Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Russia

Russia e Cina abbandonano il dollaro ed accumulano oro.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-10-14.

Banche Caveau 005

«In meno di un anno la banca centrale cinese ha acquistato oltre cento tonnellate di lingotti …. la Cina non smette di accumulare lingotti a scapito del dollaro …. In Cina la banca centrale ha aumentato le riserve auree anche ad agosto, per il decimo mese consecutivo, con l’acquisto di 5,9 tonnellate di metallo»

«riserve auree [cinesi]. Queste ultime in totale ammontano ora a 1.942,4 tonnellate (ossia 62,64 milioni di once).»

«Il gigante asiatico sta contribuendo alla de-dollarizzazione anche attraverso la vendita di titoli di Stato americani. Sia pure in modo finora molto graduale, lo stock di debito Usa in mano alla Cina continua a calare, tanto che dal mese di giugno il primato mondiale per possesso di Treasuries (al di fuori degli stessi Stati Uniti) è passato al Giappone.

Gli ultimi dati resi disponibili dal dipartimento del Tesoro Usa mostrano che a luglio la Cina custodiva Treasuries per 1.110 miliardi di dollari, il minimo da aprile 2017»

«Le riserve della banca centrale cinese a settembre ammontavano in tutto a 3.092 miliardi di dollari, secondo dati diffusi domenica (-14,8 miliardi rispetto a settembre). L’oro conta per circa il 3%.

Mancano dati precisi sull’attuale valore di tutti gli asset denominati in dollari custoditi da Pechino. Le autorità cinesi poco tempo fa avevano rivelato che il loro peso sul totale delle riserve della banca centrale era crollato dal 79% nel 2005 al 58% a fine 2014. Da allora si presume che la quota sia scesa ulteriormente»

* * *

«È invece la Russia ad accelerare le vendite di Treasuries americani: nel giro di appena 4 mesi, tra marzo e luglio, ne ha liquidati per quasi 90 miliardi di dollari»

«La Russia, minacciata da crescenti sanzioni Usa, è stata ben più drastica nel processo di de-dollarizzazione: la banca centrale nel 2018 ha ridotto le riserve in dollari da circa la metà del totale al 22%, convertendole in yuan, euro o yen (oltre che in oro). E quest’anno ha addirittura accelerato il processo»

«Secondo il dipartimento del Tesoro Usa, nel giro di soli quattro mesi – tra marzo e luglio di quest’anno – Mosca ha liquidato Treasuries per quasi 90 miliardi di dollari, riducendone il possesso di oltre il 90% ad appena 8,5 miliardi di dollari»

«Le riserve auree russe hanno invece raggiunto 2.230,4 tonnellate, per un valore di 109,5 miliardi di dollari a settembre (oltre un quinto del valore totale delle riserve della banca centrale) e sono oggi le quarte al mondo»

* * * * * * *

Questi sono i dati di fatto.

Gli economisti occidentali possono dire ciò che vogliono e gratificarsi gli uni con gli altri anche assegnandosi Premi Nobel per l’Economia, ma intanto Russia e Cina tirano diritte per la loro strada.


Sole 24 Ore. 2019-10-08. Cina e Russia «scaricano» il dollaro: accumulano oro e vendono Treasuries

In meno di un anno la banca centrale cinese ha acquistato oltre cento tonnellate di lingotti. Gli asset denominati in dollari intanto scendono, in modo graduale ma inesorabile. È invece la Russia ad accelerare le vendite di Treasuries americani: nel giro di appena 4 mesi, tra marzo e luglio, ne ha liquidati per quasi 90 miliardi di dollari.

Più di cento tonnellate d’oro in meno di un anno. Mentre con gli Stati Uniti continua il braccio di ferro sui dazi, la Cina non smette di accumulare lingotti a scapito del dollaro. Una tendenza che si osserva in modo ancora più accentuato in Russia, dove non solo la banca centrale sta incrementando il peso delle riserve auree, ma anche le transazioni commerciali si stanno spostando verso valute diverse dal biglietto verde.

Il gigante petrolifero Rosneft dal mese scorso ha scelto l’euro come valuta di riferimento per i contratti di fornitura ai clienti: una mossa che esclude la divisa americana da transazioni per oltre 50 miliardi di dollari l’anno, solo con riferimento alle vendite di petrolio (Rosneft esporta 2,4 milioni di barili di greggio al giorno) .

In Cina la banca centrale ha aumentato le riserve auree anche ad agosto, per il decimo mese consecutivo, con l’acquisto di 5,9 tonnellate di metallo. Da dicembre – quando Pechino, dopo una lunga pausa, ha ripreso ad accumulare oro – nei forzieri della People’s Bank of China sono entrate ben 105,7 tonnellate di lingotti, che corrisponde a un incremento del 5,8% delle riserve auree. Queste ultime in totale ammontano ora a 1.942,4 tonnellate (ossia 62,64 milioni di once).

Il gigante asiatico sta contribuendo alla de-dollarizzazione anche attraverso la vendita di titoli di Stato americani. Sia pure in modo finora molto graduale, lo stock di debito Usa in mano alla Cina continua a calare, tanto che dal mese di giugno il primato mondiale per possesso di Treasuries (al di fuori degli stessi Stati Uniti) è passato al Giappone.

Gli ultimi dati resi disponibili dal dipartimento del Tesoro Usa mostrano che a luglio la Cina custodiva Treasuries per 1.110 miliardi di dollari, il minimo da aprile 2017.

Le riserve della banca centrale cinese a settembre ammontavano in tutto a 3.092 miliardi di dollari, secondo dati diffusi domenica (-14,8 miliardi rispetto a settembre). L’oro conta per circa il 3%.

Mancano dati precisi sull’attuale valore di tutti gli asset denominati in dollari custoditi da Pechino. Le autorità cinesi poco tempo fa avevano rivelato che il loro peso sul totale delle riserve della banca centrale era crollato dal 79% nel 2005 al 58% a fine 2014. Da allora si presume che la quota sia scesa ulteriormente.

La Russia, minacciata da crescenti sanzioni Usa, è stata ben più drastica nel processo di de-dollarizzazione: la banca centrale nel 2018 ha ridotto le riserve in dollari da circa la metà del totale al 22%, convertendole in yuan, euro o yen (oltre che in oro). E quest’anno ha addirittura accelerato il processo.

Secondo il dipartimento del Tesoro Usa, nel giro di soli quattro mesi – tra marzo e luglio di quest’anno – Mosca ha liquidato Treasuries per quasi 90 miliardi di dollari, riducendone il possesso di oltre il 90% ad appena 8,5 miliardi di dollari.

Le riserve auree russe hanno invece raggiunto 2.230,4 tonnellate, per un valore di 109,5 miliardi di dollari a settembre (oltre un quinto del valore totale delle riserve della banca centrale) e sono oggi le quarte al mondo.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Unione Europea

EU – Cina. I dazi altrui sono soprusi, quelli dell’EU azioni dovute.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-10-13.

EP-051364A_Tajani_Brexit
Opening the debate on BREXIT

«The European Union (EU) imposed tariffs as high as 66.4% on steel road wheels from China, targeting manufacturers such as Zhejiang Jingu Co Ltd and Xingmin Intelligent Transportation Systems Co Ltd»

«The duties punish Chinese exporters of steel wheels for vehicles including cars, tractors, and trailers for allegedly having sold them in the EU below cost, a practice known as dumping. The European market for such wheels is worth an estimated EUR800m (USD881m).»

«Dumped imports of steel road wheels from China caused “material injury” to EU-based manufacturers of the goods, the European Commission, the 28-nation bloc’s executive arm in Brussels, said on Thursday (10 October) in the Official Journal»

«The EU has 11 manufacturers of steel road wheels, according to the commission, which took the unusual step of declining to identify any of them. European producers requested anonymity “on grounds of a fear of retaliatory measures by some of their customers”, the commission said»

«The EU industry employs 3,600 people mainly in Germany, France, Spain, the Czech Republic, Italy, Romania, and Poland»

«The rates of the provisional anti-dumping duties are 50.3% against 19 specifically named Chinese exporters – including Zhejiang Jingu and Xingmin Intelligent Transportation Systems – and 66.4% for all others»

* * * * * * *

E così l’Unione Europea prosegue nel mettere dazi sulle merci cinesi.

L’accusa formale sarebbe quella di dumping, ma sono in molti a ritenere che più semplicemente i cinesi sappiano produrre a costi inferiori a quelli europei

*


China slapped by EU tariffs as high as 66%

Meanwhile, the Singapore central bank is set to join the global policy easing tide

The European Union (EU) imposed tariffs as high as 66.4% on steel road wheels from China, targeting manufacturers such as Zhejiang Jingu Co Ltd and Xingmin Intelligent Transportation Systems Co Ltd.

The duties punish Chinese exporters of steel wheels for vehicles including cars, tractors, and trailers for allegedly having sold them in the EU below cost, a practice known as dumping. The European market for such wheels is worth an estimated EUR800m (USD881m).

Dumped imports of steel road wheels from China caused “material injury” to EU-based manufacturers of the goods, the European Commission, the 28-nation bloc’s executive arm in Brussels, said on Thursday (10 October) in the Official Journal.

The anti-dumping duties represent the preliminary outcome of a probe opened in February based on a dumping complaint by the Association of European Wheel Manufacturers. The levies, due to take effect on Friday, will last for six months and may be prolonged for five years.

The EU has 11 manufacturers of steel road wheels, according to the commission, which took the unusual step of declining to identify any of them. European producers requested anonymity “on grounds of a fear of retaliatory measures by some of their customers”, the commission said.

The EU industry employs 3,600 people mainly in Germany, France, Spain, the Czech Republic, Italy, Romania, and Poland, the commission said in a subsequent emailed statement about the case.

Chinese exporters’ combined share of the EU market for steel road wheels doubled to 5.3% last year compared with 2015, the commission said in its decision published in the Official Journal.

The rates of the provisional anti-dumping duties are 50.3% against 19 specifically named Chinese exporters – including Zhejiang Jingu and Xingmin Intelligent Transportation Systems – and 66.4% for all others.

Separately on Thursday, the commission threatened to stoke longstanding tensions with China over steel trade by opening an inquiry into whether Chinese producers of hot-rolled, stainless-steel sheets and coils receive market-distorting government aid.

The probe, which also covers Indonesia and is due to last as long as 13 months, could lead to EU anti-subsidy duties on imports of these steel products – used for other kinds of steel and for tubes – from both countries. Hot-rolled, stainless-steel sheets and coils from China, Taiwan, and Indonesia face a separate threat of European anti-dumping duties as a result of an investigation opened in August.

The EU already has anti-dumping and/or anti-subsidy levies on a range of other products imported from China, the biggest producer of the metal with around half the world’s output. – Bloomberg News.

The Shanghai Composite Index gained 0.78% to 2,947.71 on Thursday while the Hang Seng Index inched 0.10% higher to 25,707.93.

*


China Hit by EU Tariffs as High as 66%

«The European Union imposed tariffs as high as 66.4% on steel road wheels from China, targeting manufacturers such as Zhejiang Jingu Co. and Xingmin Intelligent Transportation Systems Co.

The duties punish Chinese exporters of steel wheels for vehicles including cars, tractors and trailers for allegedly having sold them in the EU below cost, a practice known as dumping.»

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Commercio, Russia

Rosneft. Da settembre le transazioni saranno fatte in euro, non più in dollari.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-10-12.

Kremlino 002

C’era stato un primo, timido annuncio il 21 agosto.

Russia’s Rosneft to switch to euros in oil products tenders – traders

«Russia’s Rosneft, one of the world’s top oil producers and exporters, has notified customers that future tender contracts for oil products will be denominated in euros not dollars as early as this year, five trading sources told Reuters.

The move is likely to be seen as an attempt to offset any potential negative impact of U.S. sanctions on Russia.

Rosneft, which accounts for over 40% of Russia’s oil output, sells the bulk of its oil products for export at annual tenders as well as at a number of spot or short-term tenders.»

* * *

Russia’s Rosneft seeks euros for all new export deals -documents

«Russia’s Rosneft has set the euro as the default currency for all its new export contracts including for crude oil, oil products, petrochemicals and liquefied petroleum gas, tender documents showed.

The switch from U.S. dollars, which happened in September according to the tender documents published on Rosneft’s website, is set to reduce the state-controlled firm’s vulnerability to potential fresh U.S. sanctions.

Washington has threatened to impose sanctions on Rosneft over its operations in Venezuela, a move which Rosneft says would be illegal.

Rosneft did not immediately reply to a Reuters request for comment. Rosneft is Russia’s top oil exporter, shipping abroad about 120 million tonnes of oil a year, or 2.4 million barrels per day.

“Rosneft has recently adjusted all the new contracts for export supplies to euros. We’ve been notified,” a trader at a company regularly buying from Rosneft told Reuters.

Reuters previously reported that Rosneft has turned to euros in its oil products sales.

According to three traders, Rosneft has named the euro as the default currency in all new contracts for its export sales starting from September.

As benchmark oil prices are quoted in dollars, Rosneft asks buyers to use the euro/dollar exchange rate published by Bloomberg one day prior to the set payment day, according to tender documents.

“Rosneft used to have the euro as one of the options, but since last month it’s the main option. We’ve been notified, but still it’s a visible change,” one of the traders said.»

* * * * * * *

«La de-dollarizzazione prosegue in Russia, che prende le distanze dalla valuta americana anche negli scambi commerciali e nei mercati dell’energia, dominati dal biglietto verde»

«E intanto Mosca e Teheran passano a un sistema alternativo a Swift per i trasferimenti interbancari …. Come già avviene tra diverse banche russe e cinesi»

«Rosneft copre più del 40% del petrolio estratto in Russia; ne esporta ogni anno circa 120 milioni di tonnellate, pari a 2,4 milioni di barili al giorno»

«mentre le nuove restrizioni decise in agosto in seguito al caso Skripal toccano per la prima volta le emissioni di debito sovrano russo, a cui le banche americane non possono partecipare.»

«In parallelo, le banche russe si spostano su sistemi di pagamenti alternativi, e il governo incoraggia le aziende ad accettare pagamenti in altre valute»

* * * * * * *

Una sola considerazione.

International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook (October – 2017)

Le proiezioni al 2022 danno la Cina ad un pil ppa di 34,465 (20.54%) miliardi di Usd, gli Stati Uniti di 23,505 (14.01%), e l’India di 15,262 (9.10%) Usd. Seguono Giappone con 6,163 (3.67%),  Germania (4.932%), Regno Unito 3,456 (2.06%), Francia 3,427 (2.04%), Italia 2,677 (1.60%). Russia 4.771 (2.84%) e Brasile 3,915 (2.33%).

I paesi del G7 produrranno 46,293 (27.59%) mld Usd del pil mondiale, mentre i paesi del Brics renderanno conto di 59,331 mld Usd (35.36%).

Gli Stati Uniti valgono il 14.01% dell’economia mondiale ed i paesi del G7 il 27.06%.

Troppo poco per pretendere di continuare a governare il mondo.

*


Rosneft passa all’euro: non è più il dollaro la valuta di riferimento

La de-dollarizzazione prosegue in Russia, che prende le distanze dalla valuta americana anche negli scambi commerciali e nei mercati dell’energia, dominati dal biglietto verde. E intanto Mosca e Teheran passano a un sistema alternativo a Swift per i trasferimenti interbancari.

Si accettano solo euro. La Russia ha compiuto un altro importante passo sul fronte della de-dollarizzazione, prendendo le distanze dal biglietto verde per mettersi il più possibile al riparo dalle sanzioni imposte dagli Stati Uniti, presenti e future. E se finora lo ha fatto soprattutto per mano della Banca centrale russa, che nel 2018 ha ridotto le proprie riserve in dollari da circa la metà del totale al 22%, convertendole in yuan, euro o yen (oltre che in oro), il passaggio ad altre valute sta lentamente progredendo anche negli scambi commerciali. E anche sui mercati del petrolio, tradizionalmente radicati sull’uso del dollaro.

Lo scrive l’agenzia Reuters: Rosneft, una delle principali compagnie petrolifere al mondo e primo esportatore russo, ha scelto l’euro come valuta di riferimento in tutti i nuovi contratti di esportazione, a partire da settembre. Una svolta che riguarda greggio e derivati, prodotti petrolchimici, gas liquefatto. Reuters fa riferimento ai documenti per i tender (attraverso cui passa la maggior parte dell’export) pubblicati sul sito della compagnia russa. E in cui si chiede ai clienti di far riferimento al tasso di cambio euro/dollaro del giorno precedente al pagamento, dal momento che i prezzi del petrolio sono fissati in dollari.

Rosneft, controllata dallo Stato, non ha rilasciato commenti; ma una delle fonti citate da Reuters, trader in una compagnia che acquista regolarmente da Rosneft, ha confermato di avere avuto notifica del passaggio ai nuovi contratti. Come peraltro la stessa Reuters aveva riferito il 21 agosto scorso, in riferimento però solo ai contratti di esportazione dei prodotti petroliferi. Stando alle fonti dell’agenzia, l’euro diventerà invece la valuta di default per tutti i contratti: se fino a oggi era stata una delle opzioni possibili, ora è l’opzione principale.

Rosneft copre più del 40% del petrolio estratto in Russia; ne esporta ogni anno circa 120 milioni di tonnellate, pari a 2,4 milioni di barili al giorno.

Il processo di de-dollarizzazione dell’economia procede lentamente man mano che la Russia, a partire dal 2014, entra sempre più nel mirino delle sanzioni decise dal Tesoro americano: quelle che potrebbero aggiungersi ora per Rosneft riguardano le attività della compagnia di Igor Sechin in Venezuela, mentre le nuove restrizioni decise in agosto in seguito al caso Skripal toccano per la prima volta le emissioni di debito sovrano russo, a cui le banche americane non possono partecipare. In parallelo, le banche russe si spostano su sistemi di pagamenti alternativi, e il governo incoraggia le aziende ad accettare pagamenti in altre valute. L’ultimo annuncio riguarda l’Iran: il 17 settembre scorso il governatore della Banca centrale iraniana ha dichiarato che per le transazioni interbancarie Mosca e Teheran inizieranno a utilizzare un sistema alternativo a Swift. Come già avviene tra diverse banche russe e cinesi.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo

Cinesi. Hanno perso la pazienza. Xinjiang.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-10-10.

Pechino-Cina

«50 international ambassadors to the UN Office at Geneva have co-signed a letter to the president of the UN Human Rights Council and High Commissioner for Human Rights recently, commending Xinjiang’s achievements on human rights, counterterrorism and deradicalization»

«China on Tuesday lodged resolute opposition to the United States and urged the U.S. side to cancel the relevant event, and stop making irresponsible remarks and interfering in China’s internal affairs by using human rights excuses»

«Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang made the remarks at a press briefing in response to Xinjiang-related questions. He said that recently the U.S. side has repeatedly slandered and smeared China’s policies on the governance of Xinjiang by using religious and human rights excuses, adding that it is particularly wrong to hold the so-called panel discussion during the UN General Assembly»

«The U.S. State Department announced in a statement that U.S. Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan will hold a panel discussion regarding Xinjiang with relevant countries’ permanent representatives to the UN and non-governmental partners on Tuesday»

Gli occidentali amano salire in cattedra e bacchettare e destra e manca gli stati che, a dir loro, non aderiscono agli human rights così come sono intesi dai liberal democratici americani.

Similmente, non si scompongono certo a fomentare e sostenere rivolte locali e franco terrorismo in casa altrui.

La presa di posizione di Mr Geng Shuang, portavoce del Ministro degli Esteri cinese dovrebbe essere molto chiara.

Ma forse i 241 arresti sono stati miglior deterrente: la stampa liberal non parla proprio più di Hong Kong.

Tutte le pazienze hanno dei limiti, e la Cina non tollera certo ingerenze nei suoi problemi interni.

*


China urges US to stop interfering in internal affairs through human rights excuses

China on Tuesday lodged resolute opposition to the United States and urged the U.S. side to cancel the relevant event, and stop making irresponsible remarks and interfering in China’s internal affairs by using human rights excuses.

Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang made the remarks at a press briefing in response to Xinjiang-related questions. He said that recently the U.S. side has repeatedly slandered and smeared China’s policies on the governance of Xinjiang by using religious and human rights excuses, adding that it is particularly wrong to hold the so-called panel discussion during the UN General Assembly.

The U.S. State Department announced in a statement that U.S. Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan will hold a panel discussion regarding Xinjiang with relevant countries’ permanent representatives to the UN and non-governmental partners on Tuesday.

The question of Xinjiang is about fighting separatism and violent terrorism, not about religion or human rights, reiterated Geng, adding that Xinjiang’s measures against terrorism and radicalization are, in their essence, the pursuit of justice, civility and the rule of law in the face of evil, brutality and violence. These efforts deserve support, respect and understanding from the international community, Geng added.

Geng said 50 international ambassadors to the UN Office at Geneva have co-signed a letter to the president of the UN Human Rights Council and High Commissioner for Human Rights recently, commending Xinjiang’s achievements on human rights, counterterrorism and deradicalization.

In recent months, some 1,000 foreign diplomats, officials and journalists have visited Xinjiang, and they all recognized and applauded local efforts to fight and prevent terrorism in accordance with the law.

However, the U.S. side has turned a blind eye to China’s counterterrorism and deradicalization efforts as well as voices supporting such efforts, Geng said.

No matter what the U.S. says or does, China will, as it always has, implement its policy in Xinjiang, said Geng, adding that Xinjiang’s continued prosperity, stability, ethnic unity and social harmony are obvious to all, and facts will triumph over lies.

Pubblicato in: Cina

Hong Kong. Si inizia con la mano leggera. Solo 241 arresti, per il momento.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-10-08.

Pechino-Cina

La pazienza dei cinesi si dirada.

Tuttavia, le Autorità hanno usato la mano leggera.

«La polizia di Hong Kong ha eseguito 241 arresti nel weekend lungo del 4-7 ottobre, di cui 170 uomini e 71 donne, di età compresa tra i 12 e i 54 anni: le accuse, in base alla “diffusa efferatezza” contro agenti e cittadini con diverse visioni, variano dall’adesione a manifestazioni illegali al possesso d’armi esplosive e all’uso delle mascherine, bandite da sabato negli eventi pubblici»

«Tra i 77 casi di arresti per l’uso delle mascherine, 14 sono stati incriminati oggi.»

Orbene: adesso che è iniziata una sia pur blanda reazione cinese, i media liberal occidentali stanno zitti come pesci:  forse avrebbero capito che tutto il loro clangore altro non faceva che peggiorare la situazione.

Nessuno stato può tollerare una rivoluzione in casa propria e tanto meno l’intrusione di stati stranieri.

* * *

Hong Kong: 241 arresti nel weekend

La polizia di Hong Kong ha eseguito 241 arresti nel weekend lungo del 4-7 ottobre, di cui 170 uomini e 71 donne, di età compresa tra i 12 e i 54 anni: le accuse, in base alla “diffusa efferatezza” contro agenti e cittadini con diverse visioni, variano dall’adesione a manifestazioni illegali al possesso d’armi esplosive e all’uso delle mascherine, bandite da sabato negli eventi pubblici. Lo ha riferito uno dei massimi funzionari, Kwok Yam-yung. Tra i 77 casi di arresti per l’uso delle mascherine, 14 sono stati incriminati oggi.

* * *

Hong Kong: Lam a governi stranieri, basta sostegno a rivolta

«Il capo esecutivo della Regione Amministrativa Speciale cinese di Hong Kong, Carrie Lam, ha esortato i politici stranieri a smettere di sostenere i rivoltosi, Lam ha affermato che la “violenza senza precedenti” di questi giorni ha portato Hong Kong in “una situazione molto pericolosa”.»

«Frattanto, uno dei massimi funzionari dell’ex colonia britannica, Kwok Yam-yung, ha dichiarato che la polizia di Hong Kong ha eseguito 241 arresti nel weekend lungo del 4-7 ottobre, di cui 170 uomini e 71 donne, di età compresa tra i 12 e i 54 anni.

Le accuse, variano dall’adesione a manifestazioni illegali al possesso d’armi esplosive e all’uso delle mascherine, bandite da sabato negli eventi pubblici.»

*

South China Morning Post. 2019-10-08. Hong Kong anti-mask law charges reach 16 following weekend of violent protests

– Another six men and eight women faced charges at West Kowloon Court on Tuesday

– Ban was imposed by the city’s leader Carrie Lam, when she invoked the Emergency Regulations Ordinance for the first time in over half a century

Another 14 people have been charged for breaking the new anti-mask law, bringing the

total number of prosecution cases relating to the ban

that took effect on Saturday to at least 16.

The six men and eight women faced charges at West Kowloon Court on Tuesday afternoon.

The new ban was imposed by the city’s leader Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor last Friday, when she invoked the Emergency Regulations Ordinance for the first time in over half a century.

The Prohibition on Face Covering Regulation forbids anyone from wearing “facial coverings” that are likely to conceal a person’s identity during demonstrations, regardless of whether the assembly is lawful or not. Those convicted face one year in jail or a HK$25,000 (US$3,187) fine.

A university student and an unemployed woman became the first to be charged under the new law and appeared in court on Monday.

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina

Cina. Alla sfilata del 1° ottobre ci saranno grandi sorprese.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-30.

Pechino-Cina

Si resta stupefatti nel constatare i livelli di sviluppo sociale, economico e militare raggiunti dalla Cina nel breve volgere di trenta anni.

Alla parata militare del 1° ottobre sfileranno almeno otto grandi novità negli armamenti.

* * *

                         DF-41 missile

«The Missile Defense Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies says the DF-41 will have a range of up to 9,320 miles (15,000 kilometers), more than any missile on Earth, and will be capable of carrying 10 independently targeted nuclear warheads. From launch in China, it could theoretically hit the continental United States in 30 minutes, the Missile Defense Project says.»

«Mobile-launched DF-41s can be carried by trucks and trains. Satellite photos taken earlier this year showed DF-41 mobile launchers in the PLARF Jilintal training area in Inner Mongolia, according to the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), which monitors world nuclear arms developments»

«The DF-41 is solid-fueled, like the Russian missiles. Solid-fueled missiles are easier to deploy and quicker to launch than liquid versions.»

«China may be ready to deploy the DF-41 in numbers. At least 18 of them appeared to be at the Inner Mongolia training ground in satellite photos earlier this year»

* * *

                         JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)

«This is the main weapon aboard China’s Jin-class fleet of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. Four of the subs are in service, with two more under construction.»

«Each sub can carry 12 of the single-warhead JL-2 missiles. With an estimated range of 4,473 miles (7,200 kilometers), it is regarded as more of a regional than global weapon»

* * *

                         DL-17

«This is an example of a hypersonic glide vehicle, or HGV. It is launched via a standard missile rocket — but after reaching the desired altitude, the booster rocket is jettisoned and the HGV carries the missile payload to target.»

«China has been testing HGV technology since 2014 and is expected to deploy it in 2020, according to the Missile Defense Project. The DF-17 will be capable of carrying both nuclear and conventional warheads, it added.»

«HGVs can fly low and fast — at least five times the speed of sound, or 3,800 mph (6,115 kph), according to the Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance — with maneuverability to avoid enemy radar detection and air defenses.»

* * *

                         H-6N bomber

«The H-6 has been Beijing’s core long-range bomber for years, but images taken during flyover rehearsals for Tuesday’s parade show what could be a significant upgrade.»

«These could be DF-21 anti-ship ballistic missiles, …. »

«The ability to carry the DF-21 would give the bomber “an impressive stand-off capability against large enemy warships, especially aircraft carriers,”»

* * *

                         DR-8 drone

«This stealthy drone is drawing lots of attention leading up to the parade, much of that due to its sleek shape and supersonic speed.»

«Thought to be able to fly up to five times the speed of sound, the main mission of the DR-8 could be to get close to foreign aircraft carriers during conflict and send targeting information back to missile launchers»

* * *

                         Sharp Sword drone

«China military watchers have been tweeting images of what they speculate is the Sharp Sword, a bat wing-shaped drone designed for use from aircraft carriers.»

«The drone is thought to have two internal bomb bays and its stealthy design indicates it’s built for a new type of drone warfare»

«“What makes Sharp Sword different … is that it is stealthy, which means it is built not for Afghanistan-type scenarios, where the enemy is equipped with little more than rifles, but for situations where it might have to evade sophisticated air defenses”»

* * *

                         Drone submarine

«More mysterious was an image of a large autonomous underwater vehicle. Its mission remains unknown»

* * *

                         Tanks

«There was no indication as to why the camouflage scheme was changed, but it prompted speculation about whether China sees a new mission for its ground forces»

* * * * * *

Non si può fare politica estera senza delle efficienti forze armate.


CNN. 2019-09-27. China is preparing to show off some incredible weaponry. Here’s what it could be

Hong Kong (CNN)Powerful, domestically-built and in the People’s Liberation Army arsenal right now — China is expected to show off some of the most advanced weaponry the world has ever seen during a special National Day military parade in Beijing on Tuesday, October 1.

About 15,000 personnel, more than 160 aircraft and 580 pieces of weaponry and equipment will be part of the 80-minute procession through the Chinese capital, which will highlight the country’s military advances in the 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China.

Key among those is drone technology — of which Beijing boasts some of the world’s best — and advanced missile systems.

Maj. Gen. Tan Min, executive deputy director of the Military Parade Joint Command Office and deputy chief of staff of the Central Theater Command of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), said at a press briefing this week that all weapons to be on display were in service and made in China, highlighting the country’s ability to innovate in defense research and development.

Here are some of the key items to look out for Tuesday.

DF-41 missile

Much of the parade hype has focused on this powerful intercontinental-range ballistic missile, thought to be the mainstay of the People’s Liberation Army Rocket Forces (PLARF) arsenal for years to come — and, by some estimations, the most powerful missile on the planet.

Under development since 1997, the DF-41 was rumored to appear in parades in 2015 and 2017, but instead was kept under wraps.

Rumors that it will get a showing this around were sent into overdrive following reports in China’s state media that the missile was spotted during parade rehearsals in Beijing earlier this month.

The Missile Defense Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies says the DF-41 will have a range of up to 9,320 miles (15,000 kilometers), more than any missile on Earth, and will be capable of carrying 10 independently targeted nuclear warheads. From launch in China, it could theoretically hit the continental United States in 30 minutes, the Missile Defense Project says.

Mobile-launched DF-41s can be carried by trucks and trains. Satellite photos taken earlier this year showed DF-41 mobile launchers in the PLARF Jilintal training area in Inner Mongolia, according to the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), which monitors world nuclear arms developments.

Those satellite photos also show what “strongly resembles” a silo, according to Hans Kristensen, director of the Nuclear Information Project at the FAS, who analyzed the images.

Kristensen wrote the possible missile silos appeared to bear more of a resemblance to Russian ICBM versions than existing silos for older, liquid-fueled Chinese ICBMs. The DF-41 is solid-fueled, like the Russian missiles. Solid-fueled missiles are easier to deploy and quicker to launch than liquid versions.

The backbone of the United States nuclear arsenal, the Minuteman III missile, is a solid-fueled, silo-based weapon. However, it carries only one warhead, as its original three-warhead design was limited by nuclear treaties with Russia.

China may be ready to deploy the DF-41 in numbers. At least 18 of them appeared to be at the Inner Mongolia training ground in satellite photos earlier this year.

Though capable of carrying 10 warheads, it is likely only three would be on each missile, with the rest being dummy or decoy warheads, according to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (BAS).

Part of that has to do with warhead availability. China’s nuclear warhead inventory is estimated at 290 for use on ballistic missiles and bomber aircraft, the Bulletin said in its 2019 report on Beijing’s nuclear forces.

JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)

A nuclear-powered submarine of the People’s Liberation Army Navy’s North Sea Fleet prepares to dive into the sea.

This is the main weapon aboard China’s Jin-class fleet of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. Four of the subs are in service, with two more under construction.

Each sub can carry 12 of the single-warhead JL-2 missiles. With an estimated range of 4,473 miles (7,200 kilometers), it is regarded as more of a regional than global weapon.

That range puts targets from India to Alaska in range from coastal Chinese waters, the BAS report says. But for it to threaten the continental US, for instance, the subs would have to get past formidable US anti-submarine choke-points around Japan and deep into the Pacific.

A longer-range SLBM, the JL-3, was reportedly tested in late 2018 and again in June this year, according to Jane’s Defence Weekly, but that missile remains in development and it would be a surprise to see it on October 1.

Still, the Chinese SLBM force falls short of the US. The US Navy’s Ohio-class ballistic submarine fleet numbers 14, with each of those subs capable of carrying 20 Trident missiles. Each of those missiles can carry up to 10 warheads.

DL-17

This is an example of a hypersonic glide vehicle, or HGV. It is launched via a standard missile rocket — but after reaching the desired altitude, the booster rocket is jettisoned and the HGV carries the missile payload to target.

HGVs can fly low and fast — at least five times the speed of sound, or 3,800 mph (6,115 kph), according to the Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance — with maneuverability to avoid enemy radar detection and air defenses.

China has been testing HGV technology since 2014 and is expected to deploy it in 2020, according to the Missile Defense Project. The DF-17 will be capable of carrying both nuclear and conventional warheads, it added.

A Congressional Research Service report from September 17 notes that the US trails China — and Russia — in hypersonic development and is not expected to have an operational weapon before 2022.

The US is also not expected to have a an HGV with nuclear capability, the CRS says. “As a result, US hypersonic weapons will likely require greater accuracy and will be more technically challenging to develop than nuclear-armed Chinese and Russian systems,” the report adds.

H-6N bomber

The H-6 has been Beijing’s core long-range bomber for years, but images taken during flyover rehearsals for Tuesday’s parade show what could be a significant upgrade.

Photos posted on social media sites in China — which have been popping up on Western sites — show what appear to be points to mount large missiles.

These could be DF-21 anti-ship ballistic missiles, according to Joseph Trevethick, writing on the War Zone blog.

The ability to carry the DF-21 would give the bomber “an impressive stand-off capability against large enemy warships, especially aircraft carriers,” Trevethick said.

Jane’s Defense Weekly noted another update on the H-6N over its predecessor, the H-6K — a nose-mounted probe for aerial refueling. That gives the bomber the ability to fly deeper into the Pacific from the Chinese mainland.

Combined, the two developments mean US aircraft carriers would need to stay further out to sea during conflict and their aircraft, predominantly F/A-18 jets, would have more difficulty reaching targets.

DR-8 drone

This stealthy drone is drawing lots of attention leading up to the parade, much of that due to its sleek shape and supersonic speed.

Thought to be able to fly up to five times the speed of sound, the main mission of the DR-8 could be to get close to foreign aircraft carriers during conflict and send targeting information back to missile launchers, reports say.

Some analysts note that satellite images of what is believed to be the DR-8, as well as tarp-covered objects seen in parade rehearsals, resemble the US military’s D-21 supersonic reconnaissance drone, which was introduced in the 1960s.

The D-21 would self-destruct after dropping its high-resolution camera payload into friendly hands. The program was canceled in 1971 after four of the aircraft were lost in missions over … China.

Sharp Sword drone

China military watchers have been tweeting images of what they speculate is the Sharp Sword, a bat wing-shaped drone designed for use from aircraft carriers.

The drone is thought to have two internal bomb bays and its stealthy design indicates it’s built for a new type of drone warfare, says analyst Sam Roggeveen, writing on the Lowy Institute’s Interpreter blog.

“What makes Sharp Sword different … is that it is stealthy, which means it is built not for Afghanistan-type scenarios, where the enemy is equipped with little more than rifles, but for situations where it might have to evade sophisticated air defenses,” Roggeven says.

The Sharp Sword was first tested in 2013, and an appearance in the October 1 parade could signal that it’s close to deployment.

Other countries, including the US, have been developing drones to use off carriers. The US Navy’s MQ-25 Stingray has just started flight tests with an eye to deployment in 2024 as an aerial tanker.

Drone submarine

The state-sanctioned Global Times noted its appearance in rehearsals, adding: “More mysterious was an image of a large autonomous underwater vehicle. Its mission remains unknown.”

This could be one of China’s first undersea drones. A 2015 report from the Rand Corp. think tank said the Beijing government, relying mainly on military funding, had set up at least 15 research teams at universities and institutes to develop technology for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs).

Tanks

Images have surfaced of Type 99 main battle tanks and Type 15 light tanks during parade rehearsals.

Rehearsal from the ground in Beijing for the upcoming military parade marking the 70th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China on October 1–Type 99 main battle tank, Type 15 light tank, Type 04 infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), Type 05 amphibious IFV for Chinese Marine Corps pic.twitter.com/5FmjY5YkC8

— Simon Chen, MD (@simonbchen) September 15, 2019

A story on the PLA’s English website notes the parade would mark the public debut of the Type 15.

It also noted a change in the Type 99s, desert camouflage, which was “delighting enthusiasts who recalled the jungle look of previous parades.”

There was no indication as to why the camouflage scheme was changed, but it prompted speculation about whether China sees a new mission for its ground forces.

Pubblicato in: Brasile, Cina

Brasile. Accordo Minas Gerais e Chinese miner Honbridge Holdings.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-20.

Brasile. Minas Gerais 002

«This is the beginning of Brazil’s liberation from socialism, political correctness and a bloated state»

* * * * * * *

«The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais has signed a protocol of intent with Sul Americana de Metais, a unit of Chinese miner Honbridge Holdings, for the construction of a 9.1 billion reais ($2.2 billion) mining complex»

«The agreement, signed on Thursday, will include the construction of a 845 million square meters (208,804 acres) tailing dam, which will be one of the largest in Brazil»

«That “mega-dam” would be some 70 times bigger than the tailing dam that collapsed at Vale’s site in the Minas Gerais town of Brumadinho in January»

«Tailings are the muddy waste produced in mining for iron ore and other minerals»

* * * * * * *

Il Brasile è davvero molto ricco in giacimenti minerari, al momento ancora poco sfruttati e, spesso, usando tecnologie obsolete.

Al momento però è carente di adeguate risorse finanziarie e tecnologiche, per cui deve mandatoriamente trovarsi partner con i quali collaborare.

Stati ed imprese occidentali darebbero l’occhio sinistro per entrare in questi business, ma i loro governi tenderebbero ad imporre prima la loro visione liberal socialista, che l’attuale presidenza Bolsonaro non condivide. E questo è ampio motivo di scontro.

Brasile. Esce dall’UN Migration Pact e disconosce l’Accordo di Parigi sul ‘clima’.

Amazzonia. Scusa EU per colpire l’import di carne brasiliana.

Trattato EU – Mercosur. Esplode la rabbia del comparto agro alimentare europeo.

Macron. Il bimbo viziato adesso se la prende con il Mercosur.

* * *

In questa contingenza è del tutto sequenziale che il Brasile si rivolga alla finanza ed alla tecnologia cinese.

Questa è una conseguenza che verosimilmente gli occidentali hanno sottovalutato.


Reuters. 2019-09-15. Brazilian state signs $2.2 billion ‘mega-dam’ deal with Chinese miner: report

BRASILIA (Reuters) – The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais has signed a protocol of intent with Sul Americana de Metais, a unit of Chinese miner Honbridge Holdings, for the construction of a 9.1 billion reais ($2.2 billion) mining complex, newspaper O Estado de Sao Paulo reported on Saturday.

The agreement, signed on Thursday, will include the construction of a 845 million square meters (208,804 acres) tailing dam, which will be one of the largest in Brazil, according to the report.

That “mega-dam” would be some 70 times bigger than the tailing dam that collapsed at Vale’s site in the Minas Gerais town of Brumadinho in January, which resulted in the deaths of more than 240 people.

Tailings are the muddy waste produced in mining for iron ore and other minerals. The waste is often contained within a dam built using a variety of methods.

Sul Americana de Metais insists the model is safe, according to the report.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Demografia, Geopolitica Asiatica

Mondo. La denatalità sta diventando una ‘crisi umanitaria’.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-17.

Sainte Chapelle 004__

Chiunque abbia un qualche rudimento di storia dovrebbe aver ben presente la peste antonina, che dal 160 al 180 quasi dimezzò la popolazione dell’impero romano, dando la stura al suo declino: senza persone non esiste impero che tenga.

L’imperatore Marco Aurelio ebbe a dire che “la pestilenza attorno a lui era meno letale della menzogna, del comportamento maligno e della mancanza di vera comprensione“, ma sul letto di morte sentenziò: “Perché piangete voi per me, e non pensate piuttosto alla pestilenza ed alla morte comune?

La denatalità è diventata in poco meno di tre decenni quello che Elon Musk ed il fondatore di Alibaba Jack Ma hanno definito essere una ‘crisi umanitaria’.

«”Most people think we have too many people on the planet, but actually, this is an outdated view,” Musk said on a panel with Ma in Shanghai in August. “I think that the biggest problem the world will face in 20 years is population collapse — not explosion, collapse.” …. The speed of population decreasing is going to speed up. Now you called it a collapse. I agree with that,” Ma said.».

Mentre la peste antonina colpiva la gente indipendentemente dall’età, causando quindi un decremento bilanciato tra le classi di età, la denatalità riduce la numerosità della popolazione falcidiando il numero dei giovani, da cui in breve perdita della numerosità della forza lavoro, non più in grado di accudire e mantenere gli anziani. Questo sarà il dramma nel dramma.

«These dire projections are shared by demographers who argue that the world’s population will virtually stop growing by the end of this century, due in large part to falling global fertility rates.»

«For three decades, China operated the “one-child” policy of population control. This was abandoned in 2016 in favor of a two-child policy to boost the labor force.»

«But average fertility rates keep falling, even as restrictions are lifted.»

«In 2016, after the one-child policy was abandoned, there were 17.86 million births. This dropped to 17.2 million in 2017 and 15.2 million in 2018 – the third-lowest rate since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949.»

«Much of China’s astonishing economic growth of the past four decades has been fueled by a young labor force, but this too is in rapid decline, while the elderly population is dramatically increasing.»

«In China in 2017, the ratio was six workers in the 20-64 age bracket supporting one senior citizen at least 65 years old. This will decline to 2.0 workers in 2039 and 1.6 in 2050.»

«No social security net, no family security and a pension crisis — this will evolve into a humanitarian catastrophe. As women …. will be the main victims of population control»

«Average fertility rates in Taiwan and Hong Kong from 2001 to 2018 were 1.14 and 1.07 respectively. These areas all fall within China’s cultural sphere.»

* * * * * * *

Su questo settore si assiste ad un crescendo di pubblicazioni.

Global population decline will hit China hard

«Business leaders and analysts see the global population declining in the next century, and China will be badly affected. The Asian nation is well-advised to make precautions soon to avoid a humanitarian crisis»

Aging populations challenge China, India, Iran and Japan

«Childless employees under the age of 40 could pay a percentage of their wages into a fund for newborn babies. If they were to have two children, they would be entitled to parental benefits; should they have just one child, they would be entitled to a refund of their contributions only after reaching the legal retirement age»

Aging Japanese Society Worries Experts

«Seven million people will soon be getting a pension from their companies and the state. But half of Japan’s retired generation has to survive on the state pension alone — an average of 2.7 million yen, or 15,000 euros a year. ….

The figures such as the gross domestic product show that Japan is a rich country. But not everybody shares these riches. The older the people get the bigger the differences between the poor and the rich become, between those people who were able to save and those who needed the money to live. That means that there are poor people who have to work their whole life regardless of their age»

IMF’s Christine Lagarde worried about Asia’s aging population

«The head of the International Monetary Fund has praised Asian nations for their efforts toward economic expansion and poverty reduction. But she warned that an increasingly aging population might become a huge obstacle.»

China faces problem of caring for an aging population

Aging China lacks caregivers

* * * * * * *

Una delle tristi eredità dell’ideologia libera socialista è il considerare la persona umana come un mero strumento economico. È un classico errore logico, ove una verità parziale è assunta come se fosseverità generale.

L’essere umano ha sicuramente anche una sua dimensione economica, ma questa non estingue la globalità della persona: esiste la mente, il sentimento, la volontà, il libero arbitrio.

Non solo. Esistono sicuramente dei diritti, ma questi corrispondono e traggono origine da ben precisi doveri. Non esisteono diritti senza i relativi doveri.

Nell’aderire ad una Collettività, la persona ne ricava alcuni diritti, per esempio, quello di essere tutelato nella sua esistenza fisica, ma nel contempo si carica di oneri e doveri.

Per sussistere, per continuare a vivere, la Collettività ha bisogno che siano generati costantemente nuovi membri: in caso contrario si destina alla estinzione. Ma scopo primario di una persona incardinata in una Collettività è quello di mantenerla in vita: quindi, di figliare.

Il fatto, possibile, che una persona sterile abbia generato ricchezze in nulla concorre a mantenere in vita la Collettività: senza nascite, questa può solo morire, anche se fosse straricca.

Sorge poi il problema del perché un giovane dovrebbe farsi carico di vecchi che non hanno figliato e che non siano suoi parenti: ne ha già più che a sufficienza di dover pensare ai suoi, sempre poi che lo voglia fare.

Nei fatti, il problema della procreazione è pertinente più la Weltanschauung che l’economia. Ma una vera politica familiare si contraddistingue non tanto dalle facilitazioni economiche, quanto piuttosto dall’aver strutturato l’istituto familiare in modo robusto, ponendo seri limiti alla sua disgregazione. Poi, che dire? La politica della regolazione delle nascite, anticoncezionali ed aborto, sono proprio l’opposto di ciò che serve a ristabilire gli equilibri generazionali.

Se è ragionevole che dei genitori ambiscano a dare ai figli quanto meglio possano, sarebbe altrettanto ragionevole constatare che mica tutti siano tenuti a frequentare la Yale University, andare a lezione di flauto trasverso, oppure fare le ferie girando il mondo. Si potrebbe benissimo vivere da persone normali.

Da ultimo, ma non certo per ultimo, l’ideologia liberal socialista individua nella religione un nemico mortale. Ma senza religione viene a mancare la visione del trascendente e, con essa, la speranza. È una cultura dell’immanente, priva di visione futura, che trova nel suicidio l’unico sbocco coerente.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Asiatica, Senza categoria

Indonesia. Bloccato l’export del nickel estrattivo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-17.

2019-09-03__Indonesia__001

Nel 2001 l’Indonesia aveva un pil di 174.507 miliardi Usd ed un pil procapite di 834 Usd. 

A fine 2018 il pil era salito a 1,022.450 miliardi ed il pil procapite si attestava a 3,871 Usd.

In diciotto anni il pil è cresciuto di un po’ più di cinque volte: un risultato di tutto rilievo.

Adesso inizia ad ambire a qualcosa ancora di meglio.

«Indonesia is the largest nickel ore producer in the world, followed by the Philippines.»

«Indonesia has brought forward a nickel ore export ban by two years and will stop delivering low-grade ore from January 2020.»

«Under the new policy, ore containing less than 17pc nickel will not be allowed to be exported from 1 January next year»

«the three-month nickel contract traded on the London Metal Exchange (LME) surged to $17,800/t on 30 August, gaining $1,525/t on the day, and up by $5,680/t or 47pc since the beginning of July. The three-month nickel price is at its highest since 18 September 2014»

«The export ban was initially planned to take effect from 2022 but the Indonesian government has changed its plans after months of discussions, to speed up the development of the domestic nickel refining and smelting industry»

«In the past few years, Indonesia has implemented policies to encourage the development of value-added refining industries in the country, which would generate more income than ore exports»

«According to the ministry, 11 nickel smelters have been built and 25 are under construction.»

«The policy also aims to preserve existing proven nickel ore reserves, estimated at 698mn t, which will only meet demand for seven years if no new reserves are found»

«As the Chinese stainless steel industry relies heavily on Indonesia’s nickel ore as feedstock to produce nickel pig iron (NPI), the ban will have a severe impact on NPI supply in China.»

«Indonesia exported 20.72mn t of nickel ore and ferro-nickel last year. The majority of this, 19.9mn t, was delivered to China to feed the country’s stainless steel industry, trade data show.»

Gli impianti di raffinazione del nickel sono costosi e complessi, ma è del tutto ragionevole che l’Indonesia ambisca di incrementare il numero di quelli già esistenti sul suo territorio. L’export dei lingotti è infatti molto meno oneroso rispetto al minerale grezzo e la tecnologia resta in patria. Poi, così facendo, si installa un’industria produttiva e si generano posti di lavoro a grado di qualificazione medio – alto.

Certo, i cinesi dovranno fare buona faccia a cattiva sorte.


Argus. 2019-09-02. Indonesia to stop nickel ore exports in 2020

Indonesia has brought forward a nickel ore export ban by two years and will stop delivering low-grade ore from January 2020, the ministry of energy and mineral resources said today.

Under the new policy, ore containing less than 17pc nickel will not be allowed to be exported from 1 January next year.

“We have signed the regulation, which is essentially about terminating nickel export incentives for smelter builders as of 1 January 2020,” director-general Bambang Gatot Ariyono said.

Ahead of the announcement on the ministry website this morning, the three-month nickel contract traded on the London Metal Exchange (LME) surged to $17,800/t on 30 August, gaining $1,525/t on the day, and up by $5,680/t or 47pc since the beginning of July. The three-month nickel price is at its highest since 18 September 2014.

The export ban was initially planned to take effect from 2022 but the Indonesian government has changed its plans after months of discussions, to speed up the development of the domestic nickel refining and smelting industry.

In the past few years, Indonesia has implemented policies to encourage the development of value-added refining industries in the country, which would generate more income than ore exports.

According to the ministry, 11 nickel smelters have been built and 25 are under construction.

The policy also aims to preserve existing proven nickel ore reserves, estimated at 698mn t, which will only meet demand for seven years if no new reserves are found.

As the Chinese stainless steel industry relies heavily on Indonesia’s nickel ore as feedstock to produce nickel pig iron (NPI), the ban will have a severe impact on NPI supply in China.

Indonesia is the largest nickel ore producer in the world, followed by the Philippines. Indonesia exported 20.72mn t of nickel ore and ferro-nickel last year. The majority of this, 19.9mn t, was delivered to China to feed the country’s stainless steel industry, trade data show.

But some Chinese stainless steel producers have already set up operations in Indonesia.

Integrated Chinese-owned stainless steel producer Tsingshan operates a 3mn t/yr mill in Indonesia and also owns nickel and chrome mines in the country.

And Chinese producer Delong Holdings’ Indonesian joint venture Dexin Steel was due to become operational this year.

Nickel is one of the key materials in stainless steel production and the industry accounts for about 70pc of global nickel consumption. It is also increasingly important for the battery industry as nickel is a key component in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

*

«GDP rises 2% in Indonesia in second quarter

Gross Domestic Product of Indonesia grew 1.3% in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the previous quarter. This rate is 1 -tenth of one percent higher than the figure of 1.2% published in the forth quarter of 2018.

The year-on-year change in GDP was 5.1%,,there is no change since last quarter. less than the 5.1% recorded in the first quarter of 2019.

The GDP figure in the first quarter of 2019 was $211,568 million, Indonesia is number 15 in the ranking of quarterly GDP of the 50 countries that we publish.

Indonesia has a quarterly GDP per capita, of $910, $88 higher than the same quarter last year, it was. If we order the countries according to their GDP per capita, Indonesia is in 49th position. According to this parameter, its population has a low level of affluence compare to the 50 countries whose quarterly GDP we publish.

Here we show you the progression of the GDP in Indonesia. You can see GDP in other countries in GDP and see all the economic information about Indonesia in Indonesia’s economy.»

Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio

Cina. Belt & Road. Il segreto delle ferrovie cinesi. – Bbc.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-16.

2018-08-20__Cina_Ferrovie__000

Belt & Road è un grandioso piano da oltre 1,400 miliardi di dollari Usd per generare un’infrastruttura ferroviaria allo stato dell’arte a livello euroasiatico.

Quando il Progetto venne reso noto la quasi totalità dei tecnici occidentali si era messo a ridere, di cuore ed a crepapelle. Progettare e costruire i quasi ventimila chilometri di strade ferrate, molte delle quali ad alta velocità ed in climi fortemente avversi era sembrata loro la “barzelletta del secolo“.

Si sbagliavano, ed anche di grosso.

I cinesi hanno costruito in quattro anni invece dei trenta previsti dagli occidentali quasi l’intera rete ed a costi trenta volta inferiori a quelli stimati dai tecnici tedeschi.

Ci si pensi sopra, ed a fondo.

*

I cinesi avevano messo a punto una serie di tecnologie di costruzioni ferroviarie da lasciare di stucco tutti i soloni occidentali. Non solo: queste tecnologie funzionano più che bene.

Di recente la Bbc si è interessata a questo problema ed ha prodotto un articolo ricco di schemi, fotografie ed animazioni che descrivono in un ragionevole dettaglio queste tecniche innovative.

The mega-machines helping China link the world

Si va dai binari in acciai speciali, adatti ai climi in cui essere messi in opera, di lunghezza variabile dai 12 ai 121 metri, usualmente messi in opera con saldatura alluminotermica. Questa è un’evoluzione dell’uso della termine, miscela pirotecnica di alluminio e di un ossido metallico, inventata nel 1895 dal chimico tedesco Hans Goldschmidt ed usata la prima volta per saldare le rotaie dei tram di Essen.

2018-08-20__Cina_Ferrovie__001

* * *

Poi si passa alla messa in posa dei binari. Questo è compito svolto dalla Track-Laying Machine. Il complesso binari – traversine è prefabbricato, ed un’apposita macchina ne mette in opera un segmento di venticinque metri ogni circa quattro minuti primi.

«The track-layer transports prefabricated lengths of track along a railway line, sets one down, then rolls along the newly positioned track to set down the next one.

Once these pieces of track are in place, the short rails attached to each section are replaced with longer ones that will give trains serving the route a smoother ride.

It takes just four minutes to install each section of track.

This is not a new idea – the principle has been put into practice in many parts of the world for decades – but China does it fast, building the machines quickly and cheaply, and making them capable of carrying larger sections of track.»

La macchina ha un potenziale di 360 segmenti messi in posa ogni giorno: essendo (mediamente) questi lunghi circa 25 metri, si ottiene una capacità di posa di circa nove kilometri al giorno. In quattro anni si completa una linea ferroviaria di 14,000 kilometri. Nei fatti la capacità di posa risulta essere inferiore. Si noti come la cifra riportata nell’articolo di 700 metri / die è alquanto vecchia: la performance è adesso molto migliore.

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L’SLJ900, The Iron Monster, è un bestione da 590 tonnellate, lungo 92 metri ed alto nove, che pone automaticamente in opera le campate dei ponti. Tempi di esecuzione ridotti di quasi dieci volte e costi abbassati di quasi venti volte.

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Per finire, il TBM Slury, una talpa da 4,000 tonnellate, lunga cento metri, 15.3 metri di diametro, che scava tunnel a velocità impressionante.

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Tiriamo adesso le somme.

L’epoca in cui i cinesi producevano ‘cineserie‘ e prodotti di infima qualità è finita per sempre.

Hanno sviluppato delle loro proprie tecnologie che surclassano quelle disponibili in occidente.