Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina, Stati Uniti

Fucili di nuova generazione. Exacto e marchingegni analoghi. Il Chaff.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-02-08.

2019-01-23__proiettile__001

I tempi degli archibugi sembrerebbero essere passati. Poi, quanto il nuovo effettivamente funzioni sul campo di battaglia sarà tutto da verificare. Tenendo anche conto che alcune notizie sembrerebbero essere state tratte da libri di fantascienza.

La notizia che si stesse studiando un’arma di queste caratteristiche era già nell’aria da circa una decina di anni, ma erano in molti a ritenere che fosse una notizia sparsa ad arte, non aderente ai fatti.

Nel 2014 comparve questo articolo, cui era allegato un breve film.

Watch DARPA’s ‘Magic’ Bullet Swerve To Correct Its Course

«Good news for America’s snipers, bad news for other snipers

DARPA’s self-steering bullet is, if acronyms are enough to go by, supposed to have razor-fine precision. Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance, or EXACTO, is a bullet that chases its target, adjusting course mid-flight to make sure it hits exactly what or who it is supposed to hit. In February, DARPA tested the bullet against moving targets, and yesterday they released a video from those tests. The video itself looks like an obscure home console video game from the mid-1980s, where players trace out a path to a robot which then runs away. Tracked on screen are the projected path of the bullet, and then the actual flight path EXACTO takes, bending and turning its trajectory to follow a sideways-sprinting target. Over several shots, EXACTO improves on the aim of both experts and novices, sending .50 caliber doom to its mark each and every time. An earlier video, released last summer, showed the bullet adjusting to hit a fixed target that the shooter missed.

EXACTO is specifically designed for combat in places like rural patrols in Afghanistan, where fighting is at long range and the weather can interfere with snipers’ accuracy. It is, as the name hints, a weapon specifically for edge cases. Most of what snipers do, this won’t change, but in the instances where having a self-correcting bullet could matter, DARPA wants to make sure that the American military has a weapon that can do what its opponents can’t.

Little information about the technology is publicly available, but despite fears to the contrary, its unlikely we’ll see this on American streets anytime soon, if ever. The XM25, another new infantry weapon designed to get around cover, costs around $25,000, which is small potatoes for a military customer but pricey for private buyers, and we can assume that EXACTO systems will come at a steep price, too. Even so, rifles are used in only a fraction of crimes in the United States involving guns. A more accurate sniper round is unlikely to change that.»

Subito dopo comparve questo altro articolo:

DARPA Has Developed a Bullet That Can Turn in Mid-Air

«Called the Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance (or EXACTO), the .50 caliber bullet is meant for use in combat in areas such as Afghanistan, where visibility and changes in wind and weather can throw bullets slightly off their course, according to an article in Popular Science. 

How the ammunition works is, of course, secret. A video put out by DARPA shows the bullet adjusting its trajectory to hit a moving robot target. 

“This live-fire demonstration from a standard rifle showed that EXACTO is able to hit moving and evading targets with extreme accuracy at sniper ranges unachievable with traditional rounds,” said DARPA program manager Jerome Dunn, in a statement. “Fitting EXACTO’s guidance capabilities into a small .50-caliber size is a major breakthrough and opens the door to what could be possible in future guided projectiles across all calibers.”»

*

Tre anni dopo, nel 2017, comparve questo articolo:

The United States Now Has a .50 Caliber Bullet That Can Change Direction Mid-Air

«Just when you thought the American Military Industrial Complex couldn’t be any more terrifying than it already is, may we humbly present a bullet that can change direction mid-air.

The innocuously sounding Exacto is the joint munition produced by American industrial company Teledyne Technologies for DARPA. The Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance round is capable of changing trajectory after being fired from a sniper rifle once a shooter marks a target with a laser.

The round is then able to compensate for wind, weather, and, yes, even if a target moves. The exact science behind how the bullet works is being kept secret but we do know that it’s largely in part to the tiny guidance fins attached to every round; essentially turning every bullet into a miniature missile.»

* * * * * * * *

Questo è uno dei pochi report su Exacto in azione.

«The US military has successfully tested a .50-caliber sniper round that can change direction on its way to its target.

And now the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) has released a video of this Extreme Accuracy Tasked Ordnance (Exacto) program in action.

The footage shows the bullet changing direction in mid-air in response to a target’s movements.

 According to Darpa: ‘For military snipers, acquiring moving targets in unfavourable conditions, such as high winds and dusty terrain commonly found in Afghanistan, is extremely challenging with current technology. ….

The Exacto .50-caliber round and optical sighting technology expects to greatly extend the day and night time range over current state-of-the-art sniper systems,’ continued the agency.

‘The system combines a manoeuverable bullet and a real-time guidance system to track and deliver the projectile to the target, allowing the bullet to change path during flight to compensate for any unexpected factors that may drive it off course.

The current world record for the longest certified kill was by Corporal Craig Harrison of the UK Household Cavalry, who killed two Taliban in November 2009 from 1.54 miles (22.4km). 

The shot was approximately 3,000ft (914 metres) beyond the stated maximum range of the Accuracy L115A3 sniper rifle, used by Corporal Harrison. 

The Taliban were so far away it took each round almost three seconds to reach its target.

Snipers typically work in two-man teams with a spotter assisting the gunman identifying targets as well as providing security.

But environmental details such as wind, rain and even humidity can affect the flight path of a bullet.»

* * * * * * * *

Riassumiamo.

Gli Stati Uniti avrebbero messo a punto un proiettile da fucile in grado di variare la propria traiettoria per colpire un obiettivo in movimento, purché questo sia traguardato da un raggio laser.

Una tecnologia davvero molto raffinata, ma che non stupisce tenendo conto del livello scientifico e tecnologico degli Stati Uniti.

Questa arma sarebbe stata collaudata in Afghanistan con buon esito.

Date le caratteristiche di Exacto, i Telebani dovrebbero essere una razza estinta: tutti morti ammazzati

Ci si domanda adesso se funziona effettivamente sul campo.

Più che lunghe e dotte discussioni, forse sarebbe opportuno guardare i risultati pratici ottenuti.

Trump plans to pull thousands of troops out of Afghanistan – report

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La notizia sarebbe morta lì, se di questi giorni non fosse comparso un nuovo articolo.

È stato pubblicato dalla Cnn.

New year, new weapons: Are China’s latest science fiction or battle ready?

«With Tuesday’s report from the US Defense Intelligence Agency that China “leads the world” in some weapons systems, a closer look at Beijing’s latest claims is in order. ….

Super soldiers with futuristic weapons

Hand-held knives that fire bullets, pistols that shoot around corners and assault rifles that launch grenades. Those are just some of the things China wants to equip its special forces with to create “super soldiers,” according to a story on the PLA website.

The bullet knives could be used when enemies are close, and the corner pistols would allow soldiers to hide behind walls while engaging foes coming at them from a right angle, according to the report.

The rifle-grenade launcher combo provides “the strongest individual firepower in the world,” and connects the battlefield using digital sensors, a positioning system and data sharing, the report says.

Military analyst Wei Dongxu calls the new arms “sci-fi” weapons that will make one Chinese soldier the equal of 10 adversaries.

Verdict: Plausible. While the weapons may sound a bit like something Q developed for James Bond, China isn’t the first country to work on these kinds of things. In 2015, the US Defense Advanced Research Products Agency said it was developing .50-caliber bullets with optical sensors that could change direction in mid-air.»

* * *

Dal nostro sommesso punto di vista la tecnologia usata è del tutto indifferente rispetto ai risultati pratici ottenuti sul campo di battaglia.

I dati degli ospedali militari in territorio siriano indicano come l’arma cui addebitare il maggior numero di feriti è quella bianca. Scopo delle armi non è vincere un premio tecnologico, ma quello di ammazzare il nemico.

Nota.

Chiunque si rechi nella Sankt Nicolai Kirche, Willy-Brandt-Straße 60, 20457 Hamburg, Germania, trova nella cripta una piccola edicola di plexiglass intitolata alle ‘windows’. Nome tecnico: Chaff. Nell’edicola si trovano alcuni reperti.

Chaff altro non era che un piccolo contenitore di foglietti di alluminio, che gli Alleati sganciavano durante la seconda guerra mondiale subito davanti alle postazioni radar tedesche. Il risultato era devastante: i radar risultavano essere totalmente accecati. Inservibili.

Con un’arma costata quattro scudi si poteva bloccare tutto un costosissimo sistema radar: non voleva nemmeno la pena di identificarlo e bombardarlo. Ed è un sistema che funziona ancora adesso, per esempio, durante la guerra delle Falkland.

Ci si pensi sopra bene.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Africa

Gambia. Inaugurato il ponte Farrafemi.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-01-27.

gambia__001

Gambia plans to construct 2 key bridges with Chinese expertise

The Gambian government plans to construct two key bridges in the country’s Upper River Region as part of plans to boost transportation and movement of people and goods.

The presidency said on Friday that president Adama Barrow had been presented with designs for the two bridges and a road network when he arrived in the region on his nationwide tour.

The presentation, which was done on the sidelines of the ongoing nationwide tour, at the President’s hometown of Mankamang Kunda, was meant to brief the President about the state of preparedness for the construction of a bridge at Basse-Fatoto and Chamoi-Suduwol crossing points.

The President was told that the construction will commence before the end of 2018, the presidency’s statement read in part. A completion time was however not given or how much the project is estimated to cost.

The designs were presented to Barrow by the Chinese ambassador to the Gambia, Zhang Jiming, who was also accompanied by some officials.

A delighted Barrow is reported to have described the construction as key landmarks since independence. “This is one of the greatest landmark projects since independence in 1965,” he is quoted to have said.

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Barrow Unveil Major Projects of Bridges, Roads in Rural Gambia

«President Adama Barrow, of the Gambia has laid the foundation stones for bridges and roads in Upper River Region (URR), on Saturday the 15th of  December, 2018 at Bassending about 3km away from Basse, the provincial Capital of URR.

The Basse-Fatoto-Koina road and bridges project in URR of the Gambia was funded by the People’s Republic of China.

On May 19, 2017, China and The Gambia entered into an agreement on economic and technological cooperation.

Also, on July 19, the same year; the two governments signed the exchange of letters on the feasibility study for the construction of the China Aid Road and Bridge projects in URR of The Gambia. ….»

* * * * * * *

La Repubblica del Gambia ha 1.7 milioni di abitanti che hanno un pil ppa procapite di1,868 Usd.

Non è un paese povero: è un paese misero.

Ha un’agricoltura di sussistenza ed una minima industria legata agli arachidi. Ben un terzo del pil è costituito dagli aiuti dell’UNCtad.

Ma il grosso degli aiuti occidentali si concretizza nella fornitura di anticoncezionali.

Cerchiamo di parlare senza usare il tedioso politicamente corretto.

Sia il Gambia sia il Senegal sono paesi miseri che ambirebbero a diventare solo poveri.

Ma miseria e povertà non si risolvono con le elemosine e nemmeno ammazzando la popolazione.

Quei popoli hanno un disperato bisogno di infrastrutture. Sicuramente scuole ed ospedali, ma soprattutto acquedotti, fogne, centrali elettriche, strade, ponti, strade ferrate.

Fare emigrare quella parte di popolazione più intraprendente è un vero e proprio omicidio.

Cina ed Africa. I rapporti collaborativi si stanno consolidando.

Non ci si stupisca dunque che la Cina abbia sostituito quasi totalmente gli occidentali.

I cinesi concorrono a costruire infrastrutture senza voler imporre alla popolazione costumi degeneri.


Bbc. 2019-01-24. The Gambia River bridge set to end ‘centuries’ of trade chaos with Senegal

A new bridge spanning the River Gambia is set to revolutionise travel and trade in the region.

The Gambia is a thin sliver of land either side of the eponymous river, surrounded on three sides by Senegal.

The 1.9km (1.2 miles) Senegambia bridge near Farafenni links the two halves of The Gambia, as well as allowing people from the north of Senegal to reach the southern Senegalese province of Casamance with ease.

Up until now, people have had to use an unreliable ferry crossing or take the long route round The Gambia. Lorry drivers could spend days, and sometimes a week, in a queue waiting to cross meaning that perishable goods could spoil.

On Monday, people took the opportunity to make the crossing over the bridge for the first time.

Celebrations broke out when the crossing, which took seven years to build, was formally opened by Gambia’s President Adama Barrow and Senegal’s President Macky Sall.

One of Africa’s most famous stars, Senegalese musician Youssou Ndour performed for the crowds.

“I have been using this route for the past 15 years,” one driver told the BBC. “Today, I thank God, the hurdles that have been experiencing over the years have finally come to end.

“Also, the bridge will cement the relationship between the two countries.”

“At times I [used to] spend 10 to 20 days waiting for the ferry to cross,” another driver said. “Goods got spoiled, it didn’t only affect the drivers but the businesses.”

There had been a plan to build the bridge since the 1970s, but it was delayed as relations between the neighbours were sometimes strained.

President Sall (second left) thanked the African Development Bank, which helped fund the construction, and paid tribute to “the Gambian people for the great achievement we made together”.

President Barrow (right) said the bridge “ends centuries of travel difficulties”.

At the moment, small cars that use the bridge are charged $5 (£4), lorries and other heavy vehicles will be able to cross from July.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Unione Europea

Francia e Germania. L’arte di conquistarsi nemici. Grave offesa alla Cina.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-01-21.

pechino-città-proibita-da-piazza-tiananmen

Cerchiamo di ragionare, sempre nei limiti del possibile.

Se la Cina avesse insignito Mr Orban e Mr Kaczyński con un’alta onorificenza, motivata per aver varato una riforma giudiziaria avversata dall’Unione Europea, oppure avesse conferito identico onore una persona che avesse sostenuto che l’omosessualità è una patologia mentale e che dovrebbe tornare ad essere materia di codice penale, tutto l’Occidente liberal socialista sarebbe insorto come un sol uomo condannando il fatto come un gravissimo atto contro l’umanità.

Immediatamente Frau Merkel e Mr Macron avrebbero richiamato in patria gli ambasciatori da Pechino ed avrebbero bloccato ogni rapporto commerciale con la Cina stessa.

I media liberal si sarebbero scatenati, rovesciando sui cinesi ogni sorta di improperio.

*

«China on Wednesday lodged solemn representation to the French and German sides on their presentation of “human rights award” to Chinese lawyer Yu Wensheng»

*

«The award to Yu was presented by the French and German ambassadors to China at the German embassy»

*

«the related cases are purely judicial cases and have nothing to do with human rights»

*

«Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying expressed strong dissatisfaction with and firm opposition to the two countries’ practices at a press briefing …. the related cases are purely judicial cases and have nothing to do with human rights»

*

«We urge ambassadors of relevant countries to do more things that are conducive to bilateral ties and political mutual trust, instead of the other way round»

* * * * * * *

Mr Yu Wensheng è andato sotto processo in Cina,sua patria, con la seguente moticazione:

«incitement to subvert state power and obstruction of officials in the course of their duty».

China Moves Ahead With Subversion Trial of Rights Lawyer in Jiangsu

*

Se è vero che per i liberal socialisti gli “human right” siano un qualcosa di sacro sacralizzante, per i cinesi altro non sono che bubbole mentali, a voler essere benevoli.

Il grave di quanto accaduto dipende dal fatto che il premio non è stato iniziativa di un qualche gruppo ufficioso di persone private, bensì di organizzazioni statali con l0aggravante dell’intervento dei relativi ambasciatori francese e tedesco, il tutto nella sede dell’ambasciata tedesca a Pechino.

È ben difficile non ravvisare in quanto accaduto la volontarietà di offendere la Cina.

Nota.

E se la Cina conferisse a tutti i Gilets Jaunes la Stella di Mao ed elevasse al rango di ambasciata la rappresentanza di quei Patrioti, cosa avrebbe mai a ridire Mr Macron?



China Org. 2019-01-17. China criticizes France, Germany for award presentation

China on Wednesday lodged solemn representation to the French and German sides on their presentation of “human rights award” to Chinese lawyer Yu Wensheng.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying expressed strong dissatisfaction with and firm opposition to the two countries’ practices at a press briefing.

She said the related cases are purely judicial cases and have nothing to do with human rights.

The two countries’ “erroneous practices” are a gross interference with China’s internal affairs and judicial sovereignty, Hua said.

“We urge ambassadors of relevant countries to do more things that are conducive to bilateral ties and political mutual trust, instead of the other way round,” she said.

The award to Yu was presented by the French and German ambassadors to China at the German embassy.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Energie Alternative

Cina. Energie alternative solo se più economiche. Fine delle sovvenzioni.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-01-16.

cina

L’annuncio dato dalla Cina è sobrio, esaustivo e sembrerebbe essere con i piedi bene sulla terra.

China: No Wind Or Solar If It Can’t Beat Coal On Price

«China has said it will not approve wind and solar power projects unless they can compete with coal power prices.

Beijing pulled the plug on support for large solar projects, which had been receiving a per kWh payment, in late May. That news came immediately after the country’s largest solar industry event and caught everyone by surprise.

Officials are understood to have been frustrated at seeing Chinese suppliers and engineering firms building solar projects overseas that delivered electricity at prices far below what was available back home.

The country also has its own issues with grid logjams. These have caused power from wind and solar projects to be wasted due to a lack of capacity on the network to transmit and distribute it. In 2017 12% of wind generation and 6% of solar was curtailed.

In the plans announced on Thursday, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the top strategic planning authority, and the National Energy Administration (NEA) set out a series of conditions under which new solar and wind projects would be approved from now till the end of 2020.

Chief among these is that the price matches or undercuts the national coal benchmark, something that happened for the first time ever just last month.

Projects will also have to show that the grid can handle their output. Technical specifications will ensure that the highest standards are met on that front.

Local governments have been told they are free to offer their own subsidies to projects if they wish.

In the past, provincial authorities have spent heavily to bankroll uncompetitive solar manufacturers. Thursday’s announcement warned that any attempt to use project subsidies to invest in “local factories” or to make the use of locally made components a condition of the subsidy.

Also included in the wide-ranging changes is the introduction of a green certificate scheme. A small trial of such a scheme was undertaken in 2017. It would work in a similar way to renewable energy certificates schemes in the U.S. and elsewhere. A certificate is created for each unit of electricity generated. These are then traded among utilities who may have targets to meet as determined by regulators or purchased by an end user to demonstrate their use of “clean” power. Details on the mechanics of the certificate scheme have not yet been released.»

Riassumiamo.

«China has said it will not approve wind and solar power projects unless they can compete with coal power prices»

*

«Beijing pulled the plug on support for large solar projects»

*

«The country also has its own issues with grid logjams. These have caused power from wind and solar projects to be wasted due to a lack of capacity on the network to transmit and distribute it. In 2017 12% of wind generation and 6% of solar was curtailed.»

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«Projects will also have to show that the grid can handle their output»

*

«Projects will also have to show that the grid can handle their output. Technical specifications will ensure that the highest standards are met on that front.»

* * * * * * * *

Se è vero che la corrente elettrica è prodotta nelle centrali, sarebbe altrettanto vero ricordare come da queste debba essere portata ai consumatori tramite gli elettrodotti, che dissipano energia.

Il costo deve essere contabilizzato su quanto alla fine arriva al consumatore.

Non solo, ma si deve anche tener conto del costo di impianto, di manutenzione e di rinnovo.

In linea generale, più le centrali sono piccole e sparpagliate e minore è la necessità di disporre di reti a lunga percorrenza: maggiore la lunghezza dell’elettrodotto, maggiore la dispersione

Della corrente eolica prodotta sul Baltico ne arriva in Baviera, luogo di consumo industriale, appena il 50%. Questo vuol dire raddoppiare i costi per kwh.

Infine, e cosa non da poco, l’eolico produce corrente solo quando tira vento ed il solare solo quando c’è il sole.

Queste centrali entrano in produzione a capriccio meteorologico, non dietro esplicita richiesta dei consumatori.

Per ultimo ma non certo per ultimo, quando queste centrali alternative entrano in funzione immettono grandi quantità di energia nel grid, che se ne va regolarmente in sovraccarico.

* * * * * * * *

L’arte di saper fare di conto non è poi impresa impossibile.


Climate Dispatch. 2019-01-12. China: No More Wind Or Solar If It Can’t Beat Coal On Price

China has said it will not approve wind and solar power projects unless they can compete with coal power prices. Beijing pulled the plug on support for large solar projects, which had been receiving a per kWh payment, in late May. That news came immediately after the country’s largest solar industry event and caught everyone by surprise. –John Parnell, Forbes, 10 January 2018

Shares in China’s new energy vehicle (NEV) makers and other firms in the industry chain are pummelled, after media reports that Beijing this year could continue to cut subsidies for NEVs. —The Economic Times, 9 January 2019

Saudi Arabia is nearing a deal to invest in U.S. liquefied natural gas, a landmark decision for the kingdom, which in the past had been a huge supplier of energy to America. America’s shale revolution has broken years of dependence on Middle Eastern oil, to the extent that the International Energy Agency expects the U.S. to become a net energy exporter by 2023. —The Wall Street Journal, 9 January 2019

China National Petroleum Company (CNPC) reported that shale gas production from its Sichuan Basin project increased by 40% between 2017 and 2018. Total gas output was pegged at 4.27 billion cubic meters (bcm), with a daily output amounting to 20 million cubic meters (mcm). The figures are record highs, the company said. —JPT Digital, 10 January 2019

Support in German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s coalition for a major new Russian gas pipeline is slipping as frustration with the Kremlin’s brinkmanship grows and pressure from U.S. President Donald Trump starts to bite. —Bloomberg, 7 January 2019

BP discovers 1 billion barrels of oil at its Thunder Horse field in the Gulf of Mexico. The oil giant also says it will spend $1.3 billion to develop the third phase of its Atlantis offshore field south of New Orleans. BP credits its investment in advanced seismic technology for speeding up its ability to confirm the discoveries. —CNBC, 8 January 2019

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo

Cina. Davos. Sarà presente Mr Wang Qishan, vice presidente cinese.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-01-11.

2019-01-07__davos__001

Il Meeting Internazionale di Davos sarà tenuto per abitudine e costumanza, ma svuotato dei suoi previ contenuti.

Il linguaggio diplomatico cinese è un fior di cesello. Uno stiletto, non una dragonessa.

*

«Chinese Vice President»

Sono passati i tempi in cui i cinesi mandavano delegazioni alto livello.

«Wang Qishan will visit Switzerland and attend the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos from Jan. 21 to 24»

Sì, certamente Mr Qishan andrà al Forum, ma prima di tutto viene la visita in Svizzera.

«at the invitation of Ueli Maurer, president of Swiss Confederation»

Ohibò! Mr Qishan è stato invitato dal Presidente della Confederazione Svizzera, mica dalle massime cariche di Davos, come protocollo avrebbe imposto.

*

Ma in tutta l’intervista concessa da Lu Kang, portavoce ministeriale, non si trova una parola che sia una sul ‘clima’.

I tempi sono cambiati.


China Org. 2019-06-07. Chinese vice president to attend WEF annual meeting in Davos

Chinese Vice President Wang Qishan will visit Switzerland and attend the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos from Jan. 21 to 24, a Foreign Ministry spokesperson announced Monday.

*

Wang is making the visit and attending WEF annual meeting at the invitation of Ueli Maurer, president of Swiss Confederation, and WEF Founder and Executive Chairman Klaus Schwab, spokesperson Lu Kang said.

During his attendance at the WEF annual meeting, Wang will deliver a speech, meet with Schwab, and exchange views with those attending the meeting, Lu said at a press briefing.

Responding to external views and comments on the economic situation in China, Lu said that China’s economy has on the whole maintained stable performance and is making progress.

Lu said that in spite of external uncertainties and unstable factors, the positive momentum of China’s economy over the long run will remain unchanged, as China enjoys “enough resilience and great potential” for its development.

“We are strongly confident about the positive momentum of China’s economic fundamentals over the long run, as well as achieving the goal of maintaining a medium-high rate of growth while advancing toward a medium-high level of development,” he added.

At the upcoming WEF annual meeting, Wang will further expound on China’s views and propositions about its development, economic globalization, and other major international issues, according to the spokesperson.

“We welcome all parties to work with China, based on the principle of seeking shared benefits via extensive consultation and joint contribution, to advance an open world economy and the common development of humanity,” Lu said. 

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Commercio, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Finanza e Sistema Bancario, Senza categoria

Cina. Il primo gennaio è entrata in vigore la riforma fiscale.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-01-05.

Cina

«China’s rich brace for tax raid on $24 trillion wealth pile

– Havens are disappearing, overseas earnings will become taxable

– Foreign assets to be easier to track, transfers may be levied »

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«China’s plan to cut taxes in 2019 for the masses has the nation’s super-rich running for cover on concern the government will make up the shortfall by going after the wealthy»

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«Changes to the tax regime as of Jan. 1 mean authorities will be paying closer attention to assets and investment holdings.»

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«In a nation where personal wealth is estimated to have climbed to a record $24 trillion in 2018 — $1 trillion of which is held abroad — that potentially offers rich pickings»

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«Anxiety over how the new rules will be enforced has already triggered a flood of Chinese clients seeking to create overseas trusts.»

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«Tougher taxes at home could have implications beyond China’s shores, with the country’s wealthy having been on a buying binge in recent years, driving up prices for everything from property in Vancouver and Sydney, to famous artworks and fine wines»

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«Under the new rules, owners of offshore companies will not only pay taxes on dividends they receive but will also face levies of as much as 20 percent on corporate profits, from as low as zero previously.»

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«This has triggered a flood of rich families seeking refuge via trusts, which often shield wealthy owners from having to pay taxes unless the trusts hand out dividends.»

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«In the past, the rich could avoid paying taxes on overseas earnings by acquiring a foreign passport or green card, while keeping their Chinese citizenship. But this won’t work starting in January as the government will tax global income from all holders of “hukou” household registrations»

*

«The system allows authorities to view various tax-related data, which had been scattered across various government departments, in one consolidated platform. The new system also beefs up the identification process by preventing individuals from divvying up their income across multiple sources or ID numbers to pay lower taxes.»

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«But it’s not just the rich that may face a stricter tax environment. China lowered the threshold for blocking citizens with overdue taxes from leaving the country to 100,000 yuan ($14,600) from the previous threshold of 1 million yuan»

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«Though the tax rate and the details remain unclear, the prospects of the tax has caused people with multiple apartments to worry and made properties a less desirable investment tool»

* * * * * * *

La storia insegna che gli stati hanno ben poco interesse a tassare una popolazione misera: ne caverebbero ben poco. Ma quando la ricchezza diventa generalizzata, in questo caso si stima essere 24 trilioni, ben pochi governanti resistono alla tentazione. 

Il caso cinese sembrerebbe però essere maggiormente complesso.

Se sicuramente in Cina sembrerebbe essere terminata la fase dello ‘arricchitevi come potete, ma arricchitevi‘ altrettanto sicuramente la situazione politica, economica e finanziaria interna non era sembrata essere troppo perturbata dagli investimenti esteri.

Se gli investimenti cinesi esteri non erano tassati, fatto questo che li ha stimolati non poco, altrettanto chiaramente dovrebbe essere evidente come siano stati mezzi potenti di penetrazione dei mercati stanieri con la forza dell’acquisto.

Nei fatti la Cina sta cambiando i suoi obiettivi strategici nei confronti del mondo. Gli investimenti esteri sono transitati ad essere un mezzo di dominio mondiale: hanno cessato di essere mero strumento di arricchimento.

In questa ottica, la tassazione delle attività estere potrebbe diventare un’arma impropria finalizzata al fine di conquistare una posizione egemone mondiale. Il polso della situazione è dato dal titolo di apertura del The New York Times:

Sexism Claims From Bernie Sanders’s 2016 Run: Paid Less, Treated Worse

Con simili avversari pwe i Cinesi è davvero facile conquistarsi l’egemonia.


Bloomberg. 2019-01-03. China’s Rich Brace for Tax Raid on $24 Trillion Wealth Pile

– Havens are disappearing, overseas earnings will become taxable

– Foreign assets to be easier to track, transfers may be levied

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China’s plan to cut taxes in 2019 for the masses has the nation’s super-rich running for cover on concern the government will make up the shortfall by going after the wealthy.

Changes to the tax regime as of Jan. 1 mean authorities will be paying closer attention to assets and investment holdings. In a nation where personal wealth is estimated to have climbed to a record $24 trillion in 2018 — $1 trillion of which is held abroad — that potentially offers rich pickings. Anxiety over how the new rules will be enforced has already triggered a flood of Chinese clients seeking to create overseas trusts.

Tougher taxes at home could have implications beyond China’s shores, with the country’s wealthy having been on a buying binge in recent years, driving up prices for everything from property in Vancouver and Sydney, to famous artworks and fine wines.

Offshore Cache

Chinese overseas wealth more than doubled between 2012 and 2018

The State Administration of Taxation didn’t respond to a faxed request for comment.

Here’s how the new tax rules may affect — and rein in — China’s rich:

Crackdown on Havens

Under the new rules, owners of offshore companies will not only pay taxes on dividends they receive but will also face levies of as much as 20 percent on corporate profits, from as low as zero previously. This has triggered a flood of rich families seeking refuge via trusts, which often shield wealthy owners from having to pay taxes unless the trusts hand out dividends. Overseas buildings or shell companies are also becoming easier to track for authorities as China embraces an international data-sharing agreement known as the Common Reporting Standard, or CRS.

It’s not clear how the government will utilize CRS data, especially in early 2019, but authorities may grant amnesty for a certain period for a stable transition or focus on penalizing the biggest offenders, according to Jason Mi, a partner at Ernst & Young in Beijing.

Closing Loopholes

In the past, the rich could avoid paying taxes on overseas earnings by acquiring a foreign passport or green card, while keeping their Chinese citizenship. But this won’t work starting in January as the government will tax global income from all holders of “hukou” household registrations — the most encompassing way of identifying a Chinese national — regardless of whether they have any additional nationalities.

That’s prompted many people to give up their Chinese citizenship in 2018 by surrendering their “hukou” to avoid paying taxes on foreign income from Jan. 1, according to Peter Ni, a Shanghai-based partner and tax specialist at Zhong Lun Law Firm. Starting in 2019, people surrendering Chinese citizenship will need to be audited by tax authorities first and possibly explain all their sources of income, according to Ni.

Reining in Gifts

Tycoons transferring assets to relatives or third parties could be subject to taxation in the new year, depending on how strictly China enforces rules on gifts, according to Ni at Zhong Lun. The levies could reach as much as 20 percent of the asset’s appreciated value, according to Ni.

For example, if a tycoon were to transfer overseas shares worth $1 million to his son for free, and if those shares originally cost the tycoon $100,000, the tycoon could be taxed 20 percent of the $900,000 increase in the value of those shares, or $180,000.

The risk of getting taxed will be higher if the recipient is a foreigner because their assets may be beyond Chinese officials’ reach, according to Ni.

Tougher Taxman

Tax authorities will sharpen their scrutiny of high-net-worth individuals thanks to more modern tools at their disposal, according to Ni. One is the Golden Tax System Phase III platform that’s being increasingly used to chase down people’s entire source of income. The system allows authorities to view various tax-related data, which had been scattered across various government departments, in one consolidated platform. The new system also beefs up the identification process by preventing individuals from divvying up their income across multiple sources or ID numbers to pay lower taxes.

But it’s not just the rich that may face a stricter tax environment. China lowered the threshold for blocking citizens with overdue taxes from leaving the country to 100,000 yuan ($14,600) from the previous threshold of 1 million yuan, according to the official Xinhua news agency.

Eyes on Property

Further down the road, China is preparing to introduce a property tax law that could go into effect as soon as 2020. Though the tax rate and the details remain unclear, the prospects of the tax has caused people with multiple apartments to worry and made properties a less desirable investment tool, EY’s Mi said.

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina, India, Senza categoria

India. Inaugurato il ponte Bogibeed sul Brahmaputra.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-30.

India. Bramaputra 010

Il primo ministro Mr Narendra Modi ha inaugurato il ponte Bogibeed sul Brahmaputra: un’opera che ha richiesto venti anni di lavoro.

Il problema è complesso, ma cercheremo di porgerlo semplicemente.

India. Bramaputra 000

Il Brahmaputra nasce a nord della catena montuosa dell’Himalaya dalle pendici occidentali del nepal, e decorre da ovest verso est per oltre un miglio di kilometri in territorio cinese, ove prende nome di Yarlung Zangpo. Poi riesce a farsi strada attraverso la catena del Subansirl e penetra in terriorio indiano, prendendo il nome di Brahmaputra. Decorre quindi verso sud, entra nello stato del Bangladesh e fino a congiungersi con il Gange: di lì i due fumi riuniti prendono nome di Padma.

Se si guarda con attenzione la cartina, vediamo come il territorio indiano, passata la strettoia delimitata da Bangladesh, Nepal e Bhutar, un collo di bottiglia largo qualche decina di kilometri, si slarghi avvolgendo da nord a sud il Bangladesh, confinando ad est con il Myanmar ed a nord con la Cina. È lo stato di Assam, membro della federazione indiana. Per beffa del destino, l’Assam ha un clima umido, subtropicale.

Un problema già complicato, lo diventa ancor di più considerando che il Brahmaputra scorre da nord verso sud e da est verso ovest, tagliando in due l’Assam: una parte nord ed una sud.

Il problema è severo, perché il Brahmaputra ha un letto molto largo, è facile alle esondazioni, il terreno su cui scorre è molto friabile. Costruire ponte sul Brahmaputra è cosa lunga, difficile e costosa.

Se la questione è chiarissima dal punto di vista economico e commerciale, diventa tensiogena dal punto di vista militare. L’Assam è divisa in due tronconi praticamente non comunicanti. Fatto questo che dette grandi problemi agli indiani durante la guerra con la Cina.

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«India opened its longest road-rail bridge in the northeastern state of Assam on Tuesday as part of efforts to boost defences on its sensitive border with China»

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«Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi drove an inaugural cavalcade along the 4.9km Bogibeel bridge over the Brahmaputra river to inaugurate the project which has taken nearly two decades and $800m to complete»

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«The bridge, near the city of Dibrugarh, will enable the military to speed up the dispatch of forces to neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh, which borders China»

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«With the opening of the bridge, the rail journey from Dibrugarh to the Arunachal Pradesh capital Itanagar has been cut by 750km»

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«The bridge has been designed to bear the weight of India’s heaviest 60-tonne battle tanks and so that fighter jets can land on it»

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Accorciare le vie di comunicazione di 750 kilometri è un risultato di tutto rispetto.

Nella comune speranza che mai serva per scopi bellici, questo ponte stradale e ferroviario contribuirà non poco alla crescita economica di questa regione.

Nota.

Ricordiamo come a maggio sia stato inaugurato il ponte sul Padma.

Bangladesh. Cina ed il ponte sul Padma.


Aljazeera. 2018-12-25. India’s longest road-rail bridge opened near China border

The project that took two decades and $800m to complete will enable a speedy dispatch of forces to Arunachal Pradesh.

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India opened its longest road-rail bridge in the northeastern state of Assam on Tuesday as part of efforts to boost defences on its sensitive border with China.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi drove an inaugural cavalcade along the 4.9km Bogibeel bridge over the Brahmaputra river to inaugurate the project which has taken nearly two decades and $800m to complete.

The bridge, near the city of Dibrugarh, will enable the military to speed up the dispatch of forces to neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh, which borders China.

With the opening of the bridge, the rail journey from Dibrugarh to the Arunachal Pradesh capital Itanagar has been cut by 750km.

India lost territory in Arunachal Pradesh in a 1962 war with China.

The bridge has been designed to bear the weight of India’s heaviest 60-tonne battle tanks and so that fighter jets can land on it.

India opened its previous longest bridge, the 9.1km Dhola-Sadiya bridge, in 2017 to connect Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, also to boost tactical defences.

Construction of the Bogibeel bridge was agreed by the government as part of a 1985 agreement to end years of deadly agitation by Assamese nationalist groups.

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Stati Uniti, Unione Europea

Usa verso esclusione delle cinesi Huawei e Zte dai mercati.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-29.

Cellulare 002

Dato l’argomento trattato, spionaggio, è del tutto naturale che nessuna delle controparti riveli le sue carte e le sue informazioni. Né vi sarebbe modo di poter controllare le affermazioni fatte da ambo le èarti.

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«Il presidente degli Stati Uniti, Donald Trump, sta valutando l’adozione di un decreto emergenziale all’inizio del prossimo anno, per escludere i colossi delle telecomunicazioni cinesi Huawei e Zte dal mercato Usa sulla base di considerazioni legate alla sicurezza nazionale»

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«l’ordine proibirebbe alle aziende statunitensi di acquistare sistemi e apparecchiature dalle due compagnie cinesi. Huawei e Zte»

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«Gli operatori delle telecomunicazioni nelle aree rurali degli Stati Uniti sono tra i maggiori clienti di Huawei e Zte, e temono di essere costretti in futuro a dismettere le apparecchiature già acquistate da quelle aziende senza alcuna compensazione»

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«Non è ancora chiaro se il governo federale Usa disponga dell’autorità giuridica necessaria a ordinare misure simili.»

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«Il dipartimento della Difesa Usa opera la propria rete satellitare e telefonica per le comunicazioni sensibili, ma gran parte del traffico delle principali installazioni militari si avvale delle comuni reti commerciali.»

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«Funzionari del governo Usa hanno incontrato controparti e dirigenti delle aziende di telecomunicazioni dei paesi amici dove i sistemi per le telecomunicazioni di Huawei sono già in uso, come Giappone, Germania e Italia; l’obiettivo di Washington è di presentare tali sistemi come un rischio per la sicurezza informatica.»

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«[Huawei] rischia ora di essere escluso dal secondo mercato dell’eurozona, quello francese. Parigi non intende bandire apertamente Huawei, ma sarebbe intenzionata ad aggiungere i sistemi e le apparecchiature dell’azienda cinese a una lista nera per la protezione delle parti strategiche della rete di telecomunicazione nazionale»

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«Il Giappone ha annunciato l’esclusione di apparecchiatura di fabbricazione cinese dai contratti governativi per l’acquisto di sistemi per le telecomunicazioni. Tokyo intende escludere dagli appalti pubblici le aziende fornitrici di servizi It che costituiscono un potenziale rischio di fuga di dati sensibili.»

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«L’agenzia di intelligence elettronica della Nuova Zelanda ha annunciato nelle scorse settimane che il principale provider nazionale di Internet non potrà avvalersi di sistemi dell’azienda cinese Huawei per i futuri lavori di aggiornamento ed espansione della rete, a causa di “rischi significativi per la sicurezza della rete”.»

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Di per sé stesso il telefono mobile, il cellulare, è uno strumento neutro, che veicola le voci, immagini e documenti che gli sono stati affidati. In realtà, il vero problema è quello umano: la gente parla al cellulare come se fosse in un confessionale. Per non parlare poi di quegli avventati che si portano dietro il cellulare acceso anche quando fanno del birbonate ovvero dei reti.

Non sono solo le notizie sensibili a preoccupare.

Un ascolto silenzioso e discreto mette in mano all’operatore tutta una lunga serie di elementi che in un domani l’intelligence userà per ricattare: o  fai questo oppure pubblichiamo tutto.

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Con Mr Trump sta finendo un’epoca in cui si riponeva fiducia su elementi per loro natura infidi.

Talune risorse tecnologiche non avrebbero mai dovuto essere lasciate alla globalizzazione. In mano a potenziali avversari.

La nazione deve produrre ed utilizzare in proprio le tecnologie sensibili.

Che poi l’azione dell’intelligence sia impalpabile, del tutto trasparente alla gente comune, è un altro paio di maniche.

Sembrerebbe essere verosimile che non tutti gli occidentali riescano a comprendere la criticità di questo argomento.


Agenzia Nova. 2018-12-29. Usa-Cina: Trump valuta ordine esecutivo per escludere Huawei e Zte dal mercato Usa.

Washington, 28 dic 04:48 – (Agenzia Nova) – Il presidente degli Stati Uniti, Donald Trump, sta valutando l’adozione di un decreto emergenziale all’inizio del prossimo anno, per escludere i colossi delle telecomunicazioni cinesi Huawei e Zte dal mercato Usa sulla base di considerazioni legate alla sicurezza nazionale. Lo riferiscono fonti anonime citate dalla stampa Usa, secondo cui l’ordine proibirebbe alle aziende statunitensi di acquistare sistemi e apparecchiature dalle due compagnie cinesi. Huawei e Zte, che negano di effettuare spionaggio per conto del governo cinese, non hanno ancora commentato ufficialmente l’indiscrezione. La Casa Bianca starebbe valutando il ricorso a un ordine esecutivo da oltre otto mesi, e potrebbe passare all’azione già nel mese di gennaio. Gli operatori delle telecomunicazioni nelle aree rurali degli Stati Uniti sono tra i maggiori clienti di Huawei e Zte, e temono di essere costretti in futuro a dismettere le apparecchiature già acquistate da quelle aziende senza alcuna compensazione. Non è ancora chiaro se il governo federale Usa disponga dell’autorità giuridica necessaria a ordinare misure simili.

Il presidente a rotazione del colosso cinese dell’elettronica per le telecomunicazioni Huawei, Ken Hu, ha respinto con forza come “infondate” le accuse di spionaggio per conto del governo cinese mosse nei confronti dell’azienda, ed ha avvertito che la campagna di boicottaggio intrapresa dagli Usa rischia di causare danni e disturbi economici a livello globale. “Contiamo oltre 13mila fornitori in tutto il mondo, e quest’anno acquisteremo 70 miliardi di dollari di parti e componenti”, ha sottolineato Hu durante una conferenza stampa di due ore organizzata questo mese, alla presenza di decine di giornalisti internazionali. “Qualsiasi sconvolgimento della catena di fornitura non danneggerà solo i fornitori, ma assesterà anche un colpo all’economia globale”, ha dichiarato il manager. Hu ha negato con forza che Huawei ponga un rischio per la sicurezza dei paesi in cui opera, ma ha anche promesso ulteriori investimenti per 2 miliardi di dollari tesi a fugare le preoccupazioni legate alla sicurezza informatica nello sviluppo delle reti 5G.

Stando al quotidiano “Wall Street Journal”, il governo degli Stati Uniti ha intrapreso nei mesi scorsi una campagna di pressione straordinaria per convincere gli operatori di reti wireless e i provider Internet dei paesi alleati ad evitare gli apparecchi e i sistemi venduti dal colosso cinese Huawei Technologies Co. Funzionari del governo Usa hanno incontrato controparti e dirigenti delle aziende di telecomunicazioni dei paesi amici dove i sistemi per le telecomunicazioni di Huawei sono già in uso, come Giappone, Germania e Italia; l’obiettivo di Washington è di presentare tali sistemi come un rischio per la sicurezza informatica. Washington starebbe anche valutando un aumento degli aiuti finanziarie per lo sviluppo di soluzioni per le telecomunicazioni per i paesi che non acquisteranno merce da Huawei. Stando alle fonti, gli Usa sono preoccupati soprattutto per i Paesi come i tre succitati – che ospitano basi militari statunitensi sul loro territorio. Il dipartimento della Difesa Usa opera la propria rete satellitare e telefonica per le comunicazioni sensibili, ma gran parte del traffico delle principali installazioni militari si avvale delle comuni reti commerciali.
Huawei ha diramato una lettera alla sua rete di fornitori globale questo mese, dopo l’arresto in Canada del suo direttore finanziario, Meng Wanzhou, fornendo garanzie in merito alla tenuta degli accordi d’affari. Nella lettera Huawei sottolinea di essere stata oggetto recentemente di numerose accuse da parte del governo Usa, e di aver ribadito più volte la rigorosa adesione dell’azienda a tutte le norme e i regolamenti che regolano gli scambi globali. “Riteniamo sia irragionevole da parte del governo Usa ricorrere a questo genere di approcci per esercitare pressioni su un soggetto aziendale. Si tratta di pratiche contrarie alla libertà economica e alla libera concorrenza”, recita la lettera pubblicata dall’azienda cinese nella giornata di ieri, e indirizzata “ai nostri partner della catena di fornitura globale”. L’offensiva statunitense però, si fa sempre più pressante, anche perché poggia su una campagna di boicottaggio estesa all’intera spera delle alleanze di Washington.

Il colosso dell’elettronica per le telecomunicazioni cinese Huawei, bersaglio di una campagna di boicottaggio statunitense che ha già portato all’esclusione dell’azienda dai progetti infrastrutturali negli Usa, in Australia, Nuova Zelanda e Giappone, rischia ora di essere escluso dal secondo mercato dell’eurozona, quello francese. Parigi non intende bandire apertamente Huawei, ma sarebbe intenzionata ad aggiungere i sistemi e le apparecchiature dell’azienda cinese a una lista nera per la protezione delle parti strategiche della rete di telecomunicazione nazionale. Lo riferisce “Bloomberg”, che cita 15 fonti a conoscenza dei piani dell’amministrazione del presidente francese, Emmanuel Macron. Gli operatori della rete francesi sono impegnati proprio in questi mesi a selezionare i fornitori per la realizzazione delle reti 5G nazionali.

Parte dell’infrastruttura delle telecomunicazioni francese, spiega “Bloomberg”, diverrà inaccessibile all’azienda cinese tramite una serie di revisioni normative e regolatorie, protette in parte da segreto di Stato. Stephane Richard, ad di Orange – il principale operatore delle telecomunicazioni francese – ha annunciato proprio ieri che l’azienda non utilizzerà sistemi di Huawei per la propria rete 5G, dopo aver ricevuto un “invito alla prudenza” da parte delle autorità francesi. Due altri operatori di telefonia mobile francesi, Bouygues Telecom e Sfr (Altice) hanno reso noto che si atterranno alle indicazioni dell’Agenzia nazionale francese per la sicurezza dei sistemi informatici (Anssi).

Il governo giapponese solleciterà le aziende private gestrici di infrastrutture strategiche in 14 diversi settori – dalla distribuzione dell’energia elettrica ai trasporti – ad evitare l’acquisto di sistemi per le comunicazioni “vulnerabili a fughe di informazioni sensibili e spegnimenti remoti”, una categoria utilizzata da Tokyo per indicare principalmente aziende cinesi come Huawei e Zte. Il governo ha già varato linee guida per le acquisizioni di otto categorie di apparecchiature elettroniche – inclusi server e terminali – da parte di ministeri e agenzie governative. Queste direttive, riferiscono fonti citate dalla stampa giapponese, verranno estese al settore privato a partire dal prossimo gennaio. Nel National Defense Authorization Act per il 2019, il governo Usa ha accusato la Cina di aver sottratto informazioni militari tramite apparecchi elettronici prodotti dall’azienda Huawei. Da allora paesi come Australia e Nuova Zelanda si sono uniti agli Usa nella decisione di escludere i prodotti di quella ed altre aziende tecnologiche cinesi dagli appalti governativi.

Il Giappone ha annunciato l’esclusione di apparecchiatura di fabbricazione cinese dai contratti governativi per l’acquisto di sistemi per le telecomunicazioni. Tokyo intende escludere dagli appalti pubblici le aziende fornitrici di servizi It che costituiscono un potenziale rischio di fuga di dati sensibili. L’iniziativa precede la migrazione a suo modo storica dell’intero complesso informatico governativo in un ecosistema di archiviazione e computazione “cloud”, e giunge in un momento assai delicato, che vede gli Stati Uniti impegnati in una vera e propria operazione di boicottaggio internazionale di Huawei, denunciata da Washington come un rischio per la sicurezza nazionale per i suoi presunti legami col governo cinese.

Nel mese di agosto il governo australiano ha bandito il colosso cinese delle telecomunicazioni Huawei Technologies Co Ltd dalla fornitura di apparecchiature per la futura rete mobile 5G del paese, adducendo ragioni di sicurezza nazionale. Il ruolo di primo piano di Huawei nello sviluppo della rete 5G nazionale, e la resistenza delle agenzie di sicurezza di quel paese, che paventavano la trasmissione di informazioni e dati al governo cinese, erano divenuti nei mesi scorsi oggetto di tensione tra Canberra e Pechino, che già hanno visto peggiorare le relazioni bilaterali dopo l’approvazione della nuova legislazione australiana contro le interferenze esterne sulla politica. La decisione assunta dal governo australiano poggia su una posizione simile a quella del governo Usa, che ha parzialmente escluso Huawei dal mercato statunitense, citando a sua volta timori legati alla sicurezza nazionale.

L’agenzia di intelligence elettronica della Nuova Zelanda ha annunciato nelle scorse settimane che il principale provider nazionale di Internet non potrà avvalersi di sistemi dell’azienda cinese Huawei per i futuri lavori di aggiornamento ed espansione della rete, a causa di “rischi significativi per la sicurezza della rete”. L’Ufficio per la sicurezza delle comunicazioni del governo neozelandese (Gcsb) ha notificato la decisione all’azienda di telecomunicazioni nazionale Spark; di fatto, al decisione bandisce Huawei dai lavori per l’introduzione della rete 5G nella Nuova Zelanda. Spark ha confermato la direttiva giuntale dall’agenzia governativa tramite una nota, in cui si legge che l’azienda “non potrà attuare o dare seguito alla sua proposta di utilizzare apparecchiature Ran di Huawei per la rete 5G” pianificata dal provider. Il direttore del Gcsb, Andrew Hampton, ha ribadito tramite una nota che l’agenzia ha riscontrato in Huawei e nelle sue apparecchiature “un rischio significativo per la rete”, ma ha evitato di fornire ulteriori dettagli in proposito.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Problemia Energetici

Cina. In funzione a Taishan il primo reattore nucleare Epr.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-24.

Taishan 001

La Cina ha un enorme bisogno di energia sicura a costi contenuti e, soprattutto, non dipendente da forniture estere.

La Cina ha già in opera un grandioso piano di costruzione di centrali nucleari.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Nucleare, la Cina raggiunge la Russia al quarto posto mondiale per numero di reattori

«Gli Stati Uniti sono al primo posto con un centinaio di reattori nucleari operativi, seguiti dalla Francia con 58 e dal Giappone con 43 unità»

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Oltre a reattori sviluppati con tecnologie proprie, la Cina ha numerose collaborazioni internazionali.

Russia – Cina. Accordo per costruire reattori nucleari di nuova generazione.

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Il Progetto Epr.

«The EPR is a third generation pressurised water reactor (PWR) design. It has been designed and developed mainly by Framatome (part of Areva between 2001 and 2017) and Électricité de France (EDF) in France, and Siemens in Germany. In Europe this reactor design was called European Pressurised Reactor, and the internationalised name was Evolutionary Power Reactor, but it is now simply named EPR.

The first two EPR units, at Olkiluoto in Finland and Flamanville in France, are both facing costly construction delays (to at least 2020). Construction commenced on two Chinese units at Taishan in 2009 and 2010. Taishan 1 achieved criticality on 6 June 2018. Taishan 2 is expected to begin operation in 2019. Two units at Hinkley Point in the United Kingdom received final approval in September 2016 and are expected to be completed by 2025.

EDF has acknowledged severe difficulties in building the EPR design. In September 2015 EDF stated that the design of a “New Model” EPR was being worked on, which will be easier and cheaper to build.»

Il grande problema dei reattori Epr è costituto dai costi di costruzione, che li rendono ad oggi più una scommessa sul futuro piuttosto che un’opzione al momento economicamente competitiva.

D’altra parte però una nazione grande quanto un intero continente deve differenziare le tipologie di reattori in uso e può tollerare la conseguente disparità di costi unitari.

Da notare infine che la China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) è entrata nel progetto al 75% rilevando anche una parte di brevetti e know-how. Nei fatti, se è vero che il progetto iniziale sia europeo, si dovrebbe ammettere che questa installazione funzionante sia a prevalente tecnologia cinese.

Si potrebbe essere facili profeti nel prognosticare che tra non molto tempo tutte le tecnologie nucleari saranno passate in mano a russi e cinesi, con tutte le conseguenze del caso.

Gli europei avevano fatto cospicui investimenti nel nucleare, poi virtualmente abbandonato per motivi di ideologie politiche. Scelte gravi e pesanti e, purtroppo, le colpe dei padri ricadranno sui figli.


Reuters. 2018-12-14. China launches world’s first EPR nuclear project in Taishan

BEIJING (Reuters) – The world’s first third-generation “Evolutionary Power Reactor” (EPR) has gone into operation at Taishan in China’s Guangdong province, the French and Chinese developers behind the project announced on Friday.

The 1,750-megawatt EPR, formerly known as the “European Pressurised Reactor” and designed by France’s Areva, completed a 168-hour trial run on Thursday evening, said state-owned China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN).

Its commercial launch can be “a source of inspiration” for other next-generation reactors, Guo Limin, general manager of the Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company, said at a press briefing in Beijing.

The technology is also being deployed in France, Finland and the China-invested Hinkley Point C project in Britain. It was connected to China’s power grid on a trial basis for the first time in June.

The Taishan nuclear project is 70 percent-owned by CGN, with Electricite de France (EDF) controlling the rest. Areva, designer of the new reactor, is now known as Framatome, which is owned 75.5 percent by EDF.

Construction on two EPR units began at Taishan in 2009 with the first originally scheduled to be completed in 2013, but the design has been beset by a series of technical hitches and big cost overruns in China and elsewhere.

Taishan’s second unit is expected to go into full operation in the fourth quarter of 2019. Guo said construction was still ongoing and remained within the expected timeframe.

The EPR’s main foreign rival, the AP1000 designed by U.S.-based Westinghouse, has also made its global debut in China this year after a four-year construction delay.

The two models were originally expected to play a big role in China’s ambitious nuclear reactor building plans, but the hold-ups mean they must now compete with Russia’s VVER-1200 design, as well as China’s home-grown “Hualong One” brand.

Fabrice Fourcade, EDF’s chief representative in China, said the firm would be “very happy” to build more EPRs in China but this would depend on CGN and the Chinese government.

Though China aims to bring total installed nuclear power capacity to 58 gigawatts by the end of 2020 and have another 30 GW under construction, it has not given the go-ahead for any new conventional reactor projects in around three years.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Mondiale

Cina. Dopo 30 anni di crescita ambirebbe alla leadership mondiale.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-12-18.

2018-12-18__Cina__001

Mentre negli ultimi trenta anni l’Occidente ha proseguito a baloccasi con le ideologie, la Cina è passata da un pil procapite di 349$ nel 1990 agli 8,663$ del 2017: è aumentato di venticinque volte.

Ma se si desse una sbirciata al futuro prossimo, le sorprese sarebbero ancora maggiori.

International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook (October – 2017)

Le proiezioni al 2022 danno la Cina ad un pil ppa di 34,465 (20.54%) miliardi di Usd, gli Stati Uniti di 23,505 (14.01%), e l’India di 15,262 9.10%) Usd. Seguono Giappone con 6,163 (3.67%),  Germania (4.932%), Regno Unito 3,456 (2.06%), Francia 3,427 (2.04%), Italia 2,677 (1.60%). Russia 4.771 (2.84%) e Brasile 3,915 (2.33%).

I paesi del G7 produrranno 46,293 (27.59%) mld Usd del pil mondiale, mentre i paesi del Brics renderanno conto di 59,331 mld Usd (35.36%).

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La ricetta economica messa in opera da Mr Deng Xiaoping è di una semplicità sconcertante:

«“What the government needs to do is to remove the straitjacket still stifling entrepreneurs. There are still too many rules, stupid rules. The going is getting tougher. Hopefully that would shake off some of the bureaucratic complacency.”»

Deng Xiaoping era la quintessenza del pragmatismo cinese, cui non interessa il colore del gatto, purché acchiappi i topi. Ciò che interessa è il ritorno prestazione/costo. Così convivono proficuamente azioni che per gli occidentali sarebbero contrastanti perché ascrivibili ad ideologie differenti ed opposte.

«Deng Xiaoping restarted university entrance examinations in late 1977, allowing all students to compete for a college place».

Nello stesso anno fece internare nel Laogai circa 600,000 insegnati assunti nella scuola per meriti politici. Scuola epurata, scuola funzionante.

Con la stessa nonchalance lasciava totalmente libere le persone con l’ordine di arricchirsi più che potessero, e nel contempo procedeva a nazionalizzare delle aziende: azioni anche questa per gli occidentali fuori dal ben del’intelletto.

Ma quello che l’occidente non può costituzionalmente comprendere è che in Cina la politica la si fa in quella scuola mandarinica ora denominata partito comunista cinese. Il termine ‘comunista‘ ha in occidente un senso del tutto differente da quello che ha in Cina.

Altre cose che fanno impazzire gli occidentali?

Cina. L’Islam sarebbe una patologia psichiatrica, e così la si cura.

Cinesi, gente pratica. Risolto il problema dell’integralismo islamico.

«Chinese authorities in the far-northwestern region of Xinjiang on Wednesday revised legislation to permit the use of “education and training centers” to combat religious extremism.»

*

«In practice, the centers are internment camps in which as many as 1 million minority Muslims have been placed in the past 12 months»

* * *

Sorriso e bonomia di Mr Xi potrebbero trarre in inganno: non si scambi la tradizionale semplicità e cortesia cinese per mancanza di polso. Gli uiguri ed i kazaki non vogliono essere ragionevoli?

Nessun problema.

Resteranno nel laogai fino a tanto che non parleranno fluentemente il cinese mandarino.

* * * * * * *

L’Occidente però non ha proprio imparato nulla dalla Cina.

«Deng’s reforms, officially launched 40 years ago on Dec. 18 at a meeting of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, precipitated one of the greatest creations of wealth in history, lifting more than 700 million people out of poverty.»

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«But the changes also sowed the seeds of many of the problems China faces today»

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«Two decades of growth at any cost under Presidents Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao starting in 1993 saddled the nation with polluted rivers and smoggy skies, plus a mountain of debt»

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«But while Deng wanted his market-based reforms to make China rich, Xi has reasserted the control of the state in an effort to turn the country into a political and technological superpower»

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Da un personaggio che ha trovato semplicemente logico mettere in campo di lavoro un milione di persone non ci si aspetterebbero grossi scrupoli per i problemi ecologici che così stanno a cuore agli Occidentali: Xi vuole solo il dominio del mondo, e, come si dice, Parigi val bene una Messa.


Bloomberg. 2018-12-17. China Built a Global Economy in 40 Years. Now It Has a New Plan

Deng’s 1978 reforms gave China economic might. Now Xi wants more.

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Fred Hu will never forget the terror in his science teacher’s eyes when the man was dragged away to a Chinese jail during Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution. Then a 12-year-old peeping into the classroom, his dream of escaping rural poverty to become a journalist or teacher seemed hopeless.

Two years later, his hope was rekindled when incoming leader Deng Xiaoping restarted university entrance examinations in late 1977, allowing all students to compete for a college place.

“For the first time there was a clear path in front of us,” said Hu, who went on to earn masters degrees at Tsinghua and Harvard, work for the International Monetary Fund, and lead Goldman Sachs Group Inc. in China. “The turmoil was behind us. A new era had come,” said the founder of Primavera Capital Ltd., a private-equity fund based in Beijing.

In the years that followed, Hu and hundreds of millions of others left the countryside and set up businesses in cities or went to work in factories that propelled China to become the world’s second-largest economy. Deng’s reforms, officially launched 40 years ago on Dec. 18 at a meeting of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, precipitated one of the greatest creations of wealth in history, lifting more than 700 million people out of poverty.

But the changes also sowed the seeds of many of the problems China faces today. Two decades of growth at any cost under Presidents Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao starting in 1993 saddled the nation with polluted rivers and smoggy skies, plus a mountain of debt. During that time, China became deeply integrated into the global economy, a trend that accelerated after it joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.

When President Xi Jinping assumed power in 2013, many hoped he’d turn out to be a leader in Deng’s reformist vein. But while Deng wanted his market-based reforms to make China rich, Xi has reasserted the control of the state in an effort to turn the country into a political and technological superpower. 

“One of Xi’s overarching goals in terms of economic management is to effectively, if not formally, declare the end of the era of reform a la Deng Xiaoping,” said Arthur Kroeber, a founding partner and managing director at research firm Gavekal Dragonomics. Whereas Deng and subsequent leaders bolstered the role of private businesses in the economy and reduced that of the state, Xi seems to think the balance is now about right, Kroeber said.

Flouting Deng’s advice for China to lie low and bide its time, Xi went head to head with U.S. President Donald Trump and other world leaders, who were frustrated by years of Beijing stalling in opening its markets to foreign firms. China’s critics say domestic companies that are now aspiring for global dominance in technology and trade were raised on state subsidies or cheap loans while being protected from foreign competition. 

The standoff has dealt Xi some of his first policy setbacks and an unusual upswing in public criticism in China. Even Deng’s son leveled a veiled rebuke in a speech in October, urging China’s government to “keep a sober mind” and “know its place.”

The confrontation comes at a critical moment for China as it tries to avoid falling into what economists call the middle-income trap, where per-capita income stalls before a nation becomes rich. Usually that happens because rising wages and costs erode profitability at factories that make basic goods like clothes or furniture, and the economy fails to make the jump to higher-value industries and services.

Only five industrial economies in East Asia have succeeded in escaping the trap since 1960, according to the World Bank. They are Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.

To join them, Xi must oversee a transformation in China’s markets, injecting more competition in financial services, upgrading technology, and tightening corporate governance, while waging a trade war with a U.S. administration bent on containing the Asian nation’s rise. Xi’s challenge is compounded by an aging workforce, the mountain of corporate and local government debt, and an environmental clean-up that will take decades.

“No major economy that is not democratic has managed to surpass the middle income trap, so the odds are not in China’s favor even without the trade war,” said Steve Tsang, director of the SOAS China Institute at the University of London. “Abandoning the Dengist approach has raised alarm bells in the West, particularly in the U.S. This makes the task much more difficult.”

Whether China makes it will depend on the legacy of those migrants and entrepreneurs who took advantage of Deng’s opening and set up private companies and conquered one manufacturing industry after another. Today, China’s private sector generates 60 percent of the nation’s output, 70 percent of technological innovation and 90 percent of new jobs, according to Liu He, Xi’s top economic adviser.

Shadow Banking

Many of those companies are feeling the brunt of Xi’s campaigns to deleverage the economy and battle pollution. A crackdown on shadow-bank financing has stifled a major source of funding during the boom years, while hundreds of thousands of small enterprises have been shuttered for despoiling the environment.

Their plight prompted an unprecedented push by policymakers this year to cajole banks into lending more to non-state companies, a campaign Xi endorsed by proclaiming his “unwavering” support for the private sector.

The policy response isn’t robust or effective enough and there’s a risk of a further weakening of business and investor confidence that triggers a vicious cycle, Hu said Sunday in a separate interview with Bloomberg Television. Policies toward the private sector are “incoherent ” with lip service in support of it and then more stringent regulations imposed on it, he said.

“What the government needs to do is to remove the straitjacket still stifling entrepreneurs,” he said. “There are still too many rules, stupid rules. The going is getting tougher. Hopefully that would shake off some of the bureaucratic complacency.”

Nowhere are the successes and challenges of China’s entrepreneurs more apparent than in Shenzhen, which over the course of the four decades evolved from fishing village to factory town to export hub and into the gleaming technology hub it is today.

Andy Yu, a native of Wuhan in central China, is typical of the people who made the immigrant city a success. He came to Shenzhen in 2003 to work at a technology company and set up his own mobile phone maker, Shenzhen Garlant Technology Development Co., a few years later.

“Some people say China can only make cheap junk but that’s not true,” Yu said.  “China can make really good products and that’s why companies like Apple have factories here. China has the best price-to-quality ratio anywhere.”

Yu believes that combination of good quality at low prices will allow his company to shrug off Trump’s tariffs. About a fifth of Shenzhen Garlant’s $150 million in annual sales come from the U.S. and are subject to a 10 percent duty that could rise to 25 percent next year. Yu said he can pass on the increased cost to customers because his Western competitors sell at much higher prices while rival manufacturers in Southeast Asia and Latin America lag far behind in technology.

Shenzhen Garlant’s trajectory shows how the beneficiaries of Deng’s reforms have had to adapt to survive. The company still designs and markets its products from Shenzhen, but its 300-worker factory is now in Hubei province in Central China where wages are lower. Yu is considering increasing automation and building a new plant in the west of the country on the border with Myanmar, which he could staff with migrant Burmese who earn half the amount that Chinese workers do.

To achieve Xi’s goal of dominating the key technologies, outlined in his “Made in China 2025” blueprint, the nation will need to do more than make high-spec phones and laptops. Yet Xi’s model of more government control coupled with tighter restrictions on lending could inhibit innovation. 

“This year, the golden era for startups has ended,” said Wang Gaonan, one of the new generation of entrepreneurs who are driving change in China’s economy. “It’s almost impossible to find investors. The runway has vanished. If I had graduated in 2015 instead of 2012, it would be too late for me.”

Wang, who holds a masters degree in industrial engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, heads Capstone Games, creator of the third- and fourth-ranked soccer games in Apple’s China app store. Founded in 2013, the Beijing company’s annual revenue has more than doubled every year to reach about 150 million yuan ($21.8 million). 

Tighter controls on new game releases in China, where the government is concerned about the effects of device addiction on children, along with a slowing economy, have spurred Wang to look abroad for growth. Capstone plans to launch an app in the U.K. in March. 

Tighter Control

Xi has also clamped down on activities from online posts to the free-wheeling private businesses that grew up as a result of Deng’s policies, reasserting the control of the party on businesses and through regulations, state-run companies and government-owned banks. The economic impact of those controls shows up only after a time, so it’s hard to assess the effect now, said Nobel laureate economist Michael Spence, a professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business. “Taken too far that could create headwinds for innovation,” he said.

Yet even with the political and trade headwinds, the new digital economy, services and higher value producers could keep China on track to join the ranks of wealthy nations, said Spence. “A trade war expanding to technology and cross border investment will slow China down — and not just China — but not probably derail this progress,” he said.

The economy expanded 6.5 percent in the third quarter, the slowest pace since the aftermath of the global financial crisis in 2009. But if China can keep the rate above 5 percent well into the 2020s, per capita income levels will close the gap on developed nations, said Kroeber, who is the author of “China’s Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know.” 

Still, average income levels only tell part of the story. Back in the small, rural town of Xintang in Hunan province, where Fred Hu saw his teacher arrested more than half a century ago, the inequality created by China’s boom is plain to see. 

The paint on the walls of the Middle School Hu attended is peeling. Heating is minimal, which is why on a cold December day students sit at their desks wearing winter jackets. Education standards lag those in cities, said Senior Teacher Pan Yuezhong, 60. About 80 percent of students are “left-behind kids” — children whose parents left for higher-paying jobs, usually on the industrial east coast, and who are looked after by grandparents, relatives or friends.

“China has failed to invest in its single most important asset: its people,” said economist Scott Rozelle at Stanford University. “It has one of the lowest levels of education.”

According to the country’s own 2015 microcensus, only 30 percent of the labor force has finished high school. That puts China behind all other middle-income countries, including Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey. While that has not deterred the country from becoming a manufacturing powerhouse, it will no doubt hinder its evolution into a more advanced, knowledge-based economy.

In China’s cities, colleges churned out more than 8 million graduates this year. But the problem lies in China’s neglected hinterlands, according to Rozelle. Rural workers are only one-fourth as likely as urban ones to have a high school education. But rural areas account for 64 percent of China’s overall population and more than two-thirds of its children.

Worse still, one in five people in Miluo, a county-level city that oversees Xintang, is over 60 years old, a demographic trend that pervades most of the country and one that will become an increasing burden on the economy in medical costs and care.

Still even in Xintang, things are better than in the dark days of the Cultural Revolution, when people used kerosene lamps for light, bound rags for shoes and rice was so precious it was often saved for the elderly, children or the sick, said Hu Fuxin, whose local dialect was translated by Pan, the teacher. Wearing a thick coat and a quilt over his legs to keep warm in the living room of his modest home, the 78-year-old former teacher remembered Fred Hu as a model student.

Hu’s Primavera Capital invests in new economy companies such as online financial services platform Ant Financial Services Group and cloud  service provider Xunlei Ltd. He said the creativity, innovation and vision of Chinese entrepreneurs is equal to those in Silicon Valley and other tech hubs and believes China can still ascend to developed-world status. Yet he’s become increasingly worried about the country’s policy direction under Xi.

“China’s on the right track, but everyone wants to know if they will speed up the reform process Deng initiated 40 years ago or will they slow down or backtrack,” he said. “A lack of reform may prevent China from fully realizing its economic potential.”