotente, con ben scarsi risultati, tranne quello di rendersi molto poco popolare.

Se si è perfettamente consci che questo sia stato il primo convoglio, si è altrettanto consci che gli sviluppi dovrebbe ripagare pienamente questo cospicuo investimento.

La carta geografica è utile per capire il problema logistico dei paesi centro europei, del Visegrad, mentre il mappamondo lo sarebbe per captare visivamente l’importanza strategica.

La distanza in linea d’aria tra Praga e Pekino è circa 8,500 kilometri, ma lo sviluppo ferroviario è circa 13,000 kilometri. Al moment coperti in sedici giorni, ivi comprese le tappe, ma a regime percorribili in circa una settimana, contro i sessanta – ottanta giorni richiesti dal’invio via mare.

Ma la rotta marittima prevede il passaggio del Kattegat e dello Skagerrak, quindi dello stretto di Gibilterra, del canale di Suez, dello stretto di Aden ed infine di quello della Malacca. Tutti punti facilmente rendibili interdetti. Se è vero che l’accesso al Mediterraneo tramite il porto del Pireo è pur sempre bloccabile a Suez ed a Gibilterra, è anche vero che bypassa la capricciosa Turkia che governa i Dardanelli.

Senza uno sbocco al mare, i Paesi del Visegrad dipendono strettamente dalla loro capacità di mantenere buoni rapporti con i paesi viciniori che consentono, spesso riluttanti, il transito delle merci sui loro territori. Sono spesso contratti capestro: sia in termini di costi diretti, sia in termini di obbligo a servirsi di determinati servizi, per esempio, quelli di trasporto marittimo. Il trasporto diretto su strada ferrata da e verso la Cina abbatte i costi totali, ivi compresi i signoraggi, di quasi dieci volte. Ma non è solo un problema di risparmio economico: questa linea di comunicazione appare sicura. Politicamente e militarmente.

Il quadro strategico sarebbe però incompleto, almeno nelle sue grandi linee, se non si menzionassero gli attriti in corso tra i paesi del Visegrad e l’Unione Europea.

Al crollo dell’Unione Sovietica i paesi del Visegrad entrarono nella Nato. Loro mettevano a disposizione il loro territorio in cambio della ovvia protezione termonucleare e di aiuti economici straordinari, che avrebbero dovuto essere a carico dell’allora Unione Europea, che alla fine consentì loro di entrare. Saggiamente i paesi del Visegrad non aderirono all’euro ed all’Eurozona.

Con l’avvento della cancelleria Merkel e, poi, con la Amministrazione Obama, la Germania iniziò a nutrire forti ambizioni egemoni sull’Europa, cui voleva imporre la propria ideologia valoriale: in poche parole, voleva perseguire un’unione politica de facto sotto il proprio controllo. I paesi del Visegrad si ribellarono: nelle elezioni i partiti pro-Unione Europea furono severamente penalizzati ed i partiti vincenti vollero riappropriarsi del proprio retaggio religioso, storico, culturale e sociale. Gli attriti salirono rapidamente al calor rovente, specie con Polonia ed Ungheria.

Sembrerebbe del tutto ragionevole che attriti di questo tipo proseguano fino a tanto che Frau Merkel, volente o nolente, non cambi comportamento.

Sotto questa ottica, il Visegrad si trova ora in mano una carta di portata strategica: in un prossimo futuro potrebbe dipendere molto poco dall’Unione Europea, sempre poi che questa riesca a sopravvivere abbastanza a lungo, cosa su cui molti iniziano a nutrire dei dubbi seri.

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Quando la São Gabriel, la São Rafael e la Santa Fé attraccarono a Lisbona il 9 settembre 1499 i portoghesi fecero gran festa. Gli equipaggi si arricchirono vendendo le spezie con ricavi di mille ad uno. Tutti si rendevano conto della portata storica dell’evento e non vedevano l’ora di imbarcarsi per il viaggio della ricchezza. Eppure erano tre ‘navi’ da cento tonnellate l’una. Tuttavia i loro sogni si dimostrarono essere di gran lunga inferiori alla realtà futura.


Xinhua. 2017-08-05. First freight train from Czech’s Prague to E China’s Yiwu

The freight train X8074 from Prague arrives in Yiwu, east China’s Zhejiang Province, Aug. 4, 2017. The first freight train from Prague, the Czech Republic to Yiwu arrived at Yiwu west freight station at about 11:00 a.m. Friday after a 16-day journey. The train carried 82 containers of crystal products, automobile accessories, beer and some other Czech products, with total value of about five million U.S. dollars.


Top News. 2017-08-05. The first trip from the Czech Republic, Prague opened in the EU-China arrived in Zhejiang Yiwu

Yiwu August 4 (Reporter Xi Jinyan) at 11:18 on August 4, loaded with 82 pieces of Czech goods standard container X8074 times in Central Europe (Prague – Yiwu) to reach the railway Yiwu West freight station. With the railway Yiwu West freight station to open the EU-China international freight line, in more than two years from a rapid increase to the ninth, but also opened up a safe, fast, economic, green railway international logistics channel, but also signs With the return of Yiwu, China and the EU are becoming more and more normal, accelerating the economic and trade exchanges between Yiwu and Central Europe and interconnection.

It is reported that this is the Shanghai Railway Bureau Jinhua Cargo Center, China Railway Container Company Shanghai Branch and other railway departments and the relevant departments of Yiwu municipal government, Yiwu customs, commodity inspection, Yiwu Tianyuan company, Yiwu railway port and other road cooperation crystallization.

(Prague – Yiwu), the main goods for the crystal products, auto parts, beer and other Czech special products, the total value of about 5 million US dollars, the class run time lasted 16 days, the first batch of goods from the Czech capital Prague, Way Poland, Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, the final smooth arrival of Yiwu railway port.

China and the EU (Prague – Yiwu) is an important carrier for the construction of the Czech station in Zhejiang Province. It is a new bridge for the trade between China and Czech Republic. The trip from Prague is the first since the opening of the China-Europe The first departure from the European routes, but also Yiwu West freight station following the trip to Spain Madrid, the United Kingdom London, Russia, Belarus, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia and other countries (regions) after the ninth China-EU international freight class (Prague – Yiwu) to open the line for the Silk Road into the fresh blood, as ‘one way along the way’ to build a new hub for the Czech Republic trade opened up a new channel.

As of the end of July 2017, Yiwu West freight station has been set up in the Central and European countries 214 times, a total of 17204 TEU delivery. Currently, from Spain, Spain, London, Czech Republic, Czech Republic, Prague back to Yiwu, China and Europe have achieved weekly (The end of the day).


Visegrad Post. 2017-08-05. China Sold High-Speed Trains to Czechia

Czech Republic – China has signed a contract to sell three high-speed train trains to Czechia. This is the first Chinese contract for high-speed trains with a country of the European Union.

On December 21, the CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive group signed a contract worth 20 million euros with the Czech railway company Leo Express, according to the China News Service. According to the agency, trains will run at a speed of 160 km/h and will also be compatible with the Polish and Slovak railway networks. The first train is due to mid 2018.

In 2015, the same Chinese group delivered the same type of train to Macedonia, which is on the road linking the port of Piraeus in Greece, of which China is now majority shareholder, to Belgrade.

As for the high-speed railway linking Belgrade to Budapest, it is planned for the end of 2017 and is financed at 85% by Chinese credits.

Cooperation with China is increasing in Central Europe

This contract is in line with the Chinese project of the New Silk Road. In March 2016, Czech President Zeman had received his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping to talk about the canal project linking the Danube, the Oder and the Elbe.

In June, the President of China visited Poland, where railway projects were also at the center of discussions.

The New Silk Road project is a long-term investment by China, which involves considerably Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Balkans. As a means of developing missing infrastructure in the region, the heads of states of the CEECs (Central and Eastern European countries) support this cooperation, which is growing every year.


The Telegraph. 2017-06-29. Co-operation between China and Europe runs through Kazakhstan

The Central Asian Republics of the former Soviet Union are hoping to reap the important economic benefits of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) summit in Kazakhstan took place on 8-9 June. The next day, the 2017 Astana Expo, which is scheduled to last for three months, got under way. These two events are indicative of Kazakhstan’s – and Central Asia’s – growing geopolitical and geoeconomic importance.

China and Russia are the biggest nations that are currently members of the SCO. The other four are all Central Asian states: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.

Thus, due to its membership, the focus so far of the SCO is undoubtedly on Central Asia. This is also a vital region for the Silk Road Economic Belt, which is half of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

The Silk Road Economic Belt’s overland route to Europe passes through Central Asia. Rail links are undoubtedly the most important aspect of this route. Up to now the performance of these railways has been steady but relatively unspectacular. However, that is set to change as China puts an increasing emphasis on connectivity across the Eurasian landmass.

At a recent conference in Poland, scholars from Sichuan University in Chengdu emphasised how much the China-Europe rail connection has progressed in recent months. In May, for the first time, Polish apples were delivered to Chengdu’s markets by train, they said – and several weeks faster than via the maritime route, demonstrating what can be achieved.

Apples may seem like an insignificant trade item, but in terms of Sino-European co-operation via the Central Asian route, their delivery represents more than a symbolic step forward.

While the number of trains between China and Europe has been increasing rapidly, most of the wagons sent from China have been coming back empty up to now. The fact that Europeans are beginning to see the possibilities for exporting goods to China by rail brings a new dimension to the emerging land route across Russia and Kazakhstan.

The Sichuan University academics pointed out that the city of Chengdu is building a huge railway port to deal with trade to and from Europe.

Next to the port there is a market, some sections of which are set up to sell European luxury goods and other items. The railway through Central Asia is clearly assuming ever greater significance for landlocked Sichuan.

They said that the next step is to persuade European companies that the new trade route can be profitable, and that there are Chinese customers who wish to buy their products. If that happens, the Silk Road Economic Belt will really begin to take off as momentum gathers and more entrepreneurs begin to understand the route’s potential.

As far as Central Asia is concerned, growing Sino-European trade would only be good news. As the route crosses their territories, Central Asians can also cash in, receiving a percentage of the proceeds generated and boosting their economies.

Encouraging increasing economic interdependence between countries is one of the main aims of the Belt and Road Initiative. Improving infrastructure and transport links between countries along the new Silk Road is key to the success of China’s initiative.

At the same time, it is important to remember that the Silk Road Economic Belt is based not on unrealistic dreams but on sound economic principles of supply and demand.

As new markets are created, there is money to be made by anybody who gets involved. This is the reason why President Xi Jinping, who visited Kazakhstan for the SCO summit and the opening of the Astana Expo, continually stresses that the Belt and Road Initiative is intended to create win-win synergies across the more than 60 nations included.

As a facilitating body, the SCO is also key to the success of the new Silk Road’s land route. By providing a forum in which the interested parties can exchange ideas and information, it helps to smooth possible tensions and create an atmosphere of trust, most notably between China and Russia.

Central Asians, who have historical ties to Russia, understand the importance of maintaining a working relationship with their massive northern neighbour. Finding synergies between the SCO and Russia’s Eurasian Economic Union is therefore crucial to the success of the Belt and Road as far as all involved parties are concerned.

Europeans also should realise that it is in their interests to hope for positive outcomes from the SCO summit, and improved links with China via Central Asia and Russia. The world evolves through accepting change rather than resisting it.

Exploring ways to integrate European markets with Asian ones will benefit Europeans, too. The route to China, which passes through Kazakhstan and Central Asia, is therefore likely to turn out to be a vital one as European and Asian markets continue to become economically interdependent during the remainder of the 21st century.