Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici

Carbone. Dai 46.9$ per tonnellata a settembre agli attuali 148.6$.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-07-20.

2021-07-20__ Coal 001

«Coal futures surged to almost $150 a tonne in July»

«Coal is the major fuel used for generating electricity worldwide»

«The biggest producer and consumer of coal is China»

«China’s biggest industrial provinces has pushed the electricity consumption to unprecedented levels»

«Other big producers include: United States, India, Australia, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, Germany and Poland»

«The biggest exporters of coal are: Indonesia, Australia, Russia, United States, Colombia, South Africa and Kazakhstan»

«The coal prices have risen almost 40% since the beginning of May as warmer weather boosted demand in Japan, South Korea, and the United States, and production declined in Indonesia and Australia due to flooding»

* * * * * * *

Checché ne pensino e ne dicano i liberal socialisti, al momento attuale a livello mondiale il carbone è la principale fonte energetica con la quale genere corrente elettrica.

In un anno i prezzi del carbone sono quadruplicati, ripercuotendosi pesantemente sui costi di produzione della corrente elettrica. Ma questi maggiori costi si riverberano su quelli della produzione e, quindi, sui costi al consumo.

In poche parole, i rincari del costo del carbone sono significativa concausa dell’incremento della inflazione.

*


«Coal.

Coal futures surged to almost $150 a tonne in July, the highest level in a decade as a heat wave in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Guangdong, China’s biggest industrial provinces has pushed the electricity consumption to unprecedented levels. Meanwhile, local supply remains limited as drought knocked hydropower generation in Yunnan province, output restrictions remain in place in Shanxi production hubs amid tighter safety inspections and environmental curbs, and as a trade spat with Australia has crimped imports. The coal prices have risen almost 40% since the beginning of May as warmer weather boosted demand in Japan, South Korea, and the United States, and production declined in Indonesia and Australia due to flooding.

Coal futures are available for trading in the Intercontinental Exchange and on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The standard GC Newcastle contact listed on ICE weights 1,000 metric tonnes. Coal is the major fuel used for generating electricity worldwide. The biggest producer and consumer of coal is China. Other big producers include: United States, India, Australia, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, Germany and Poland. The biggest exporters of coal are: Indonesia, Australia, Russia, United States, Colombia, South Africa and Kazakhstan. Coal prices displayed in Trading Economics are based on over-the-counter (OTC) and contract for difference (CFD) financial instruments. Our coal prices are intended to provide you with a reference only, rather than as a basis for making trading decisions. Trading Economics does not verify any data and disclaims any obligation to do so.» [Fonte]

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Fisco e Tasse, Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici

Italia. Carburanti. Benzina a 1.77 e diesel a 1.64 euro al litro. E siamo solo agli inizi.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-07-08.

Brueghel il Giovane. Pagamento delle Tasse. Fisher_Museum_of_Art

«È stato un fine settimana di aumenti generalizzati per i prezzi dei carburanti»

«Con il Brent abbondantemente sopra i 76 dollari»

«il prezzo medio nazionale praticato della benzina, in modalità self, va a 1,637 euro/litro (venerdì 1,632) con i diversi marchi compresi tra 1,629 e 1,649 euro/litro (no logo 1,620)»

«Il prezzo medio praticato del diesel, sempre in modalità self, è a 1,497 euro/litro (venerdì 1,492) con le compagnie posizionate tra 1,486 e 1,521 euro/litro (no logo 1,474)»

«Quanto al servito, per la benzina il prezzo medio praticato sale a 1,776 euro/litro (venerdì 1,771) con gli impianti colorati che mostrano prezzi medi praticati tra 1,720 e 1,852 euro/litro (no logo 1,668)»

«La media del diesel cresce a 1,642 euro/litro (venerdì 1,637) con i punti vendita delle compagnie con prezzi medi praticati compresi tra 1,582 e 1,726 euro/litro (no logo 1,524)»

* * * * * * *

Poi vengono a dirci che l’inflazione si aggira attorno all’1% all’anno.

Bollette, a luglio scattano i maxi aumenti: perché le tariffe di gas e luce volano

«Aumentano le bollette di luce e gas con un incremento definitivo del 9,9% per la bolletta dell’elettricità e del 15,3% per quella del gas nel terzo trimestre del 2021per la famiglia tipo in tutela. Ma perché stanno aumentando così tanto le tariffe? Lo spiega la stessa Arera, l’Autorità per l’energia, nel suo comunicato in cui analizza con precisione i motivi alla base degli aumenti annunciati giovedì sera (che hanno a che fare anche con la pandemia). Dopo i ribassi delle materie prime infatti durante il Covid-19, è in corso da tempo una forte crescita delle quotazioni delle principali materie prime energetiche, in particolare i prezzi europei del gas che sono cresciuti di oltre il 30% nel secondo trimestre del 2021 rispetto al primo e risultano sempre più correlati con il prezzo della CO2 che, nel mese in corso, si è attestato oltre i 50 €/tCO2, anche per le attese di un possibile rafforzamento delle vigenti politiche comunitarie per il contenimento delle emissioni nocive dei gas serra»

* * *

«incremento definitivo del 9,9% per la bolletta dell’elettricità»

«incremento definitivo del 15,3% per quella del gas»

«i prezzi europei del gas sono cresciuti di oltre il 30% nel secondo trimestre del 2021»

* * *

I costi all’utenza degli energetici e del carburante sono aumentati vorticosamente negli ultimi mesi.

Difficile pensare ad un comparto industriale che non consumi corrente elettrica ed a famiglie che non consumino il gas, quanto meno per cucinare.

L’automobile non è un oggetto ludico, serve per andare e tornare dal lavoro.

Infine, tutta la distribuzione si avvale del trasporto gommato.

Nella realtà dei fatti in Italia gli aumenti dei prezzi si aggirano, in termini medi, attorno al dieci per cento.

*


Carburanti, arrivano nuovi aumenti: benzina a 1,77 e diesel a 1,64 di media

È stato un fine settimana di aumenti generalizzati per i prezzi dei carburanti. Con il Brent abbondantemente sopra i 76 dollari, in attesa di un difficile accordo tra i Paesi Opec sui tagli alla produzione e con le quotazioni dei prodotti raffinati in Mediterraneo di nuovo in aumento. Già sabato Eni ha aumentato di un centesimo al litro i prezzi consigliati di benzina, gasolio e Gpl. Per IP invece il rialzo si è registrato +1 cent/litro su benzina, gasolio e Gpl. Per Tamoil +1 cent su benzina e diesel e +2 sul Gpl. Per Q8 + 3 cent/litro sul Gpl.

                         L’oscillazione dei prezzi

In crescita di conseguenza i prezzi praticati sul territorio, a parziale recepimento dei movimenti verso l’alto. Nel dettaglio, in base all’elaborazione di Quotidiano Energia dei dati alle 8 di ieri comunicati dai gestori all’Osservaprezzi carburanti del Mise, il prezzo medio nazionale praticato della benzina, in modalità self, va a 1,637 euro/litro (venerdì 1,632) con i diversi marchi compresi tra 1,629 e 1,649 euro/litro (no logo 1,620). Il prezzo medio praticato del diesel, sempre in modalità self, è a 1,497 euro/litro (venerdì 1,492) con le compagnie posizionate tra 1,486 e 1,521 euro/litro (no logo 1,474). Quanto al servito, per la benzina il prezzo medio praticato sale a 1,776 euro/litro (venerdì 1,771) con gli impianti colorati che mostrano prezzi medi praticati tra 1,720 e 1,852 euro/litro (no logo 1,668). La media del diesel cresce a 1,642 euro/litro (venerdì 1,637) con i punti vendita delle compagnie con prezzi medi praticati compresi tra 1,582 e 1,726 euro/litro (no logo 1,524). Infine, il Gpl va da 0,672 a 0,683 (no logo 0,652).

Pubblicato in: Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Asiatica, Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici

Indonesia. Carbone. Dice di volerlo dismettere e costruisce nuove centrali termiche.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-07-08.

2021-07-08__ Indonesia Coal 001

Una buona parola amicale costa nulla, poi, si vedrà.

L’enclave liberal socialista occidentale ha dichiarato guerra al carbone e vorrebbe che tutto il mondo lo seguisse.

L’Indonesia a  parole va dicendo che entro il 2050 sarà totalmente green, ma per l’intanto costruisce numerose centrali a carbone per incrementare la propria produzione di corrente elettrica.

L’importante nella vita è essere persone pratiche.

* * * * * * *

«The electricity generation capacity in Indonesia reached about 69.6 gigawatts in 2019»

«this capacity would not be sufficient for long and additional capacities must be created quickly»

«electricity consumption will increase from the current 270 terawatt hours to over 500 terawatt hours by 2027»

«Indonesia had been relying largely on coal and gas to meet its electricity demands»

«Both raw materials are available in great quantities, are dispatchable, and the corresponding power plants can be built cheaply»

«In 2020, coal mines were obliged to sell 25 percent of the production volume on the domestic market»

«the state-owned electricity supplier PLN received a maximum price of 70 U.S. dollars per ton of coal purchased»

«the minimum target of 550 million metric tons has been met and the demand for coal is expected to rise again due to a cold winter in China and the Chinese ban on Australian coal»

«At the same time, it’s building 21 GW of new coal plants that will have an operating life until 2065»

* * *

«Indonesia set its coal benchmark price higher in July at $115.35 per tonne»

«The price is 14.97% higher than June’s benchmark price»

«Indonesia’s state-owned utility says it will start shutting down coal-fired power plants and phase them all out by 2055»

«At the same time, it’s building 21 GW of new coal plants that will have an operating life until 2065»

«Indonesia says it will begin retiring coal-fired power plants for good — while still continuing to build more than a hundred new ones»

* * * * * * *


Indonesia sets coal benchmark price at highest in a decade

Jakarta, July 5 (Reuters) – Indonesia set its coal benchmark price higher in July at $115.35 per tonne, an official document published by its energy and minerals ministry showed on Monday.

The price is 14.97% higher than June’s benchmark price and the highest since the $117.6 per tonne in May 2011, Refinitiv data showed.

The document did not show what accounted for the price jump. An energy ministry spokesman told Reuters that a statement will be issued later on Monday.

*

Indonesia to retire coal-fired power plants while also adding more

«Summary.

– Indonesia’s state-owned utility says it will start shutting down coal-fired power plants and phase them all out by 2055, amounting to 50 gigawatts of capacity.

– At the same time, it’s building 21 GW of new coal plants that will have an operating life until 2065 — a contradiction that activists say undermines the coal phase-out plan.

– The mixed message is the latest from a government that still doesn’t have a unified policy on a clean energy transition, and which continues to lavish generous subsidies and incentives on coal miners and power plant operators.

– Energy policy experts say the president needs to publicly weigh in on the issue, including declaring a deadline for Indonesia to achieve net-zero carbon emissions. ….

Indonesia says it will begin retiring coal-fired power plants for good — while still continuing to build more than a hundred new ones, in the latest mixed message from one of the last coal-friendly countries in the world»

* * *

Coal power industry in Indonesia – statistics & facts

The electricity generation capacity in Indonesia reached about 69.6 gigawatts in 2019. For a dynamic, emerging country, this capacity would not be sufficient for long and additional capacities must be created quickly. According to forecasts by the Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, electricity consumption will increase from the current 270 terawatt hours to over 500 terawatt hours by 2027.

                         Indonesia’s focus on natural resources.

Indonesia had been relying largely on coal and gas to meet its electricity demands. Both raw materials are available in great quantities, are dispatchable, and the corresponding power plants can be built cheaply. Furthermore, coal in particular can be used to promote Indonesia’s export business and support remote areas in their economic development. Coal mining has therefore been a cornerstone of politics and a likely target for government interventions. In 2020, coal mines were obliged to sell 25 percent of the production volume on the domestic market and the state-owned electricity supplier PLN received a maximum price of 70 U.S. dollars per ton of coal purchased.

                         Coal production outlook.

Not surprisingly, coal producers expected a thriving market in Indonesia. However, the coal industry has also been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and it is therefore unlikely that the coal output will have increased further in 2020. And yet, according to the Department of Energy, the minimum target of 550 million metric tons has been met and the demand for coal is expected to rise again due to a cold winter in China and the Chinese ban on Australian coal. A flourishing export market is important as around 70 to 75 percent of Indonesia’s coal production is exported abroad. The main export countries include China, India, Japan and South Korea. In 2018, about one third of the global coal exports was exported from Indonesia, making it the largest coal exporting country in world. However, the Indonesian energy program could turn the industry into an internal market. For that reason, and to achieve independence from the global market, several large Indonesian mining companies have expanded directly into the energy sector in order to become an integrated energy company that uses its own coal.

                         Coal’s impact on the environment.

On the other hand, the production of coal and especially electricity generation from coal does have an impact on the environment. Back in 2016, it was estimated that the emissions of carbon dioxide amounted to 4.6 billion metric tons in Southeast Asia. Taking current developments in Indonesia and other countries into account, not less, but more is to be expected.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici, Stati Uniti

Usa – Cina. Centrale idroelettrica di Baihetan. I liberal la contestano.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-05-05.

Cina. Baihetan on the Jinsha River. Centrale Idroelettrica 002

«Baihetan hydropower project is a 16GW hydroelectric facility under construction on the Jinsha River, which is a tributary of the Yangtze River in south-west China. … Scheduled for commissioning in 2022, Baihetan will be one of the first projects to use a 1,000MW hydro-turbine generator»

«The Baihetan Dam is a large hydroelectric dam under construction on the Jinsha River, an upper stretches of the Yangtze River in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, in the southwest of China. The dam is a 277 m tall double-curvature arch dam with a crest elevation of 827 m. Its width will be 72 m at the base and 13 m at the crest.

The facility will generate power by utilizing 16 turbines, each with a generating capacity of 1,000 MW, taking the generating capacity to 16,000 MW. In terms of generating capacity, it will be the second largest hydroelectric power plant in the world, after the Three Gorges Dam. When finished, it will be the third largest dam in China and the fourth in the world, in terms of dam volume. The dam was originally scheduled to be constructed between 2009 and 2018. Actual construction started in 2017, with the dam to be partially operational by 2021» [Fonte]

«The Baihetan project is being developed by Jinsha River Chuanyun Hydropower Development Company, which is a joint venture between China Three Gorges (CTG) Corporation (70%), Sichuan Energy Investment Group (15%), and Yunnan Energy Investment Group (15%). ….

Baihetan is one of the four Chinese hydropower projects either in operation or under development with an installed capacity of more than 10GW. The four projects, all located on the Jinsha River, will have a combined installed capacity of approximately 46GW and an annual generation capacity of 190TWh ….

The impoundment level of the dam is 825m, while the reservoir capacity will be 20.627bn m³. The dam is designed to have a regulation storage capacity of 10.43 billion cubic meters (bcm) and flood control storage capacity of 7.5bcm. …. Dongfang Electric Machinery is responsible for supplying eight turbine generator units for the left bank power house, while Harbin Electric Machinery Factory will provide the remaining eight units for the right bank power house» [Fonte]

*


China’s new mega hydropower station to begin operations in July

Kunming, April 7 (Xinhua) — A new mega hydropower station in China has started to store water in its dam, preparing to begin generating electricity in July.

Baihetan on the Jinsha River, the upper section of the Yangtze, straddles the southwest provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan.

With a total installed capacity of 16 million kilowatts, it is the second-largest hydropower station in China in terms of installed capacity, second only to the Three Gorges Dam project in the central province of Hubei. The project has been undertaken by the China Three Gorges Corporation.

The first batch of Baihetan’s generating units will go into operation in July 2021, and all units are expected to be operational by July 2022. Enditem

* * * * * * *


Una centrale idroelettrica dovrebbe essere il meglio nel campo dell’ecologia e del rispetto dei dettami del global warming per la produzione di corrente elettrica.

Non potendo attaccare questo progetto su di un supposto mancato rispetto degli ‘human rights’ oppure vituperandola perché ‘inquinante’, i liberal hanno sbrigliato la loro fantasia ed hanno alla fine trovato il motivo per cui il progetto Baihetan altro non sarebbe che la solita sordita orditura dei cinesi a danno maligno dell’occidente culturalmente e socialmente avanzato.

China’s dams threaten green peafowl

Science.  Vol. 364, Issue 6444, pp. 943

DOI: 10.1126/science.aax4779

Avete letto bene. Questo progetto da decine di miliardi di dollari minaccia il pavone verde, mettendolo a rischio di estinzione.

E secondo i liberal occidentali il regime cinese esprime la propria tirannide nel conculcare la vita di quei teneri animaletti. Ma come si fa a non sanzionare un simile comportamento?

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Ong - Ngo, Problemia Energetici, Unione Europea

EU. Kontrordine Kompagni. Nulla è più green delle centrali atomiche ed a gas.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-04-26.

Gufo_027__

«EU defers decision on gas and nuclear as ‘green’ energy»

«The European Commission will not decide on whether to classify gas and nuclear energy as a possible green investments until later this year»

«The delay has caused controversy among some NGOs and consumer groups, who say fossil fuels such as gas should not be considered ‘green’.»

«The move is part of a bigger set of investor guidelines, supposed to transition away from fossil fuels, with the aim of making sure the EU becomes climate neutral by 2050»

«Both nuclear and gas have been temporarily excluded»

«But other sectors, notably forestry and bioenergy, are part of the mix, sparking outrage from climate activists»

«Dombrovskis said some €350bn of extra investments per year are needed over the next decade to meet the EU’s 2030 climate targets»

«So is bioenergy, which is also considered a pollutant. »

* * * * * * *

Per decine di anni i verdi e le sinistre ci hanno assordato con il clangore dei loro lai su quanto fosse mefitico l’uso dei combustibili fossili e nelle centrali elettriche atomiche.

Adesso, Kontrordine Kompagni!

Ridottisi alla indigenza, dopo aver sperperato cifre da capogiro, gli europarlamentari stanno per dichiarare ecologiche le centrali atomiche e quelle a gas.

Visto come si sanifica rapidamente l’ambiente? Basta un tratto di penna. Poi, si spolperanno altre realtà economiche.

*

EU defers decision on gas and nuclear as ‘green’ energy.

The European Commission will not decide on whether to classify gas and nuclear energy as a possible green investments until later this year.

The delay has caused controversy among some NGOs and consumer groups, who say fossil fuels such as gas should not be considered ‘green’.

And they fear the delay will be used by industry lobbyists to classify them as environmentally-friendly.

The move is part of a bigger set of investor guidelines, supposed to transition away from fossil fuels, with the aim of making sure the EU becomes climate neutral by 2050.

On Wednesday (21 April), the European Commission unveiled further rules detailing how investors and companies can comply with those guidelines.

“It will help companies and investors to identify and communicate about green activities – across all sectors of the economy,” said Valdis Dombrovskis, the EU commission vice president for economy.

Both nuclear and gas have been temporarily excluded.

But other sectors, notably forestry and bioenergy, are part of the mix, sparking outrage from climate activists.

The guidelines have been described as the economic blueprint underpinning Europe’s transition towards cleaner energy.

It also requires a lot of money, spread across both private and public funds.

Dombrovskis said some €350bn of extra investments per year are needed over the next decade to meet the EU’s 2030 climate targets.

The EU last summer launched its so-called Taxonomy Regulation, to create a “green list” classification system.

The list is a guide to help people place their money into environmentally-friendly investments.

On Wednesday, the commission published a new draft on how to classify industries, that account for some 80 percent of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions.

“We are covering a huge amount of economic activity – from manufacturing, transport, construction, insurance, even the arts are included in this,” said Mairead McGuinness, the EU finance commissioner.

She said the aim was to help investors and companies make decisions to meet the EU’s climate-busting targets.

“This taxonomy is a living document. It is not just a one off, it will evolve with science,” she added, speaking alongside Dombrovskis.

Not everyone is happy. Not only are final decisions on whether to include gas and nuclear energy yet to be made, but other sectors, like forestry which includes logging, are included. So is bioenergy, which is also considered a pollutant.

The criteria would allow almost all types of logging, as well as the burning of trees for energy production.

“Not all that is green helps to fight climate change, especially if you burn it,” said Greenpeace EU, in a statement.

The NGO is demanding the European Parliament scrap the commission’s decision to classify forests and bioenergy in its criteria.

“The proposed criteria for forests and bioenergy are nothing but greenwash,” it added.

The European Consumer Organisation (Beuc) made similar critical comments.

“The proposed rules for sectors like forestry and bioenergy will actively mislead people into making unsustainable investments,” it said.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici, Stati Uniti

Usa. Grid. Rimetterlo in sesto costerà circa trenta trilioni Usd. – Bloomberg.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-03-09.

Buco nell'acqua. Lago Berryessa. California. 001

L’articolo a seguito riportato è di Bloomberg, non da Il Lercio.

*

«Weak grids expose risks for the electrification of everything»

«Blackouts are growing as extreme weather events increase»

«Global investment in grids will reach $28.7 trillion by 2050»

«Home heating systems shutting down. Hospitals facing water shortages. Oil refineries going offline. The freezing, snowy weather in Texas exposed how quickly an energy system can be brought down and how widespread the chaos can be»

«That raises questions about the vulnerability of power grids around the world just as more parts of our everyday lives electrify»

«Electrifying sectors such as transportation and heating is considered vital for reducing the emissions contributing to global warming, yet the grids may not be able to handle the load.»

«The risks for power consumers are rising as the typical home electrifies an increasing share of its energy consumption»

«BNEF estimates that global investment in grid infrastructure could increase to $28.7 trillion during that time to support a tripling in renewable capacity»

«That amount is larger than the U.S. gross domestic product»

«In Britain, network charges already make up 22% of power bills»

«It’s estimated Europe will need to spend $4.9 trillion on its grids, with about 45% of that just for strengthening what’s already there»

«State Grid Corp. of China, which operates the infrastructure for more than 80% of the country, spent 2.43 trillion yuan ($376 billion) on projects the past five years and is earmarking another $350 billion through 2025»

«The crisis in Texas highlights weaknesses in the U.S. network that need fixing to help achieve President Joe Biden’s goal of an emissions-free power system by 2035»

«Calls are growing for the industry to change its modeling for weather disruptions and its planning to address them»

«Sub-zero temperatures are rare in Texas, and the recent arctic blast wreaked havoc with wind turbine blades freezing, power plants shutting down, and liquid oil and gas solidifying in pipelines and wells»

«Another reason for Europe’s resilience to the cold is that about 41% of the continent’s low-voltage power lines — the ones mostly serving residential communities — lie underground, making them less vulnerable to weather»

«That’s not the case for overhead cables, which can stretch in the high temperatures of a Texas summer and hang dangerously low to the ground»

* * * * * * *

Energia. Il problema degli elettrodotti a lunga distanza. Le dissipazioni.

Trenta trilioni Usd sono poco meno che due volte il pil annuale americano. È una cifra che, a nostro sommesso parere, gli Stati Uniti non possono permettersi di spendere.

Gli impianti eolici e quelli fotovoltaici devono per forza di cose essere messi dove ci sia il vento oppure splenda il sole, rispettivamente. Questo comporta la necessità di costruire elettrodotti che portino l’energia dal luogo di produzione a quello del consumo: ma più sono lunghi, più dissipano, ed alla resa dei conti ai consumatori arriva la metà dell’energia prodotta, e che vada bene.

Dovrebbe essere un concetto facile da intendersi.

*


Weak Grids Expose Risks for the Electrification of Everything

– Blackouts are growing as extreme weather events increase

– Global investment in grids will reach $28.7 trillion by 2050

*

Home heating systems shutting down. Hospitals facing water shortages. Oil refineries going offline.

The freezing, snowy weather in Texas exposed how quickly an energy system can be brought down and how widespread the chaos can be. That raises questions about the vulnerability of power grids around the world just as more parts of our everyday lives electrify.

Grid operators model the reliability of their systems to handle harsh weather, and climate change is triggering more of those events at both ends of the thermometer. Electrifying sectors such as transportation and heating is considered vital for reducing the emissions contributing to global warming, yet the grids may not be able to handle the load.

“The risks for power consumers are rising as the typical home electrifies an increasing share of its energy consumption,” said Sanjeet Sanghera, a London-based energy analyst with BloombergNEF. “You are putting all your eggs in one basket.”

Global demand for electrons is set to surge 60% by 2050, according to BNEF, as electric vehicles, smart devices and the Internet of Things become more commonplace. BNEF estimates that global investment in grid infrastructure could increase to $28.7 trillion during that time to support a tripling in renewable capacity. That amount is larger than the U.S. gross domestic product.

The challenge facing policy makers is how to make that spending palatable to customers. In Britain, network charges already make up 22% of power bills.

It’s estimated Europe will need to spend $4.9 trillion on its grids, with about 45% of that just for strengthening what’s already there.

The continent’s biggest economy, Germany, is targeting 10 million EVs on the roads by 2030, a push that could raise overall electricity demand by 10%, said Andreas Loeschel, professor of energy economics at the University of Muenster.

China is the world’s biggest EV market, and the power network is trying to keep those cars running. State Grid Corp. of China, which operates the infrastructure for more than 80% of the country, spent 2.43 trillion yuan ($376 billion) on projects the past five years and is earmarking another $350 billion through 2025. The world’s second-biggest economy wants to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.

“There’s going to be a significant ramp-up in complexity because of more connection points that will be needed and also more demand,” said Gerhard Salge, chief technology officer at Hitachi ABB Power Grids Ltd., the world’s biggest installer.

The crisis in Texas highlights weaknesses in the U.S. network that need fixing to help achieve President Joe Biden’s goal of an emissions-free power system by 2035. A study commissioned by trade association WIRES before these outages said as much as $600 billion in spending will be required by 2050.

It’s difficult to assess how much investment is enough. Calls are growing for the industry to change its modeling for weather disruptions and its planning to address them.

Sub-zero temperatures are rare in Texas, and the recent arctic blast wreaked havoc with wind turbine blades freezing, power plants shutting down, and liquid oil and gas solidifying in pipelines and wells.

Demand records in Europe were broken this month as frosty weather clamped down on several countries, but there were no blackouts. One reason: gas is used more widely for heating than electricity, so the load is spread across a different network.

That advantage may soon disappear, though. As the European Union implements its Green Deal, heating systems need to shift away from gas in order to decarbonize.

Another reason for Europe’s resilience to the cold is that about 41% of the continent’s low-voltage power lines — the ones mostly serving residential communities — lie underground, making them less vulnerable to weather, according to Europacable, an industry group.​

That’s not the case for overhead cables, which can stretch in the high temperatures of a Texas summer and hang dangerously low to the ground. Strong winds and lightning strikes also pose threats.

While the Texas storm is a once-in-a-decade event, extreme weather events are happening more frequently. Last year, the U.S. endured a record-setting 22 weather and climate disaster events, with losses exceeding $1 billion, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The worst heatwave in generations hit California in August and triggered the first rolling blackouts since 2001. The state has an ambitious clean-energy policy — getting about a third of its generation from renewables — but near-record demand tested that shift.

Regulators say this can’t happen again and are ordering utilities to find more sources of power, including by building giant batteries and contracting more capacity from gas plants.

“Extreme temperatures are putting today’s power systems in transition to fresh tests,” International Energy Agency analysts Keith Everhart and Gergely Molnar wrote in a Feb. 18 report. “Avoiding major outages in the electricity systems is also crucial to ensure solid societal support for clean energy transitions.”

South Australia state suffered a state-wide blackout in September 2016 after storms brought down power lines, stoking debate in the coal-dominated nation about the reliability of renewable generation. Wind farms were meeting about 48% of the state’s electricity at the time.

By 2050, about 70% of Europe’s power capacity will be wind and solar. The grid will need better ways to collect and distribute this electricity, and battery storage will be crucial to making the system more resilient to extreme weather.

One criticism leveled at Texas is that its grid is isolated from the rest of the U.S., so power companies couldn’t call on neighboring states for help.

“We are in the early phase of development where we must continue and even accelerate,” Salge said. “Without that we will not have any chance of making these very ambitious carbon-neutral targets.”

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Materie Prime, Problemi militari, Problemia Energetici

Biden. La via per la Elettricità passa per le inquinanti Miniere.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-03-07.

2021-03-04__ Biden Elettricità e Miniere 001

«To go electric, America needs more mines. Can it build them?»

«Last September, in the arid hills of northern Nevada, a cluster of flowers found nowhere else on earth died mysteriously overnight»

«Conservationists were quick to suspect Ioneer Ltd, an Australian firm that wants to mine the lithium that lies beneath the flowers for use in electric vehicle (EV) batteries»

«The clash of environmental priorities underpinning the battle over Tiehm’s buckwheat – conservation vs. green energy – is a microcosm of a much larger political quandary for the new administration of President Joe Biden, who has made big promises to environmentalists as well as labor groups and others who stand to benefit by boosting mining»

«But that aim could conflict with his promises to hasten the electrification of vehicles and to reduce the country’s dependence on China for rare earths, lithium and other minerals needed for EV batteries»

«The administration has called the reliance on China a national security threat»

«You can’t have green energy without mining, …. That’s just the reality»

«Rare earth magnets are used to make a range of consumer electronics as well as precision-guided missiles and other weapons»

«Demand for metals used in EV batteries is expected to rise sharply as automakers including Tesla Inc, BMW and General Motors plan major expansions of EV production»

«Biden has promised to convert the entire U.S. government fleet – about 640,000 vehicles – to EVs. That plan alone could require a 12-fold increase in U.S. lithium production by 2030»

«In Nevada, the Department of Wildlife worries that the lithium mines planned by Lithium Americas and others would harm trout, deer and pronghorn habitats»

«The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said that thirsty squirrels may have gnawed the roots of more than 17,000 flowers for water amid a drought in the state»

* * * * * * *

Terre Rare. Chi le controlla, controlla il mondo. Piaccia o meno, è la Cina.

Cina. Export terre rare -16%. Industrie militari i crisi.

U.S. military firms likely to face China rare earth restrictions: Global Times

Usa, Cina e Terre Rare. Ora interviene anche il Pentagono.

Terre rare. Novità rilevanti per il disprosio.

Guerra fredda sino-americana. Cina medita restrizioni alla esportazione delle terre rare.

*

Cina. Sta investendo massicciamente in Bolivia e Columbia. La guerra del Litio.

Il problema sembrerebbe non avere al momento soluzioni degne di nota.

Gli Stati Uniti non hanno miniere di litio e di terre rare in grado di soddisfare le loro esigenze militari e civili.

Di conseguenza sono obbligati a dipendere dall’approvvigionamento dall’estero.

Gli ecologisti mettono poi la ciliegina sulla torta.

Ma questa dipendenza non si estingue nel pagare un prezzo più o meno alto. Il disporre di litio e terre rare è anche, e soprattutto, una potente leva politica, con la quale gli Stati Uniti non possono scherzare più di tanto.

*


To go electric, America needs more mines. Can it build them?

Last September, in the arid hills of northern Nevada, a cluster of flowers found nowhere else on earth died mysteriously overnight.

Conservationists were quick to suspect ioneer Ltd, an Australian firm that wants to mine the lithium that lies beneath the flowers for use in electric vehicle (EV) batteries.

One conservation group alleged in a lawsuit that the flowers, known as Tiehm’s buckwheat, were “dug up and destroyed.” The rare plant posed a problem for ioneer because U.S. officials may soon add it to the Endangered Species List, which could scuttle the mining project.

Ioneer denies harming the flowers. Their cause of death remains hotly debated – as does the fate of the lithium mine.

The clash of environmental priorities underpinning the battle over Tiehm’s buckwheat – conservation vs. green energy – is a microcosm of a much larger political quandary for the new administration of President Joe Biden, who has made big promises to environmentalists as well as labor groups and others who stand to benefit by boosting mining.

To please conservationists, Biden has vowed to set aside at least 30% of U.S. federal land and coastal areas for conservation, triple current levels.

But that aim could conflict with his promises to hasten the electrification of vehicles and to reduce the country’s dependence on China for rare earths, lithium and other minerals needed for EV batteries. The administration has called the reliance on China a national security threat.

The administration will be forced into hard choices that anger one constituency or another.

“You can’t have green energy without mining,” Mark Senti, chief executive of Florida-based rare earth magnet company Advanced Magnet Lab Inc. “That’s just the reality.”

Rare earth magnets are used to make a range of consumer electronics as well as precision-guided missiles and other weapons.

Two sources familiar with White House deliberations on domestic mining told Reuters that Biden plans to allow mines that produce EV metals to be developed under existing environmental standards, rather than face a tightened process that would apply to mining for other materials, such as coal.

Biden is open to allowing more mines on federal land, the sources said, but won’t give the industry carte blanche to dig everywhere. That will likely mean approval of mines for rare earths and lithium, though certain copper projects – including a proposed Arizona copper mine from Rio Tinto Plc opposed by Native Americans – are likely to face extra scrutiny, the sources said.

The White House declined to comment for this article.

                         DIGGING NEEDED

Demand for metals used in EV batteries is expected to rise sharply as automakers including Tesla Inc, BMW and General Motors plan major expansions of EV production. California, the biggest U.S. vehicle market, aims to entirely ban fossil fuel-powered engines by 2035.

Biden has promised to convert the entire U.S. government fleet – about 640,000 vehicles – to EVs. That plan alone could require a 12-fold increase in U.S. lithium production by 2030, according to Benchmark Minerals Intelligence, as well as increases in output of domestic copper, nickel and cobalt. Federal land is teeming with many of these EV metals, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

“There is no way there’s enough raw materials being produced right now to start replacing millions of gasoline-powered motor vehicles with EVs,” said Lewis Black, CEO of Almonty Industries Inc, which mines the hardening metal tungsten in Portugal and South Korea.

Despite that shortage, proposed U.S. mines from Rio Tinto Ltd, BHP Group Ltd, Antofagasta Plc, Lithium Americas Corp, Glencore Plc and others are drawing stiff opposition from conservation groups. The projects would supply enough lithium for more than 5 million EV batteries and enough copper for more than 10,000 EVs each year.

Mining companies insist that federal lands can still be protected while the U.S. boosts output of minerals needed to accelerate the EV transition.

Former U.S. President Donald Trump and the mining industry “pushed the narrative that we need to mine everywhere and undercut environmental safeguards in order to build more batteries,” said Drew McConville of The Wilderness Society, a conservation group. “We have confidence that the Biden administration is going to see through that false narrative.”

Earthworks and other environmental groups are now lobbying automakers to only buy metals from mines deemed environmentally friendly by the Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance (IRMA), a nonprofit group. BMW, Ford Motor Co and Daimler have agreed to abide by IRMA guidelines, and other automakers may follow suit.

                         PROJECTS AT RISK

Biden has not weighed in on two controversial copper mine projects in Minnesota’s environmentally-sensitive Boundary Waters region from PolyMet Mining Corp and Antofagasta Plc’s Twin Metals subsidiary.

Tom Vilsack – the secretary of agriculture, the department that oversees the Boundary Waters – has in the past opposed the Twin Metals project, arguing that it threatened wilderness and marshlands.

Deb Haaland, the new secretary of interior, the department that controls most federal land, previously voted for a bill that would have banned copper sulfide mining in northern Minnesota. That bill, authored by U.S. Representative Betty McCollum, a Minnesota Democrat, will be reintroduced this month, her aides told Reuters.

Conservationists nonetheless remain concerned that the appeal of copper for EVs and other renewable energy devices may help the mines ultimately get approved.

“If these were coal mines, I’d feel much more comfortable knowing they wouldn’t be approved,” said Pete Marshall of Friends of the Boundary Waters.

                         WORRIES ABOUT WILDLIFE, SACRED GROUNDS, FLOWERS

In Arizona, Biden promised Native Americans – whose votes helped him win the battleground state – that they would have a “seat at the table” if he defeated Trump. Many Native Americans are worried that Rio Tinto’s Resolution proposed copper mine would destroy sacred sites considered home to religious deities.

On Monday afternoon, Biden administration officials blocked a land swap Rio needs to build the mine. Trump officials had previously approved that land swap.

Other controversial projects include Idaho’s Stibnite proposed mine, from John Paulson-backed Perpetua Resources Corp, which is under fresh scrutiny by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency staff over fears it would pollute Native American fishing grounds. The mine would produce gold and antimony, used to make alloys for EV batteries.

In Nevada, the Department of Wildlife worries that the lithium mines planned by Lithium Americas and others would harm trout, deer and pronghorn habitats. The Lithium Americas mine received federal approval last month, but ranchers have sued the U.S. government to reverse that decision.

“Renewable energy and electric cars aren’t green if they destroy an important habitat and drive wildlife extinct,” said Kelly Fuller, of the Western Watersheds Project, which opposes the Lithium Americas project.

In Nevada, the death of the Tiehm’s buckwheat flowers at ioneer’s proposed mine site remains a point of contention. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said that thirsty squirrels may have gnawed the roots of more than 17,000 flowers for water amid a drought in the state.

The Center for Biological Diversity, which opposes the mine, said there was evidence that humans destroyed the flowers. “The targeted nature of the damage, combined with the lack of feces, pawprints, hoofprints, or other evidence of wildlife suggest human involvement,” the group said in a court filing.

The Fish and Wildlife Service is now set to rule this summer on whether the flower is an endangered species – a designation that would prevent development on much of the land ioneer is trying to mine.

Ioneer has hired scientists to move the flowers to a new site, though it’s unclear if that process will succeed. “We can extract this lithium and also save this flower,” said James Calaway, ioneer’s chairman.

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Problemia Energetici

Sud Est Asiatico. Ha noleggiato quasi tutte le superpetroliere mondiali.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-02-13.

2021-02-08__ Asia Supertankers 001

La flotta mondiale delle superpetroliere supera le 660 unità. La quasi totalità serve ora il Sud Est asiatico, Cina in primis.

2021-02-08__ Asia Supertankers 002

«A fleet of around 20 tankers laden with U.S. crude oil is expected to leave for Asia this month as the region continues to outpace the rest of the world in its recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic»

«The vessels have been booked, some of them provisionally, to load crude from the U.S. Gulf Coast this month for delivery to the Far East»

2021-02-08__ Asia Supertankers 003

«Most are supertankers that can each carry about 2 million barrels of oil»

«Demand has rebounded in some parts of Asia, with Chinese crude processing matching a record»

2021-02-08__ Asia Supertankers 004

«Indian demand is also climbing as processors boost run rates»

«Unipec, the trading arm of China’s biggest oil refiner Sinopec Group, Vitol Group and Litasco SA are among those that have chartered vessels»

«China’s Rongsheng Petro Chemical Co. chose to purchase U.S. crude last week over grades from the Middle East and Russia as offers for American shipments were more competitive»

2021-02-08__ Asia Supertankers 005

«Armada bound for nation is very high for the time of year»

«The number the vessels sailing toward the shores of world’s largest importer jumped to a six-month high of 127»

* * * * * * *


A Huge Number of Oil Supertankers Are Pointing at China’s Ports.

– Number of supertankers signaling China highest since July

– Armada bound for nation is very high for the time of year

*

Is China piling into the crude oil market again? A snapshot of where the world’s supertankers are headed suggests it may well be.

The number the vessels sailing toward the shores of world’s largest importer jumped to a six-month high of 127 on Friday. Fully laden, they would deliver in excess of 250 million barrels. The last time the number was higher was in the aftermath of oil’s plunge below zero, when China binged on ultra-cheap crude to bolster domestic stockpiles.

An increase in shipments would chime with signs of optimism over the health of demand in the country. Royal Dutch Shell Plc Chief Executive Officer Ben Van Beurden said this week that fuel sales in the China are back into “significant growth mode.” That’s despite concerns that the coronavirus will limit travel driving the Lunar New Year period.

While last time round it was cheap crude that helped spur the surge in Chinese consumption, this time a collapse in freight is proving helpful. The cost of hiring supertankers fell to its lowest level since at least 2017 on Friday, effectively meaning owners are subsidizing the transport of cargoes from Asia to the Middle East.

There would be good reason for China to be buying more too. Inventories in most parts of the globe are now falling. One snapshot of the nation’s stockpiles — the volumes of crude stored that are linked to the Shanghai oil futures contract — fell to its lowest level since June, according to data analytics company OilX. Observers including Kayrros have also noted declines in recent weeks.

*


Oil Hungry Asia Lures 20 US Crude Carrying Tankers

A fleet of around 20 tankers laden with U.S. crude oil is expected to leave for Asia this month as the region continues to outpace the rest of the world in its recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic.

The vessels have been booked, some of them provisionally, to load crude from the U.S. Gulf Coast this month for delivery to the Far East, according to shipping fixtures and shipbrokers. Most are supertankers that can each carry about 2 million barrels of oil.

Demand has rebounded in some parts of Asia, with Chinese crude processing matching a record in October. The nation’s independent refiners, meanwhile, have ramped up purchases after receiving new import quotas for 2021. Indian demand is also climbing as processors boost run rates.

Of the roughly 20 ships identified, many have been fully fixed but it’s still possible that some may not make the trip. That said, there is still time to book more ships to load this month, which could raise the tanker count to match the October high of 26. Unipec, the trading arm of China’s biggest oil refiner Sinopec Group, Vitol Group and Litasco SA are among those that have chartered vessels.

If all of the booked vessels make the December trip to Asia, the total volume will easily exceed that in November, when shipments to the region slumped 35% from October, according to ship tracking data compiled by Bloomberg. Traders said the arbitrage economics for U.S. crudes such as Mars and West Texas Intermediate were attractive when compared with some sour grades from the Middle East and also sweet varieties in Asia-Pacific.

American benchmark West Texas Intermediate’s discount to global marker Brent was $2.69 a barrel on Tuesday, compared with $1.74 at the end of October. The wider spread is also adding to the attractiveness of U.S. crude.

China’s Rongsheng Petro Chemical Co. chose to purchase U.S. crude last week over grades from the Middle East and Russia as offers for American shipments were more competitive. Earlier, a flurry of Asian buy tenders from the company and Indian refiners lifted the price of benchmark Oman crude in an already bullish spot market.

Cuts to term supplies from producers such as Iraq and the possibility of an extension in OPEC+ output curbs are also prompting buyers to seek alternative sources of crude from the U.S., the Mediterranean Sea as well as the North Sea, according to traders.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici

Cina. 2020. Attivate centrali a carbone per 38.4 GW ed in costruzione per altri 36.9 GW.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-02-11.

2021-02-05__ Cina Carbone 001

Mr Xi ha assicurato i liberal occidentali che entro il 2060 la Cina sarà sicuramente carbon-free.

Tanto nel 2060, tra quaranta anni, quasi nessuno degli attuali liberal sarà ancora vivo.

Nei fatti, invece, la Cina tira diritta.

«China’s new coal power plant capacity in 2020 more than three times rest of world»

«China put 38.4 gigawatts (GW) of new coal-fired power capacity into operation in 2020»

«The country won praise last year after President Xi Jinping pledged to make the country “carbon neutral”»

«China’s coal-fired fleet capacity rose by a net 29.8 GW in 2020, even as the rest of the world made cuts of 17.2 GW»

«China approved the construction of a further 36.9 GW of coal-fired capacity last year, three times more than a year earlier, bringing the total under construction to 88.1 GW»

«It now has 247 GW of coal power under development, enough to supply the whole of Germany.»

* * *

«China has been criticised for pursuing an energy-intensive post-COVID recovery based on heavy industry and construction»

«Christine Shearer, GEM’s coal programme director, said China needs to ensure its short-term development plans align with long-term climate goals»

* * * * * * *

Cerchiamo di ragionare, nei limiti del possibile.

Non è la Cina che deve adeguarsi a quello che prescrive l’ideologia liberal socialista occidentale: è piuttosto l’enclave occidentale liberal che dovrà in un futuro prossimo venturo adeguarsi alla Cina, la quale è oramai la prima economia mondiale.

Poi, siamo seri!

Ma chi mai si crede di essere Mrs Christine Sheare da ordinare alla Cina di adeguarsi con gli obiettivi di lungo termine sul ‘clima’? Obiettivi che sono un must nell’enclave occidentale, ma dei quali il resto del mondo che lavora e produce vive tranquillamente ignorandoli.

China Promotes Climate Goal, and Builds New Coal Plants

China must ban new coal power plants to meet 2060 goal: Report. – Bloomberg.

«China must ban»

Ci ripetiamo.

Chi mai si credono di essere gli articolisti di Bloomberg per usare il verbo ‘must’?

* * * * * * *


China’s new coal power plant capacity in 2020 more than three times rest of world’s: study.

China put 38.4 gigawatts (GW) of new coal-fired power capacity into operation in 2020, according to new international research, more than three times the amount built elsewhere around the world and potentially undermining its short-term climate goals.

The country won praise last year after President Xi Jinping pledged to make the country “carbon neutral” by 2060. But regulators have since come under fire for failing to properly control the coal power sector, a major source of climate-warming greenhouse gas.

Including decommissions, China’s coal-fired fleet capacity rose by a net 29.8 GW in 2020, even as the rest of the world made cuts of 17.2 GW, according to research released on Wednesday by Global Energy Monitor (GEM), a U.S. think tank, and the Helsinki-based Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA).

“The runaway expansion of coal-fired power is driven by electricity companies’ and local governments’ interest in maximising investment spending, more than a real need for new capacity,” said Lauri Myllyvirta, CREA lead analyst.

The country’s National Energy Administration (NEA) didn’t immediately respond to Reuters’ request for comment.

China approved the construction of a further 36.9 GW of coal-fired capacity last year, three times more than a year earlier, bringing the total under construction to 88.1 GW. It now has 247 GW of coal power under development, enough to supply the whole of Germany.

A team of central government environmental inspectors delivered a scathing assessment of China’s energy regulator last Friday, accusing officials of planning failures and focusing too much on guaranteeing energy supply.

The NEA had allowed plants to be built in already polluted regions, while projects in less sensitive “coal-power bases” had not gone ahead, they said.

China has been criticised for pursuing an energy-intensive post-COVID recovery based on heavy industry and construction, and experts say new coal plants could end up becoming heavily-indebted “stranded assets”.

Christine Shearer, GEM’s coal programme director, said China needs to ensure its short-term development plans align with long-term climate goals.

“Hopefully as the Chinese government determines its coal power capacity targets for the next five-year plan (for 2021-2025), it will severely restrict if not end new coal plant builds and accelerate retirements,” she said.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Il reattore Hualong One inizia le operazioni commerciali.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-02-08.

2021-02-01__ hualong-one-reactor-001

Il reattore Hualong One è stato caricato, entrato in funzione, collegato in rete ed ha iniziato le operazioni commerciali.

È il primo reattore progettato e costruito interamente con tecnologia cinese.

*

Cina. Avvia un ciclopico programma nucleare.

Cina. In funzione a Taishan il primo reattore nucleare Epr.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Nucleare, la Cina raggiunge la Russia al quarto posto mondiale per numero di reattori

Russia – Cina. Accordo per costruire reattori nucleari di nuova generazione.

Carbone. Consumi mondiali. I numeri parlano chiaro. La Cina.

Cina. Energie alternative solo se più economiche. Fine delle sovvenzioni.

*

Cina. Il primo reattore nucleare totalmente cinese inizia a caricare il combustibile.

Energia. Il problema degli elettrodotti a lunga distanza. Le dissipazioni.

* * * * * * *

Tra i molti elementi di rilievo si vorrebbe enfatizzarne due. 

«China has mastered independent third-generation nuclear power technology »

«five years of construction work»

Si prenda atto come i cinesi abbiano dimezzato i tempi di costruzione delle centrali atomiche rispetto ai tempi che sarebbero stati impiegati usando le vecchie tecnologie occidentali.

*


China’s first Hualong One nuclear reactor starts commercial operation

China National Nuclear Corp said the first of its Hualong One units, third-generation pressurised water nuclear reactors, began commercial operations on Saturday.

The reactor in Fuqing in China’s southeastern province of Fujian was first connected to the grid on Nov. 27 last year, following more than five years of construction work.

“This marks that China has mastered independent third-generation nuclear power technology following the United States, France, Russia and others,” the company said in a statement on its official WeChat account.

The Hualong One units, designed to have a 60-year lifespan, have an installed capacity of 1.161 million kilowatts each, CNNC said.

Construction of a second Hualong One unit at the Fuqing site is due to be completed this year.

CNNC said the project would help China secure its national energy safety and to reach carbon neutrality.