Pubblicato in: Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia, Penisola Gydan. Arctic LNG-2: un progetto da 21 miliardi Usd.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-13.

Gydan & Yamal 001

Siamo chiari. Qualche politico italiano avrà ben dovuto andare in Russia a trattare la questione.

Che poi lo si voglia bastonare perché Saipen ha tolto una gran bella fetta di lucro alla Total, società francese, è cosa capibilissima: i francesi sono suscettibili, così come gli altri partner dell’Unione Europea. E nemmeno i giapponesi sono rimasti troppo soddisfatti: anche la Mitsubishi è fuori dall’Lng-2.

Gydan & Yamal 002

* * * * * * *

Financial Times. Saipem secures Arctic LNG 2 project contract

Italian oil and gas services group seals joint venture in the west of Siberia.

Saipem reached a deal on Friday to participate in a joint engineering venture for a liquefied natural gas project in the west of Siberia. The contract awarded by Russian gas producer Novatek and a subsidiary assigns the Italian oil and gas services company a €2.2bn share in a joint venture with France’s Technip and Russia’s NIPIgaspererabotka to construct three LNG trains — facilities to liquefy and purify the gas — as part of the Arctic LNG 2 project. Each train will have the capacity to process approximately 6.6m tonnes of natural gas per year. The deal is the latest in a string of agreements secured by the company for construction services on gas projects, winning in June a record $6bn contract for an Anadarko LNG project in Mozambique. After some difficult years for services companies since the oil price plummeted in 2014, Saipem reported positive results for the first half of this year with a net profit of €14m, compared with losses of €323m in the same period a year earlier. The company has put a strategic focus on growth driven by gas, positioning itself for the energy transition to low carbon sources, with the latest deal meaning non-oil business accounts for nearly 70 per cent of its €22.5bn backlog. Stefano Cao, Saipem’s chief executive, said that the project “reaffirms Saipem’s strategic choice to consolidate its leadership across the entire natural gas value chain”. Saipem has emerged stronger from its restructuring by focusing on contracting on projects that make the company money and technical solutions — for example, helping the Zohr offshore field in Egypt go from discovery to first gas in the short timeframe of just over two years. The agreement with Novatek, building on the deal reached in December 2018 for Saipem to construct gravity based structures for the LNG plant, will be paid on a lump sum and reimbursement basis and the first train is expected to come online by 2023. Some analysts say that there are concerns, however, that the project could be hit with sanctions, as the US continues to ramp up punitive measures against Russia. The Yamal LNG project, Russia’s first foray into developing its Arctic resources for shipping overseas, was targeted with US sanctions in 2014. A day earlier Japanese trading house Mitsubishi announced it would not invest in the Arctic LNG 2 project.

* * * * * * *

Energy Global News. Novatek strengthens presence in the Gydan Peninsula.

PAO Novatek announced that Arctic LNG 1, a wholly owned subsidiary, won the auction for geological survey, exploration and production license for the subsoil area including the Soletsko-Khanaveyskoye field located on the Gydan peninsula in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region. The license area has estimated hydrocarbon resources of 2,183 billion cubic meters of gas and 212 million tons of liquids, or 16 billion barrels of oil equivalent according to the Russian resource classification system. The license term is 27 years and the auction resulted in one-time payment for the subsoil use in the amount of RR 2,586 million.

The new license area borders Novatek’s Trekhbugorniy and Gydanskiy license areas on the Gydan peninsula, and allows to create the resource base for the next LNG project similar to Arctic LNG 2, with liquefaction trains to be located at the Utrenniy terminal.

The Gydan Peninsula is a geographical feature of the Siberian coast in the Kara Sea. It takes its name from the river Gyda that flows on the peninsula. It is roughly 400 km long and 360 km wide. This wide peninsula lies between the estuaries of the Ob and Yenisei Rivers. The southwestern corner of the peninsula is limited by the Taz Estuary. The climate in the whole area of the peninsula is arctic and harsh.

* * * * * * *

Reuters. 2019-09-05. Russia ups LNG race with green light on $21 billion Arctic LNG-2 project

The $21 billion Arctic liquefied natural gas (LNG)-2 project led by Russian private gas producer Novatek won a green light on Thursday, the latest in a raft of new projects aimed at meeting a likely doubling of LNG demand over the next 15 years.

Arctic LNG-2 is expected to launch in 2023 and will aim to export 80 percent of its LNG to Asia, Novatek Chief Executive Leonid Mikhelson, Russia’s richest businessman according to Forbes magazine, said after the project’s partners signed a final investment decision (FID) at an economic forum.

At nearly 20 million tonnes per annum (mmpta) of LNG it would be largest single project to reach FID, according to Wood Mackenzie, and take total LNG volumes sanctioned this year to about 63 mtpa, beating the previous record of 45 mmtpa in 2005.

Arctic LNG 2 will be the third LNG project for Novatek, which hopes to match Qatar in production of the super-chilled fuel.

“Novatek is clearly driving home their ambitions to be a global LNG power house,” said Chong Zhi Xin, associate director of gas, power and energy at IHS Markit.

“It adds another 12 million tonnes to their portfolio on an equity basis. They are emerging as one of the largest LNG suppliers in the market.”

The project’s equity partners include French energy producer Total, China’s National Petroleum Corp [CNPET.UL], CNOOC and the Japan Arctic LNG consortium, made up of Mitsui & Co and state-owned JOGMEC, formally known as Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp.

“This is an important project for Russia and follows our strategy to create capacities for LNG production,” Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak said, adding that investments in the project had been set at $21 billion.

Japanese Industry Minister Hiroshige Seko said the project is one of the largest in the history of Japanese-Russian relations.

“It will unite Japan and Russia even more, as well as Europe and Asia. The Japanese government will provide all necessary assistance for the realization of this project,” he said.

The Arctic LNG 2 project will include construction of three LNG trains with a capacity of 6.6 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG each and at least 1.6 mtpa of gas condensate, according to Novatek’s website.

Located on the Gydan peninsula in Russia, the project is expected to export its first LNG by 2023 with the second and third train to start up by 2024 and 2026, Total said in a statement.

It will help Russia reach its goal of producing 120 to 130 million tonnes of LNG a year in the coming years and raise its share in the global LNG market to up to 20 percent.

It follows FIDs announced from Canada, the United States and Mozambique over the past year and plans to target Asian demand driven by major economies shifting towards greener fuel to combat pollution.

The project will benefit from extremely low cost gas, helping it compete against LNG from the United States and Canada, said Wood Mackenzie analyst Nicholas Browne.

LNG from the project will also be delivered to international markets by a fleet of ice-class LNG carriers that will be able to use the shorter Northern Sea Route and the trans-shipment terminal in Kamchatka for cargoes destined for Asia and the trans-shipment terminal close to Murmansk for cargoes destined for Europe, Total said.

“Arctic LNG 2 adds to our growing portfolio of competitive LNG developments based on giant low cost resources primarily intended for the fast growing Asian markets,” Total’s chief executive Patrick Pouyanné said in the statement.

The increase in supply from Russia and more intense competition may push down LNG prices and help move Asia towards a more gas-based economy, said IHS Markit’s Chong.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Problemia Energetici, Russia

La Akademik Lomonosov parte da Murmansk verso Pevek.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-08-25.

2019-08-25__Akademik Lomonosov 001

La chiatta Admiral Lomonosov ospita una centrale atomica da 70 MW, progettata per poter lavorare a temperature molto rigide, quali quelle artiche. Fornirà energia elettrica alla zona estrattiva di Pevek.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Russia. Varato il rompighiaccio atomico Ural. Alla fine saranno 13 navi.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Russia. La Akademik Lomonosov parte da Murmansk verso Pevek.

* * * * * * *

L’immarcescibile Greenpeace dorme sonni agitati: è tormentata da tutti i più reconditi timori di immani disastri.

Nei fatti, però, ciò che più la rode, è che con questa centrale atomica, usata anche per desalinizzare l’acqua di mare, la Russia potrà aumentare in modo molto significativo la produzione del campo di Pevek che, data la sua ubicazione geografica, sarà in grado di risolvere molti problemi energetici della Cina.

Non solo, così operando la Russia si lega sempre più saldamente alla Cina, formando un blocco politico ed economico euroasiatico destinato a primeggiare nel mondo.

*

Russia’s floating nuclear plant sets sail for the Arctic

A seaborne nuclear plant has started its journey across the Arctic Circle to supply power to a Siberian town. Russian activists warned the barge could become a “Chernobyl on ice.”

Russia launched the world’s first floating nuclear power plant on Friday for a weekslong journey through the Arctic Circle, despite warnings from environmental groups.

The vessel, Akademik Lomonosov, is a 140-meter (459-foot) float carrying two nuclear reactors capable of providing enough energy for a town of 100,000 people. It is to be towed 4,700 kilometers (2,920 miles) to the town of Pevek in north Siberia.

Once there, the vessel will replace the local, aging nuclear power plant and also supply power to regional oil platforms. Russian nuclear officials said that the Akademik Lomonosov will serve as a key infrastructure element in the Northeast Passage, the route connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific. The route has become more accessible due to climate change.

The platform can also be used to desalinate sea water and turn it into drinking water.

Fears of storm, collision

Russian environmentalists have repeatedly slammed the project, warning it could turn into “Chernobyl on ice” or a “nuclear Titanic.”

Greenpeace representative Rashud Alimov warned that there might be a collision between the platform and the tugs moving it along.

“Any nuclear power plant produces radioactive waste and can have an accident, but Akademik Lomonosov is additionally vulnerable to storms,” he told the AFP news agency.

The ship is loaded with nuclear fuel and would also store spent fuel abroad.

Alimov warned there was “no infrastructure for a nuclear cleanup” in Russia’s far north.

Russia hopes for sales abroad

Officials from Russia’s nuclear agency Rosatom hope to sell similar nuclear floats to foreign countries within the next ten years. Indonesia and Sudan are the most interested in such a purchase, a senior nuclear energy official told the Interfax news agency earlier this month.

The Akademik Lomonosov started development in 2006. It is expected to start supplying energy to Russia’s central system before the end of the year.

Meanwhile, Rosatom is already developing the next generation of floating power plants, which will be smaller and 30% more powerful.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia. Programma di quintuplicare il LNG entro il 2035.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-07-12.

Kremlino 002

Il problema sarebbe molto semplice, e ci aiuta a comprenderlo a fondo lo International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook (October – 2017).

«Le proiezioni al 2023 danno la Cina ad un pil ppa di 37,067 (20.54%) miliardi di Usd, gli Stati Uniti di 24,537 (14.01%), e l’India di 16,785 (9.10%) Usd.

Seguono Giappone con 6,358 (3.67%),  Germania 5,171 (32%), Regno Unito 3,5986 (2.06%), Francia 3,5447 (2.04%), Italia 2,755 (1.60%). Russia 4.933 (2.84%) e Brasile 4,168 (2.33%).

I paesi del G7 produrranno 46,293 (27.59%) mld Usd del pil mondiale, mentre i paesi del Brics renderanno conto di 59,331 mld Usd (35.36%).»

I paesi europei grandi consumatori di energia, Germania, Regno Unito, Francia ed Italia rappresenteranno nel 2023 appena il 9% del pil ppa mondiale: saranno pur sempre un mercato da non trascurarsi, ma sicuramente non determinante. I paesi asiatici si stanno sviluppando al ritmo di almeno il 6% all’anno e per svilupparsi hanno un grande bisogno di prodotti energetici, tra i quali il petrolio ed il gas naturale liquefatto, Lng in inglese e gnl in italiano.

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Russia. Varato il Belgorod, Project 09852.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

Cina, Groenlandia e ‘Polar Silk Road’.

Dimenticate Russia, Arabia, Iran, Opec. È la Cina che fa i prezzi del petrolio.

Cina. Arabia Saudita accetta i petro-yuan

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Putin avvia lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye.

*

La Russia, quale grande produttrice di petrolio e gas naturale, valuta con la massima attenzione codesti dati proiettati nel futuro.

Pochi settori, infatti, quali l’energetico, si articolano su tempi lunghi. Tra la scoperta di un giacimento di rilevanza ed il suo pieno sfruttamento estrattivo intercorrono in media almeno cinque anni, ed altrettanti sono poi necessari per ammortizzare gli investimenti effettuati.

Mentre tra dieci anni i paesi orientali saranno in pieno sviluppo economico, l’Europa sarà economicamente quasi trascurabile, anche perché la crisi demografica la sta falcidiando: i paesi spopolati non son certo buoni acquirenti.

«La Russia intende quintuplicare la propria produzione di gas naturale liquefatto (gnl) entro il 2035, con l’obiettivo di rispondere all’incremento della domanda nella regione asiatica, e di aggiudicarsi circa il 20 per cento del mercato globale»

«Mosca si aspetta che in futuro circa il 70 per cento del gnl russo venga destinato all’Asia-Pacifico tramite la rotta commerciale nell’Oceano Artico»

«Ad oggi la Russia produce circa 28 milioni di tonnellate di gnl annue, cui contribuiscono anche l’output del progetto Sakhalin-2»

«la Russia si aspetta un significativo aumento delle esportazioni di gas naturale liquefatto verso paesi come Giappone, Cina, India, Corea del Sud e Vietnam»

* * * * * * *

Il problema energetico sta quindi spostando gli equilibri eurasiatici verso un continuo rafforzamento della collaborazione politica e tecnica tra Russia e Cina.


Agenzia Nova. 2019-06-14. Energia: Russia pronta a quintuplicare output gnl per rifornire paesi asiatici

La Russia intende quintuplicare la propria produzione di gas naturale liquefatto (gnl) entro il 2035, con l’obiettivo di rispondere all’incremento della domanda nella regione asiatica, e di aggiudicarsi circa il 20 per cento del mercato globale. Lo ha dichiarato al quotidiano “Nikkei” il ministro dell’Energia russo, Alexander Novak, secondo cui Mosca si aspetta che in futuro circa il 70 per cento del gnl russo venga destinato all’Asia-Pacifico tramite la rotta commerciale nell’Oceano Artico. Novak ha spiegato che la Russia intende rafforzare la cooperazione con il Giappone sui fronti del finanziamento e della tecnologia per il gnl e i settori collegati. Il premier giapponese Shinzo Abe e il presidente russo, Vladimir Putin, dovrebbero discutere la cooperazione economica tra i rispettivi paesi a margine del G-20 di Osaka, il prossimo 29 giugno; il ministro Novak potrebbe unirsi alla delegazione che accompagnerà il presidente russo in Giappone.
Ad oggi la Russia produce circa 28 milioni di tonnellate di gnl annue, cui contribuiscono anche l’output del progetto Sakhalin-2 – cui partecipano i colossi commerciali giapponesi Mitsui & Co e Mitsubishi Corp – e il progetto Yamanl Lng, nell’Artide russo. Novak ha spiegato che l’obiettivo di Mosca è di aumentare la produzione, che ad oggi soddisfa circa il 6 per cento della domanda globale, sino a 120 0 140 milioni di tonnellate entro il 2035. Qatar e Australia si sono aggiudicati entrambi una quota del 20 per cento del mercato del gnl globale nel 2018; l’obiettivo della Russia è di rivaleggiare con quei due paesi e con gli Stati Uniti, attingendo alle opportunità dei mercati emergenti nell’Asia-Pacifico; la Russia si aspetta un significativo aumento delle esportazioni di gas naturale liquefatto verso paesi come Giappone, Cina, India, Corea del Sud e Vietnam

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Ong - Ngo, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia. La Akademik Lomonosov parte da Murmansk verso Pevek.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-07-11.

2019-07-01__Admiral__001

La chiatta Admiral Lomonosov ospita una centrale atomica da 70 MW, progettata per poter lavorare a temperature molto rigide, quali quelle artiche. Fornirà energia elettrica alla zona estrattiva di Pevek.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Russia. Varato il rompighiaccio atomico Ural. Alla fine saranno 13 navi.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

* * *

«Next month, a floating nuclear power plant called the Akademik Lomonosov will be towed via the Northern Sea Route to its final destination in the Far East, after almost two decades in construction»

«It’s part of Russia’s ambition to bring electric power to a mineral-rich region»

«The 144-meter (472 feet) long platform painted in the colors of the Russian flag is going to float next to a small Arctic port town of Pevek, some 4,000 miles away from Moscow»

«It will supply electricity to settlements and companies extracting hydrocarbons and precious stones in the Chukotka region»

«About 2 million Russians reside near the Arctic coast in villages and towns similar to Pevek, settlements that are often reachable only by plane or ship, if the weather permits. But they generate as much as 20% of country’s GDP and are key for Russian plans to tap into the hidden Arctic riches of oil and gas as Siberian reserves diminish.»

* * * * * * *

Sarebbe facile previsione prevedere un grande sviluppo della zona estrattiva di Pevek che, data la sua ubicazione, sembrerebbe destinata ad alimentare le richieste energetiche della Cina.

Inutile dire che Greenpeace, la ngo Bellona (che monitora i progetti nucleari e l’impatto ambientale) e tutta la costellazione delle ngo sia insorta contro questo progetto, additandolo come non ecologico.

Degno di nota è il commento fatto da un ottimo amico russo, potente in opere e parole.

«Se hanno paura che gli orsi polari si estinguano, non temano: daremo gli ecologisti in pasto agli orsi. Gli altri? Il gulag è grande e può bene accoglierli tutti»

«in the Arctic waters, it will be cooling down constantly, and there is no lack of cold water».

*

Taluni resteranno amareggiati di questo commento, ma molti invece lo condivideranno.


Cnn. 2019-06-30. Russia plans to tow a nuclear power station to the Arctic. Critics dub it a ‘floating Chernobyl’

Murmansk, Russia (CNN) Next month, a floating nuclear power plant called the Akademik Lomonosov will be towed via the Northern Sea Route to its final destination in the Far East, after almost two decades in construction.

It’s part of Russia’s ambition to bring electric power to a mineral-rich region. The 144-meter (472 feet) long platform painted in the colors of the Russian flag is going to float next to a small Arctic port town of Pevek, some 4,000 miles away from Moscow. It will supply electricity to settlements and companies extracting hydrocarbons and precious stones in the Chukotka region.

A larger agenda is at work too: aiding President Vladimir Putin’s ambitious Arctic expansion plans, which have raised geopolitical concerns in the United States.

The Admiral Lomonosov will be the northernmost operating nuclear plant in the world, and it’s key to plans to develop the region economically. About 2 million Russians reside near the Arctic coast in villages and towns similar to Pevek, settlements that are often reachable only by plane or ship, if the weather permits. But they generate as much as 20% of country’s GDP and are key for Russian plans to tap into the hidden Arctic riches of oil and gas as Siberian reserves diminish.

In theory, floating nuclear power plants could help supply energy to remote areas without long-term commitments — or requiring large investments into conventional power stations on mostly uninhabitable land.

But the concept of a nuclear reactor stationed in the Arctic Sea has drawn criticism from environmentalists. The Lomonosov platform was dubbed “Chernobyl on Ice” or “floating Chernobyl” by Greenpeace even before the public’s revived interest in the 1986 catastrophe thanks in large part to the HBO TV series of the same name.

Rosatom, the state company in charge of Russia’s nuclear projects, has been fighting against this nickname, saying such criticism is ill founded.

“It’s totally not justified to compare these two projects. These are baseless claims, just the way the reactors themselves operate work is different,” said Vladimir Iriminku, Lomonosov’s chief engineer for environmental protection. “Of course, what happened in Chernobyl cannot happen again…. And as it’s going to be stationed in the Arctic waters, it will be cooling down constantly, and there is no lack of cold water.”

The idea itself is not new — the US Army used a small nuclear reactor installed on a ship in the Panama Canal for almost a decade in the 1960s. For civil purposes, an American energy company PSE&G commissioned a floating plant to be stationed off the coast of New Jersey, but the project was halted in the 1970s due to public opposition and environmental concerns.

Russia’s civilian nuclear industry also faced public questions following the Chernobyl catastrophe, which shaped concerns about “the peaceful atom” for decades to follow. Construction of dozens of nuclear plants stopped, affecting not only massive Chernobyl-scale projects but also slowing down the use of low-power reactors like the one in what would become the floating station (The Chernobyl plant produced up to 4,000 megawatts. Lomonosov has two reactors producing 35 megawatts each).

“These reactors were initially to be used within city limits, but unfortunately the Chernobyl incident hindered that,” said Iriminku. “Our citizens, especially if they are not technically savvy, don’t really understand the nuclear energy and that these stations are built differently, so it’s almost impossible to explain that to them.”

The explosion at Chernobyl directly caused around 31 deaths, but millions of people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels.

The final death toll as a result of long-term radiation exposure is much disputed. Although the UN predicted up to 9,000 related cancer deaths back in 2005, Greenpeace later estimated up to 200,000 fatalities, taking further health problems connected to the disaster into account.

Modern Russia hasn’t seen anything close to Chernobyl though. Russia, a major oil and gas producer, also operates several nuclear power stations. The state atomic energy corporation Rosatom has long maintained that its industrial record is one of reliability and safety, and that its reactors have been modernized and upgraded.

But rather than summoning the specter of Chernobyl, some nuclear watchdogs are drawing parallels to the 2011 accident at Fukushima in Japan, with the images of its waterlogged reactors still fresh in the public memory. The Russian plant’s main benefits — mobility and ability to work in remote regions — complicate some crucial security procedures, from routine disposal of the nuclear fuel to rescue operations in the event the platform is hit by a massive wave.

But project engineers say they’ve learned the lessons of Fukushima.

“This rig can’t be torn out of moorings, even with a 9-point tsunami, and we’ve even considered that if it does go inland, there is a backup system that can keep the reactor cooling for 24 hours without an electricity supply,” said Dmitry Alekseenko, deputy director of the Lomonosov plant.

However, experts of Bellona, an NGO monitoring nuclear projects and environmental impacts, say 24 hours might not be enough to prevent a disaster should a tsunami land the rig among towns with two active nuclear reactors aboard.

And then there is the question of cost. Some Russian officials have questioned the floating reactor complex’s price tag of an estimated $450 million, saying it would need to enter serial production to be economically viable. Rosatom has been working to attract clients from Asia, Africa and South America to purchase next iterations of Akademik Lomonosov, but has yet to announce any deals.

The last Russian nuclear project of a comparable scale was completed in 2007, when the “50 Years of Victory” nuclear-powered icebreaker finally sailed after sitting in the docks since 1989. Now, after more than 20 years of arguments, changes of contractors and economic crises, Russian engineers can finally take pride in launching the world’s only nuclear floating rig.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici, Unione Europea

Germania. Cdu e Csu litigano sul piano di uscita dal carbone.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-06-26.

Germania. Laender 0021

«Conservative Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Bavarian allies have called for Germany to phase out coal by 2030 but the government has insisted on keeping its 2038 target, in the latest sign of strain within her coalition»

«The call by Markus Soeder, the premier of Germany’s economic powerhouse state of Bavaria, could further test Merkel’s right-left coalition administration which has been shaken by policy disputes and dire results in European Parliament elections»

«The German climate targets could be reached by 2030 only if we massively speed up the coal exit»

«The government on Monday rebuffed Soeder’s proposal and said it would stick to its plan to exit coal by 2038 as recommended by a commission of experts who estimated the phase-out would cost 40 billion euros ($45.54 billion) at least»

«Bavaria has little to lose from speeding up the coal exit. It is home to only 5 of the more than 100 coal power stations in Germany and it has no coal mines»

«Soeder’s remarks also reflect alarm within the CSU at the rise of the ecologist Greens who came in second in an election in Bavaria last year and are the most popular party nationally according to polls»

«There are mounting doubts that Merkel’s conservative-led coalition with the Social Democrats (SPD) as junior coalition partners would serve its full term until 2021»

«Critics say her abrupt decision to phase out nuclear power in Germany after the Fukushima disaster in 2011 has driven up energy prices and increased Germany’s dependence on coal»

* * * * * * *

Gli ultimi sondaggi Insa danno la Cdu al 18% e la Csu al 6%, con i Grüne al 25%.

Poiché la Csu si presenta solo in Baviera, è evidente come la Cdu sia in forte svantaggio nei confronti dei Grüne nel resto della federazione tedesca.

Il nodo è il solito: Frau Merkel.

Adesso la Csu  tenta di destabilizzare il governo portandosi su posizioni verdi oltranziste, che sa più che bene quanto siano inattuabili.

«the phase-out would cost 40 billion euros ($45.54 billion) at least»

E di questi tempi anche la Germania deve iniziare a fare attenzione con le spese voluttuarie.

Poi c’è la Spd. Ridotta ai minimi termini, brancola alla ricerca di una strategia politica, come un pugile al ko tecnico.

Infine, a mesi si terranno le elezioni in tre Länder dell’est. ed i risultati si preannunciano come un bagno di sangue per la Große Koalition.

Un’ultima considerazione.

È nella logica delle cose che Sorella Morte mieta a piene mani le persone vecchie.

Nel 2038 è verosimile che quasi tutta l’attuale classe politica tedesca sia due metri sotto terra ovvero relegata in un gerontocomio. Secondo le proiezioni Destatis a tale data la popolazione tedesca autoctona sarà dimezzata.

Ci si domanda allora: che bisogno avranno quei superstiti di energia?


Reuters. 2019-06-24. Merkel’s Bavarian allies snub her coal exit plan

Conservative Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Bavarian allies have called for Germany to phase out coal by 2030 but the government has insisted on keeping its 2038 target, in the latest sign of strain within her coalition.

The call by Markus Soeder, the premier of Germany’s economic powerhouse state of Bavaria, could further test Merkel’s right-left coalition administration which has been shaken by policy disputes and dire results in European Parliament elections.

“The German climate targets could be reached by 2030 only if we massively speed up the coal exit,” Soeder, whose Christian Social Union (CSU) is the sister party of Merkel’s Christian Democrats (CDU), told the Muenchener Merkur newspaper.

“In the end we must actually exit (coal) in 2030.”

The government on Monday rebuffed Soeder’s proposal and said it would stick to its plan to exit coal by 2038 as recommended by a commission of experts who estimated the phase-out would cost 40 billion euros ($45.54 billion) at least.

“We are determined to implement the recommendations of the coal commission,” government spokesman Steffen Seibert said on Monday.

Bavaria has little to lose from speeding up the coal exit. It is home to only 5 of the more than 100 coal power stations in Germany and it has no coal mines.

Soeder’s remarks also reflect alarm within the CSU at the rise of the ecologist Greens who came in second in an election in Bavaria last year and are the most popular party nationally according to polls.

Last year, Germany raised its target for the contribution of renewables to 65 percent by 2030 from 50 percent in a bid to reduce CO2 emissions by 55 percent over 1990 levels. It is set to miss a 2020 target aimed at cutting emissions by 40 percent.

There are mounting doubts that Merkel’s conservative-led coalition with the Social Democrats (SPD) as junior coalition partners would serve its full term until 2021.

The SPD suffered painful losses at the EU elections last month and have been under pressure to quit the coalition the reluctantly joined after election two years ago.

Their leader Andrea Nahles stepped down earlier this month as the party’s popularity in polls hit a record low.

Merkel’s climate policy has been controversial. Critics say her abrupt decision to phase out nuclear power in Germany after the Fukushima disaster in 2011 has driven up energy prices and increased Germany’s dependence on coal.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Mondiale, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Import petrolifero salito a 10.68 milioni di barili al giorno.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-05-12.

Escher__Il_Cubo_

Lo sviluppo economico cinese non sarebbe stato possibile senza la possibilità di acquisire prodotti energetici a costi contenuti.

Se questa affermazione è vera per il passato, altrettanto lo sarebbe per il futuro: senza energia a basso costo sarebbe impossibile ogni qualsivoglia produzione industriale, tanto meno poi incrementarla.

Sarebbe impossibile comprendere la complessa politica estera cinese senza tener presente quanto ambisca a mantenere rapporti cordiali con i paesi produttori di petrolio.

«China imported 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day»

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«That’s the most in figures going back to 2010»

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«The record purchases are mostly due to large volumes of Iranian oil arriving in China before the expiration of the waivers»

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«An estimated 1.7 million barrels a day of refining capacity was taken offline for maintenance in April, the most during the March-May peak season»

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«While no country-by-country breakdown of the Chinese figures for April is available yet, observed crude exports from Iran to China rose to 806,452 barrels a day in March»

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«It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March»

* * * * * * * *

Al di à delle frasi di rito su clima ed alternative, superenfatizzate dai media occidentali, la Cina ha già approntato grandi piani energetici.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

«37 operating nuclear power reactors: 33,657 MWe»

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«60 nuclear reactors under construction: 68,7006 MWe»

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«179 nuclear reactors proposed: 205,000 MWe»

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Gli Usa costruiscono centrali nucleari. e la Cina esporta l’energia in Pakistan

«La Westinghouse Electric Corporation è una società leader nel settore dell’energia atomica con sede in Pennsylvania che ha ideato il reattore AP1000, l’unica unità nucleare al mondo di terza generazione ad acqua pressurizzata (PWR), il cui primo esemplare ha iniziato a funzionare nella provincia di Zhejiang, sita nella Cina orientale, e più precisamente a Sanmen.

Mercoledì 25 aprile [2018], infatti, è cominciato il caricamento del combustibile atomico del reattore numero 1 di quello che sarà un impianto rivoluzionario in quanto a dotazioni di sicurezza; caricamento che sarà completato entro l’estate e che porterà alla totale attivazione della centrale entro la fine di quest’anno.

La centrale di Sanmen avrà una potenza complessiva di 7,5 Gw e fa parte di un progetto della Spic, la State Power Investment Corporation ovvero una delle prime 5 compagnie cinesi nel campo delle costruzioni energetiche, che prevede la costruzione di altre 3 centrali di questo tipo: un’altra sempre nel distretto di Zhejiang, e due ad Haiyang, nella provincia di Shandong.»

*

È in ogni caso evidente come lo sviluppo della motorizzazione, sia a scopi commerciali sia a scopi familiari, necessiti di derivati distillati dal petrolio, mentre il riscaldamento urbano dipende in larga quota dal gas naturale.

Fatti questi che dovrebbero rendere intelleggibile la geopolitica energetica mondiale cinesa, a partire dai suoi rapporti con l’Iran.


Bloomberg. 2019-05-08. Chinese Oil Imports Surge to Record as Iranian Crude Stockpiled

China’s crude imports climbed to a record last month as a drive to stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners.

– China imported 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most in figures going back to 2010.

Key Insights.

– The record purchases are mostly due to large volumes of Iranian oil arriving in China before the expiration of the waivers, according to Michal Meidan, an analyst with London-based industry consultant Energy Aspects Ltd. An estimated 1.7 million barrels a day of refining capacity was taken offline for maintenance in April, the most during the March-May peak season.

– The start-up of a mega refinery at Dalian by Hengli Group also boosted imports, according to Li Li, an analyst at Shanghai-based commodities researcher ICIS-China.

– While no country-by-country breakdown of the Chinese figures for April is available yet, observed crude exports from Iran to China rose to 806,452 barrels a day in March, the highest in six months, according to tanker-tracking data compiled by Bloomberg.

– It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici, Russia, Unione Europea

Russia. Nel 2019 scadono gli accordi al transito di gas attraverso l’Ukraina.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-29.

TurkStream

Sempre che non siano in corso delle trattative riservate, cosa possibile quanto verosimile, l’Unione Europea sembrerebbe non aver ancora pensato a come comportarsi quando a fine 2019 scadranno gli accordi tra Russia ed Ukraina, in base ai  quali il gas russo transita sul territorio ukraino per giungere ai consumatori europei.

Per quanto possa sembrare essere ragionevole che alla fine si arrivi ad un rinnovo dei permessi, ciò non è assolutamente detto che accada. A quanto sembrerebbe, il problema sarebbe sicuramente di prezzo del pedaggio, ma molto di più sarebbe politico.

L’Europa dipende mani e piedi dalle forniture russe di gas, sia per il riscaldamento ed uso domestico, sia per alimentare molte delle esistenti centrali elettriche.

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Lascia quindi alquanto perplessi la notizia per cui l’Ungheria avrebbe preso l’iniziativa e contrattato direttamente le forniture con la Russia.

«Russia will supply gas to Hungary in 2020, regardless of agreements on gas transit between Moscow and Kiev»

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«Today, the CEO of Gazprom and I have concluded an agreement that Gazprom will ensure gas supplies to Hungary, regardless of whether a transit agreement is concluded between Russia and Ukraine,” RBC quoted  Hungarian Foreign and Trade Minister Péter Szijjártó»

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«A situation might arise when Russia will no longer supply gas to the European continent via Ukraine»

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«We have to prepare for this scenario, because we must always take into account the worst scenario when planning the security of the country’s energy supply»

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Il problema è di non poco conto ed anche di ben difficile soluzione. Poi, magari, in colloqui riservati, le parti potrebbero anche dimostrasi una volta tanto ragionevoli.

Che tra Russia ed Ukraina non corra buon sangue non dovrebbe essere cosa ignota: l’Unione Europea parteggerebbe ufficialmente per l’Ukraina, ma nel contempo ha bisogno del gas russo per sopravvivere.

La Russia sta proseguendo i lavori per il Nord Stream 2 con grande risentimento americano, e nel contempo sta proseguendo i lavori sullo TurkStream, tra le urenti ambasce dell’Unione Europea. Ambedue le soluzioni bypassano l’Ukraina.

* * *

Turk Stream. Bulgaria approva il progetto.

Un’occhiata sia pur superficiale al tracciato del TurkStream in avanzata fase di posa mette chiaramente in luce come il tracciato passi dalla Turkia alla Bulgaria e, quindi, attraverso la Serbia, arrivi direttamente in Ungheria.


The Moskow Times. 2019-03-24. Russia Agrees To Ensure Gas Supplies to Hungary, Bypassing Ukraine

Russia will supply gas to Hungary in 2020, regardless of agreements on gas transit between Moscow and Kiev, the RBC news website reported on Friday.  

The transit agreement between Russia and Ukraine expires at the end of this year and a new agreement has not yet been negotiated.

“Today, the CEO of Gazprom and I have concluded an agreement that Gazprom will ensure gas supplies to Hungary, regardless of whether a transit agreement is concluded between Russia and Ukraine,” RBC quoted  Hungarian Foreign and Trade Minister Péter Szijjártó as saying after negotiations with Gazprom head Alexei Miller.

“A situation might arise when Russia will no longer supply gas to the European continent via Ukraine. We have to prepare for this scenario, because we must always take into account the worst scenario when planning the security of the country’s energy supply,” RBC quoted Szijjártó as saying.

State-run Gazprom is building two pipelines — Nord Stream 2 and the European leg of TurkStream — in the face of opposition from the European Union and the United States.

Both will carry Russian gas to Europe, bypassing Ukraine. The Nord Stream 2 link under the Baltic Sea is jointly funded by Gazprom and five regional energy companies. The planned TurkStream leg from Turkey to the EU is set to receive financing from a 50-50 joint venture between Gazprom and its Turkish partner.

Pubblicato in: India, Problemia Energetici, Russia, Stati Uniti

India. Nucleare. Dopo i sei reattori russi, compra anche sei reattori americani.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-24.

India. Akciós Utazások. 001

India. Quadruplicato il Pil in meno di venti anni. Q4 +7.2%.

India. Non può finanziare l’energia necessaria per lo sviluppo.

«Nowadays India’s consumption of oil, of which 80% has to be imported, is continuously growing»

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«In 2017, when the average annual price per barrel was 54 USD, India spent over 75 billion USD on oil»

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La Russia sbarca in India con sei nuovi reattori nucleari

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«L’India intende triplicare la sua capacità nucleare e si affida ad Usa e Russia»

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«Gli Stati uniti costruiranno sei centrali nucleari in India»

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«ad ottobre 2018, il Paese ha siglato un patto con la Russia per la costruzione di altri sei reattori nucleari.»

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Di questi giorni la notizia che l’India comprerà anche altre sei centrali atomiche dagli Stati Uniti. Sembrerebbe dai fatti che l’India abbia optato per il nucleare.

Una ghiotta curiosità.

Fino allo scorso anno era in corsa anche la Francia.

Poi, a quanto si dice nei corridoi, Mr Macron ha esternato con la sua usuale franchezza a Mr Modi il suo pensiero sulla India, Da quel momento di questo progetto non se ne sente più parlare.


Energia Oltre. 2019-03-21. Usa costruiranno sei centrali nucleari in India

L’India intende triplicare la sua capacità nucleare e si affida ad Usa e Russia

Gli Stati uniti costruiranno sei centrali nucleari in India. E’ questo, in breve, quanto deciso in occasione dell’incontro a Washington tra il ministro degli Esteri indiano, Vijay Gokhale, e Andrea Thompson, sottosegretario di stato Usa per il controllo delle armi e la sicurezza internazionale.

I due Paesi “si sono impegnati a rafforzare la sicurezza bilaterale e la cooperazione nucleare, comprendente la costruzione di sei centrali nucleari statunitensi in India”, è stato detto a margine dell’incontro.

WESTINGHOUSE RAGGIUNGE OBIETTIVO?

Dopo anni in cui la societa’ statunitense Westinghouse ha negoziato con New Delhi la costruzione di centrali a energia atomica, ora ha l’occasione per dare una svolta ai suoi progetti Fino ad oggi, infatti, non c’è stata alcuna intesa a causa di problemi legati alla legislazione locale.

TRIPLICARE CAPACITA’ NUCLEARE

La realizzazione delle centrali rientra in un progetto ben più grande: l’India vuole triplicare la sua capacita’ nucleare entro il 2024. Con questo obiettivo, ad ottobre 2018, il Paese ha siglato un patto con la Russia per la costruzione di altri sei reattori nucleari.

Pubblicato in: Economia e Produzione Industriale, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Putin avvia lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-23.

2019-03-22__akademik-lomonosov-__001

Di Mr Putin si può dire di tutto tranne che sia un ignavo: si direbbe che abbia sette vite come i gatti.

Appena lo scorso anno aveva inaugurato lo stabilimento estrattivo dei campi gas di Yamal, sopra il circolo polare artico, ed adesso inaugura il cantiere per lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye, grosso modo un centinaio di kilometri più a nord.

Si stima che da questo campo si potranno ottenere almeno 32 miliardi di metri cubi di gas all’anno.

Di notabile, tutte le tecnologie e tutte le apparecchiature sono di progettazione e costruzione russa, che ha acquisito un invidiabile know-how nei lavori di trivellazione a temperature che di inverno si aggirano sui -50°C.

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Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

«Putin, officially opening the plant in the harsh climate of northern Siberia last week»

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«Building the $27 billion Yamal liquefied natural gas project meant shipping more than 5 million tons of materials to construct a forest of concrete and steel 600 kilometers north of the Arctic circle, where temperatures can drop to -50 degrees Celsius and the sun disappears for two months straight»

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Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

«For Novatek, the successful launch of the project means questions are now turning to the future. On Tuesday, it outlined plans for some $60 billion of investments together with partners in a second LNG plant, a trans-shipment terminal in the far east and new domestic gas supplies»

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Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

«I tesori minerari racchiusi nell’Artico sono ben protetti dai ghiacci, ma quanto mai appetibili: assomma quasi la metà delle scorte di idrocarburi mondiali.»

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Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

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Gazprom begins full-scale development of Yamal’s Kharasaveyskoye field

In the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, Russian gas monopoly Gazprom launched the full-scale development of the giant Kharasaveyskoye field at a ceremony on 20 March. Gazprom CEO Alexey Miller and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area Governor Dmitry Artyukhov attended the event while Russian President Vladimir Putin addressed the event participants in his opening speech via a conference call.

The Kharasaveyskoye field is the second most important field after the Bovanenkovskoye field in Gazprom’s Yamal gas production centre. The Yamal centre plays an essential part in the Russian gas industry of the 21st century.

Gas production at the Kharasaveyskoye field is going to start in 2023. The estimated volume of gas production from the Cenomanian-Aptian deposits is 32 billion cubic metres per year. After this, Gazprom is going to proceed with developing the deeper-lying Neocomian-Jurassic deposits. While mostly lying onshore, the field also partly spreads into the waters of the Kara Sea. Wells for the offshore part of the field is going to be drilled from onshore.

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Gas, in Russia avviati i lavori del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye

Avviati i lavori nel campo Kharasaveyskoye: dovrebbe produrre gas fino  al 2131

Russia  protagonista (ancora una volta) del settore gas. Gazprom ha avviato i lavori per produrre gas dal campo Kharasaveyskoye, che si trova a nord del campo Bovanenkovskoye nella penisola di Yamal.

Ieri si è tenuta la cerimonia di inaugurazione dei lavori, nell’Area Autonoma di Yamal-Nenets. All’evento hanno parteciparono Alexey Miller, presidente del comitato di gestione di Gazprom, Dmitrij Artyukov, governatore dell’Area e capo delle suddivisioni e delle  sussidiarie di Gazprom.

ENTRO IL 2023 AVVIO DI PRODUZIONE

I lavori di riempimento delle piazzole per le strade e gli impianti di produzione dovrebbero essere conclusi entro il 2019. A giugno 2020, la Società intende avviare la perforazione di pozzi e la produzione di gas dovrebbe partire nel 2023, dai giacimenti Cenomanian-Aptian, il cui volume stimato di produzione ammonta a 32 miliardi di metri cubi all’anno.

Successivamente, la Compagnia procederà a sviluppare i giacimenti Neocomiano-Giurassico.

IL PROGETTO

I lavori sono stati avviati ieri e, per il pre-sviluppo, saranno coinvolti circa 5.500 ingegneri, costruttori e 1.764 veicoli. La società prevede di costruire 236 pozzi per la produzione di gas, un’unità di trattamento del gas completa e una stazione di compressione del booster, oltre a un’infrastruttura di trasporto e di alimentazione.

Per trasportare il gas prodotto sul campo, sarà costruito un gasdotto di 106 chilometri che collega i campi Kharasaveyskoye e Bovanenkovskoye, attraverso cui il gas verrà immesso nel sistema di approvvigionamento di gas unificato della Russia.

SOLO APPARECCHIATURE DOMESTICHE

“Oggi, stiamo iniziando lo sviluppo su vasta scala del campo Kharasaveyskoye. Abbiamo scelto soluzioni progettuali e ingegneristiche il più possibile simili a quelle che sono state applicate con successo per il campo di Bovanenkovo. Ciò significa che possiamo semplificare i nostri costi di investimento e operativi. La produzione di gas sul campo sarà effettuata utilizzando esclusivamente apparecchiature realizzate in Russia”, ha affermato Alexey Miller.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Medio Oriente, Problemia Energetici

Cina & Arabia Saudita. Accordo da 10b$ forniture materiale per petrolio.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-05.

Gufo_019__

«Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman continued a charm offensive in a two-day visit to China, signing off on a $10 billion oil deal, and pledged assistance in the “de-radicalisation of extremist thinking.”»

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«Saudi Arabia on Friday signed the next multi-billion oil refinery investment deal during Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s tour of Asia, this time in China»

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«Riyadh’s state-owned oil giant Saudi Aramco announced a $10 billion (€8.82 billion) joint venture to develop a facility in China’s north east»

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«This, among other deals hashed out in 35 memorandums of understanding, could see it regain its place as China’s main oil exporter. The countries saw a 33 percent increase in bilateral trade last year, according to the crown prince»

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«Over such long periods of exchanges with China, we have never experienced any problems»

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«All countries in the world have the right to develop, and Saudi Arabia is an emerging market country with enormous potential»

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Cina. 1000TTP. Ne ignorate la esistenza. Domani vi mangerete le dita.

La guerra della Cina all’islam. Spie nelle famiglie e repressione

Cinesi, gente pratica. Risolto il problema dell’integralismo islamico.

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Come si constata, questo è un ottimo esempio di Realpolitik.

I Sauditi si sono dimenticati del milione di mussulmani internati nel Laogai per essere rieducati (usciranno quando parleranno fluentemente il mandarino), e la Cina si è dimenticata che era stata proprio l’Arabia Saudita che finanziava i terroristi islamici.

In fondo, la Cina ha bisogno di petrolio e l’Arabia Saudita, che lo estrae, ha ben bisogno di acquirenti.

Si vorrebbe forse cavillare sui problemi interni di un paese amico?


Deutsche Welle. 2019-02-22. Saudi Arabia crown prince strikes oil deal in China

Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman continued a charm offensive in a two-day visit to China, signing off on a $10 billion oil deal, and pledged assistance in the “de-radicalisation of extremist thinking.”

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Saudi Arabia on Friday signed the next multi-billion oil refinery investment deal during Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s tour of Asia, this time in China.

Riyadh’s state-owned oil giant Saudi Aramco announced a $10 billion (€8.82 billion) joint venture to develop a facility in China’s north east.

This, among other deals hashed out in 35 memorandums of understanding, could see it regain its place as China’s main oil exporter. The countries saw a 33 percent increase in bilateral trade last year, according to the crown prince.

“Saudi Arabia’s relations with China can be traced back a very long time in the past,” bin Salman said.

“Over such long periods of exchanges with China, we have never experienced any problems.”

His counterpart, Chinese President Xi Jinping, expressed a similar sentiment. “China is a good friend and a partner to Saudi Arabia,” he said.

Bin Salman and his party arrived in the Chinese capital on Thursday after stops in India and Pakistan.

China for its part, was hoping to tap into the “enormous potential” of the Saudi economy and “deepen cooperation.”

“All countries in the world have the right to develop, and Saudi Arabia is an emerging market country with enormous potential,” Foreign Minister Wang Yi said.

The two countries have been pursuing separate, but equally ambitious economic plans. China has been securing partnerships for its Belt and Road Initiative – a $900 billion trade corridor from Asia to Europe.

Likewise, Riyadh has been pursuing the “Saudi Vision 2030”, to diversify Saudi Arabia’s economy from oil.

Talking terror

The two sides also discussed increased cooperation in areas like anti-terrorism, law enforcement and security. China expressed interested in exchanging experiences about de-radicalization, a likely reference to “internment camps” in the country’s west, set up to “educate” Muslims and Uighurs.

Such camps have drawn sharp condemnation, a UN committee describing the autonomous region as “something that resembles a massive internment camp that is shrouded in secrecy”, housing some one million Uighurs.

But the Saudi crown prince said his country was against “interference by external forces in China’s internal affairs”, saying that it “firmly supported” Beijing’s so-called security efforts.

The Saudi visit comes amid global criticism over the killing of journalist Jamal Khashogghi as well as the country’s human rights record and its role in the conflict in Yemen.

The crown prince is expected to leave Beijing Friday night, moving on to South Korea.