Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina

Cina. Ha lanciato un satellite che gestisce una rete globale di comunicazioni quantistiche.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-12.

Banca Centrale Cina

«QUESS has enormous prospects in the defence sphere»

«The mission cost was around US$100 million in total»

Sicuramente la entità degli investimenti produce arricchimento scientifico, ma nulla vicaria la potenza della intelligenza umana lasciata libera di pensare.

La intelligenza è il vero patrimonio di un popolo. Intelligenti si nasce, non lo si diventa.

Ma la collettività riesce ad identificare e a far crescere la intelligenza solo ed esclusivamente se è anche essa intrinsecamente libera e sostanzialmente meritocratica, come lo è la Cina.

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La distribuzione a chiave quantistica (in sigla QKD, dall’inglese: Quantum key distribution) è un sistema della meccanica quantistica per garantire comunicazioni sicure. Abilita due parti a produrre e condividere una chiave segreta casuale solamente tra di loro che potranno usare per cifrare e decifrare i loro messaggi. Spesso, è chiamata impropriamente crittografia quantistica, poiché è l’esempio meglio conosciuto tra le operazioni di crittografia quantistica. Un’importante e unica proprietà della distribuzione quantistica è la capacità dei due utenti in comunicazione di rilevare la presenza di una terza parte che tenta di ottenere informazioni sulla chiave, dovuto al fatto che un processo di misura in un sistema quantistico in generale disturba il sistema.

La sicurezza della distribuzione a chiave quantistica si affida sui fondamenti della meccanica quantistica rispetto al tradizionale protocollo di distribuzione a chiave che si affida sulla difficoltà computazionale di certe funzioni matematiche, e non può fornire alcuna indicazioni al riguardo di possibili intercettazioni. La distribuzione a chiave quantistica è usata solo per produrre e distribuire la chiave, non per trasmettere qualsivoglia messaggio. La chiave può essere usata con qualsiasi algoritmo di cifrazione e decifrazione, che trasmetterà poi il messaggio su un canale di comunicazione standard. L’algoritmo più comunemente associato a questa chiave è il cifrario di Vernam. I sistemi commerciali esistenti ad oggi di distribuzione a chiave quantistica sono specificatamente pensati per governi e imprese con alti requisiti di sicurezza.

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«Quantum Experiments at Space Scale, QUESS, is a Chinese research project in the field of quantum physics. Tiangong-2 is China’s second Space Laboratory module which was launched on 15 Sep 2016. Tiangong-2 carries a total of 14 mission  and experiment packages, including Space-Earth quantum key distribution and laser communications experiment to facilitate space-to-ground quantum communication. A satellite, nicknamed Micius or Mozi after the ancient Chinese philosopher, is operated by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

QUESS is a proof-of-concept mission designed to facilitate quantum optics experiments over long distances to allow the development of quantum encryption and quantum teleportation technology. Quantum encryption uses the principle of entanglement to facilitate communication that can absolutely detect whether a third party has intercepted a message in transit thus denying undetected decryption. By producing pairs of entangled photons, QUESS will allow ground stations separated by many thousands of kilometres to establish secure quantum channels. QUESS itself has limited communication capabilities: it needs line-of-sight, and can only operate when not in sunlight. The mission cost was around US$100 million in total. QUESS has enormous prospects in the defence sphere. The satellite will provide secure communications between Beijing. China is aiming to achieve the capability to counter the use of enemy space technology. The launch put China ahead of rivals, and brought them closer to hack-proof communications.» [Fonte]

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La Cina ha lanciato mercoledì un nuovo satellite quantistico che potrebbe essere il primo passo verso la creazione di una rete di comunicazione ultra-sicura con copertura globale. Si tratta di uno dei sei satelliti lanciati intorno a mezzogiorno dal razzo a risposta rapida Lijian dal centro di lancio satellitare di Jiuquan, nel deserto del Gobi. È uno dei sei satelliti lanciati intorno a mezzogiorno dal razzo a risposta rapida Lijian dal centro di lancio satellitare Jiuquan nel deserto del Gobi. Una rete di chiavi quantistiche utilizza particelle entangled per criptare un messaggio. Qualsiasi tentativo di furto o decodifica altera fisicamente il messaggio e allerta il destinatario, grazie alla legge della fisica quantistica. Chiamato Jinan 1, pesa meno di 100 kg.

Jinan 1 entrerà in servizio dopo un mese di test ed è solo il primo passo. Altri satelliti di questo tipo saranno lanciati nel prossimo futuro per supportare la comunicazione quantistica per oltre 100 utenti in tutto il mondo. t è anche un passo importante. La Cina è il primo Paese al mondo a realizzare la distribuzione di chiavi quantistiche in tempo reale, da satellite a terra, con un micro-satellite e stazioni terrestri miniaturizzate.

Mentre i satelliti di comunicazione tradizionali servono principalmente come relè, il compito più importante di un satellite quantistico è quello di generare particelle entangled da utilizzare come chiavi quantistiche. Queste chiavi quantistiche potrebbero diventare una risorsa preziosa per la comunicazione globale.

Nel maggio 2020 è iniziato un esperimento da record, condotto da un’altitudine di 36.000 km, ovvero 60 volte più in alto dell’orbita di Mozi, ha scritto Sun in un articolo pubblicato sul Chinese Journal of Astronautics nel luglio dello scorso anno. L’esperimento è stato apparentemente interrotto dopo che il satellite è stato avvicinato da un satellite di sorveglianza spaziale statunitense.

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«China launched a new quantum satellite on Wednesday that could be a first step towards establishing an ultra-secure communications network with global coverage. It was one of six satellites launched around noon by the Lijian quick response rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert. It was one of six satellites launched around noon by the Lijian quick response rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert. A quantum key network uses entangled particles to encrypt a message. Any attempt to steal or decode will alter the message physically and alert the receiver, thanks to the law of quantum physics. Called Jinan 1, it weighs less than 100kg.»

«Jinan 1 would enter service after a month of testing and it was “just the first step”. More such satellites would be launched in the near future to support quantum communication for more than 100 users around the globe. t is also an important step. It makes China the first country in the world to achieve real-time, satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution with micro-nano satellite and miniaturised ground stations»

«While traditional communication satellites mainly serve as a relay, the most important job of a quantum satellite is to generate entangled particles to be used as quantum keys. Those quantum keys could become a valuable resource for global communication»

«A record-breaking experiment began in May 2020, conducted from an altitude of 36,000km – or 60 times higher than Mozi’s orbit, Sun wrote in a paper in the Chinese Journal of Astronautics in July last year. The experiment was apparently paused after the satellite was approached by a US space surveillance satellite»

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China launches new satellite in ‘important step’ towards global quantum communications network

– Jinan 1 will conduct key distribution experiments in lower-Earth orbit after a month of testing

– More launches planned for near future to support quantum communication for over 100 users

* * * * * * *

China launched a new quantum satellite on Wednesday that could be a first step towards establishing an ultra-secure communications network with global coverage.

It was one of six satellites launched around noon by the Lijian quick response rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert, according to Xinhua.

The quantum satellite, developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, would conduct quantum key distribution experiments in lower-Earth orbit, the report said.

A quantum key network uses entangled particles to encrypt a message. Any attempt to steal or decode will alter the message physically and alert the receiver, thanks to the law of quantum physics.

It is the second quantum satellite launched by China after it sent the world’s first such satellite, Mozi, into orbit in August 2016.

Called Jinan 1, it weighs less than 100kg – about a sixth of the weight of Mozi – but can generate quantum keys at speeds two or three magnitude higher, the project team said in a statement posted on WeChat.

It said Jinan 1 would enter service after a month of testing and it was “just the first step”. More such satellites would be launched in the near future to support quantum communication for more than 100 users around the globe.

“It is also an important step. It makes China the first country in the world to achieve real-time, satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution with micro-nano satellite and miniaturised ground stations,” the statement said.

China’s first quantum satellite, Mozi, is equipped with what was the most sensitive device when it went into orbit six years ago – it can produce and detect a single photon, or an extremely weak particle of light. The satellite has conducted record-breaking experiments in quantum physics, including proving the feasibility of quantum communication from one continent to another.

But researchers involved in the project say Mozi has its limits. The first generation of space-based quantum communication devices, for instance, can only establish a stable link with the ground at night because the sun produces so much noise that the light signals are drowned out. Also, the bandwidth for quantum key distribution – which is as small as dial-up – restricts communication to voice or low-resolution videos.

In recent years, the team – led by Pan Jianwei, a professor and executive vice-president of the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei – has been working to find solutions to these problems. That includes developing new technologies to maintain quantum communication during the daytime and in bad weather, according to research papers published by the team.

Zhao Yongli, a professor at the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications who is not part of the Mozi team, wrote in a 2020 research paper that technological developments had prompted China to build a quantum satellite constellation to take high-speed, stable quantum communication around the globe

While traditional communication satellites mainly serve as a relay, the most important job of a quantum satellite is to generate entangled particles to be used as quantum keys. Those quantum keys could become a valuable resource for global communication in the future, according to Zhao, who works in the State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications at the university.

He said the more quantum satellites in orbit, the more keys could be generated and sent to a “pool” for users with high security demands.

“The idea is to continuously generate quantum keys between each pair of connected nodes, and then store the keys in a quantum key pool” managed by a central agency in China, Zhao said in the paper published in Chinese peer-reviewed journal Radio Communications Technology.

“Low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites have the advantages of small channel loss and low transmission delay. It is a more feasible way to use the networking of LEO satellites to build a quantum satellite constellation,” he said.

Zhao said China also planned to have quantum satellites in high-Earth orbit (GEO or geosynchronous orbit) where they could remain relatively stationary with the ground. He estimated that three such satellites could cover the entire planet.

There would be significant transmission loss, but Zhao said GEO satellites could “generate keys continuously at a lower rate” and send them to the pool.

He said the Mozi team had been working on technologies to improve the efficiency of satellite links – including developing larger receiving mirrors and more accurate targeting systems – aiming to increase the rate of key generation.

China has also been testing cutting-edge quantum telecoms technology on Shijian 20, its most advanced communication satellite, according to Sun Xiaojie, a senior engineer with the Quantum Engineering Research Centre at the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation in Beijing.

A record-breaking experiment began in May 2020, conducted from an altitude of 36,000km – or 60 times higher than Mozi’s orbit, Sun wrote in a paper in the Chinese Journal of Astronautics in July last year.

The experiment was apparently paused after the satellite was approached by a US space surveillance satellite, USA 271, in August 2020 and it moved away at speed, according to a report by US military website Breaking Defence.

Sun said in the paper that the experiment resumed in November but did not mention the encounter with the US satellite. She said the research suggested that the error rate of light signals from a geostationary satellite was between 2 and 8 per cent, which was “good enough for quantum key distribution”.

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina, Geopolitica Asiatica, Problemi militari, Stati Uniti

Cina e Formosa. Xi ed il trionfo della scuola mandarinica. L’occidente è stato sgominato.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-11.

2022-08-10__ China Drills 001

«The exercise demonstrated that blockade in a conflict need not require a constant naval presence offshore»

«L’esercitazione ha dimostrato che il blocco in un conflitto non richiede necessariamente una presenza navale costante al largo»

Cina e Formosa. Report numerico che ne quantizza i rapporti

Gli occidentali non si sono mai peritati di studiare a fondo la storia e la cultura cinese né, tanto meno, la storia e la Weltanschauung della scuola mandarinica. Per non parlare poi di conoscere la lingua cinese. Sono convinti di essere una razza superiore, come quella che i russi fecero sfilare per le strade di Mosca. Sono convinti che tutto il mondo debba parlare inglese e condividere gioiosamente la loro ideologia.

La vittoria arride invece alla Cina ed a Mr Xi, potentemente aiutati dalla ottusa superbia occidentale.

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Le esercitazioni militari cinesi dimostrano che Pechino non ha bisogno di invadere Taiwan per controllarla, ma può strangolare l’isola autogovernata, tagliandola fuori dal mondo esterno. Le esercitazioni dell’Esercito Popolare di Liberazione (PLA), iniziate ufficialmente giovedì scorso, si sono concentrate su sei zone che hanno essenzialmente circondato Taiwan, limitando l’accesso alle navi e agli aerei civili nell’area, mentre le forze armate hanno condotto esercitazioni a fuoco vivo e lanci di missili. Le sei aree sono state scelte per mostrare come la Cina potrebbe tagliare i porti di Taiwan, attaccare le sue installazioni militari più importanti e tagliare l’accesso alle forze straniere che potrebbero venire in aiuto di Taiwan.

Collegare le sei aree in una linea, come un cappio, con il nodo del cappio proprio in direzione sud-ovest. Il Partito Comunista Cinese considera la democratica Taiwan come un suo territorio, nonostante non l’abbia mai controllata. L’unione di Taiwan con la terraferma è una pietra miliare della politica cinese e il presidente Xi Jinping non ha escluso l’uso della forza per riportare l’isola sotto il controllo di Pechino.

Le aree di esercitazione settentrionali sono riuscite a isolare Taiwan da Okinawa, l’isola dove sia il Giappone che gli Stati Uniti basano ingenti risorse militari. Nelle aree meridionali, il PLA ha dimostrato di poter controllare il Canale di Bashi, unica via di accesso e di uscita dal Mar Cinese Meridionale, ha aggiunto. E nelle zone orientali, le forze cinesi hanno dimostrato che un accurato fuoco missilistico cinese può costringere le navi da guerra straniere ad allontanarsi dalle acque di Taiwan.

Nei giorni precedenti, il PLA ha anche sparato razzi verso piccole isole controllate da Taiwan vicino alla terraferma e ha lanciato missili balistici più lontano, alcuni dei quali hanno sorvolato Taiwan e sono caduti nell’oceano a est dell’isola. Cinque sono caduti nella zona economica esclusiva del Giappone, un messaggio a uno dei principali sostenitori di Taiwan e al governo di Taipei.

Le navi e gli aerei commerciali sono stati avvertiti di non avvicinarsi alle zone di esercitazione, costringendo i trasportatori e le compagnie aeree a organizzare rotte alternative. Il blocco di sei zone ha dimostrato che qualsiasi conquista di Taiwan potrebbe iniziare con una strategia di isolamento. L’esercitazione ha dimostrato che il blocco in un conflitto non richiede necessariamente una presenza navale costante al largo, ma piuttosto il traffico marittimo e aereo può essere scoraggiato da minacce aeree e missilistiche a sostegno di un blocco marittimo.

Le dimensioni, l’estensione geografica e la complessità dell’esercitazione riflettono mesi di pianificazione. Nulla permette di conoscere meglio le reali capacità di un esercito che vederle schierate.

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«China’s military exercises show Beijing doesn’t need to invade Taiwan to control it — rather it can strangle the self-ruled island, cutting it off from the outside world. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) drills, which officially began last Thursday, focused on six zones that essentially encircled Taiwan, restricting access to civilian ships and aircraft in the area, as forces conducted live-fire drills and missile launches. The six areas were chosen to show how China could cut off Taiwan’s ports, attack its most important military installations, and sever access for foreign forces that may come to Taiwan’s aid.

«Connect the six areas in a line, like a noose, with the knot of the noose right in the southwest direction. China’s Communist Party views democratic Taiwan as its territory — despite never having controlled it. Uniting Taiwan with the mainland is a cornerstone of Chinese policy and President Xi Jinping has not ruled out the use of force to bring the island under Beijing’s control»

«The northern exercise areas had successfully sealed off Taiwan from Okinawa, the island where both Japan and the United States base substantial military assets. In the southern areas, the PLA showed it could control the Bashi Channel,  only way to enter and exit the South China Sea, he said. And in the eastern areas, China’s forces showed that accurate Chinese missile fire could force foreign warships to back away from Taiwan’s waters»

«On previous days, the PLA also fired rockets toward small, Taiwan-controlled islands near the mainland, and launched ballistic missiles farther afield, with some flying over Taiwan and falling in the ocean east of the island. Five splashed down in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone — a message to one of Taiwan’s key supporters as well as the government in Taipei»

«Commercial ships and aircraft were warned to stay clear of the exercise zones, forcing shippers and airlines to arrange alternative routes. The blockade of six zones showed that any takeover of Taiwan could begin with an isolation strategy. The exercise demonstrated that blockade in a conflict need not require a constant naval presence offshore, but rather, shipping and air traffic can be deterred by air and missile threats in support of a maritime blockade»

«The size, geographic expanse and complexity of the exercise reflected months of planning. Nothing provides better insights into the actual capability of a military than seeing them deployed»

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China drills show Beijing is developing the ability to strangle Taiwan, experts say

Seoul, South Korea (CNN). China’s military exercises show Beijing doesn’t need to invade Taiwan to control it — rather it can strangle the self-ruled island, cutting it off from the outside world, Chinese and American analysts say.

The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) drills, which officially began last Thursday, focused on six zones that essentially encircled Taiwan, restricting access to civilian ships and aircraft in the area, as forces conducted live-fire drills and missile launches.

Meng Xiangqing, a professor at the PLA National Defense University, said the six areas were chosen to show how China could cut off Taiwan’s ports, attack its most important military installations, and sever access for foreign forces that may come to Taiwan’s aid.

“Connect the six areas in a line, like a noose, with the knot of the noose right in the southwest direction,” Meng said in an interview with state-run broadcaster CCTV.

China’s Communist Party views democratic Taiwan as its territory — despite never having controlled it. Uniting Taiwan with the mainland is a cornerstone of Chinese policy and President Xi Jinping has not ruled out the use of force to bring the island under Beijing’s control.

Meng noted the northern exercise areas had successfully sealed off Taiwan from Okinawa, the island where both Japan and the United States base substantial military assets. In the southern areas, the PLA showed it could control the Bashi Channel, “the only way to enter and exit the South China Sea,” he said. And in the eastern areas, China’s forces showed that accurate Chinese missile fire could force foreign warships to back away from Taiwan’s waters, he added.

“This is an unprecedented encirclement of Taiwan Island,” Meng said.

And on Monday, China issued a notice to say drills were continuing.

                         A trigger for long-planned exercises

The exercises kicked off after US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi angered Beijing by visiting Taipei last week to show her support for democracy on the island.

Beijing flooded the seas and skies around Taiwan with ships and jets — as many as 80 Chinese warplanes and vessels were detected in the Taiwan Strait Sunday, according to Taiwan’s Defense Ministry.

On previous days, the PLA also fired rockets toward small, Taiwan-controlled islands near the mainland, and launched ballistic missiles farther afield, with some flying over Taiwan and falling in the ocean east of the island. Five splashed down in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone — a message to one of Taiwan’s key supporters as well as the government in Taipei.

A map of the six Chinese exercise areas “clearly plots out where the Chinese think the key operating areas are for their strategic intimidation of Taiwan,” Mick Ryan, an adjunct fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and former Australian Army general, wrote on Twitter.

Commercial ships and aircraft were warned to stay clear of the exercise zones, forcing shippers and airlines to arrange alternative routes.

Carl Schuster, a former director of operations at the US Pacific Command’s Joint Intelligence Center in Hawaii said the blockade of six zones showed that any takeover of Taiwan could begin with an isolation strategy.

“The exercise demonstrated that blockade in a conflict need not require a constant naval presence offshore, but rather, shipping and air traffic can be deterred by air and missile threats in support of a maritime blockade,” Schuster said.

“The exercise … suggests Beijing would first isolate Taiwan and resort to air and missile strikes in hopes of breaking Taipei’s political will. A costly invasion probably is a last resort,” Schuster said.

                         What could come next

Schuster said much of what Beijing demonstrated had long been in the works. The drills coincided with standard military exercises on the PLA’s training calendar, but he said Pelosi’s visit allowed China to make a bigger statement.

“The size, geographic expanse and complexity of the exercise reflected months of planning,” he said. “This exercise marks the latest escalation in China’s expanding military exercise and Taiwan-intimidation campaign.”

He said he expects the PLA will continue to put pressure on Taiwan, and could also send a message to Japan with more drills to the north of the island.

New exercises are also likely in the South China Sea, the 1.3 million square miles of water, almost all of which China claims as its sovereign territory, where Beijing has built up military fortifications on contested islands, Schuster said.

While continuing exercises will allow the PLA to refine its tactics and operations, they also can provide an opportunity for adversaries to learn about the modern Chinese military, experts say.

“Nothing provides better insights into the actual capability of a military than seeing them deployed,” Ryan, the former Australian Army general, wrote on Twitter.

With last week’s drills, Xi had to demonstrate he would not waver on his commitment to bringing Taiwan under Beijing’s control, Schuster said. Pelosi’s visit to the island posed a direct threat to that by presenting an alternative vision of democracy.

“(Pelosi) leads the democratically elected branch that originates America’s government funding and economic policies. Her position and role makes her commitment to Taiwan’s security particularly significant,” Schuster said.

“Unable to bully her, Xi had to demonstrate China’s power — diplomatic, economic and military,” he said.

While the military exercises gave Xi strong visuals to support his resolve, China also hit Pelosi and the US government with a range of sanctions.

The measures include the cancellation of future phone calls and meetings between Chinese and US military leaders and the suspension of cooperation on matters including the repatriation of illegal immigrants, legal assistance on criminal matters and the combat of transnational crimes. Talks on climate change were also suspended.

Beijing also announced measures targeting Pelosi and members of her immediate family.

“The goal is intimidation via the application of all elements of Chinese power,” Schuster said.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Stati Uniti

Cina e Formosa. Report numerico che ne quantizza i rapporti.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-10.

2020-03-16__ Pallottoliere 001

Il commercio di Taiwan con la Cina è di gran lunga superiore a quello con gli Stati Uniti. L’anno scorso, la Cina continentale e Hong Kong hanno rappresentato il 42% delle esportazioni di Taiwan, mentre gli Stati Uniti avevano una quota del 15%. Circa il 22% delle importazioni di Taiwan lo scorso anno proveniva dalla Cina continentale e da Hong Kong, contro il 10% degli Stati Uniti. Molte aziende con sede a Taiwan gestiscono fabbriche nella Cina continentale. Nel 2021, le aziende di Taiwan hanno ricevuto 200.1 miliardi di dollari in ordini di esportazione dagli Stati Uniti.

I dati mostrano che Taiwan dipende dalla Cina per gli scambi commerciali più di quanto non dipenda dagli Stati Uniti, anche se questa settimana il presidente della Camera dei Deputati Nancy Pelosi ha appoggiato Taiwan in una visita di alto profilo.

Gli Stati Uniti riconoscono Pechino come unico governo legale della Cina, pur mantenendo relazioni non ufficiali con Taiwan. Tuttavia, i legami economici e commerciali di Taiwan con la Cina continentale e Hong Kong sono cresciuti a tal punto che la regione è di gran lunga il principale partner commerciale dell’isola.

Molte grandi aziende taiwanesi del settore high-tech, come il più grande produttore di chip al mondo, la Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. o TSMC. – hanno fabbriche nella Cina continentale. L’anno scorso, la Cina continentale e Hong Kong hanno rappresentato il 42% delle esportazioni di Taiwan, mentre gli Stati Uniti hanno avuto una quota del 15%. In totale, nel 2021 Taiwan ha esportato beni per 188.91 miliardi di dollari verso la Cina continentale e Hong Kong. Le esportazioni di Taiwan verso il Sud-Est asiatico sono state addirittura superiori a quelle verso gli Stati Uniti, con 70.25 miliardi di dollari verso la regione, contro i 65.7 miliardi di dollari verso gli Stati Uniti. Come fonte delle importazioni di Taiwan, la Cina continentale e Hong Kong si sono nuovamente classificate al primo posto con una quota del 22%. Gli Stati Uniti hanno registrato solo una quota del 10%, dietro a Giappone, Europa e Sud-est asiatico. Le esportazioni di Taiwan verso il Sud-est asiatico sono state addirittura superiori a quelle verso gli Stati Uniti, con 70.25 miliardi di dollari verso la regione, contro 65.7 miliardi di dollari verso gli Stati Uniti. Come fonte delle importazioni di Taiwan, la Cina continentale e Hong Kong si sono nuovamente classificate al primo posto con una quota del 22%. Gli Stati Uniti hanno raggiunto solo il 10%, dietro a Giappone, Europa e Sud-est asiatico.

Negli ultimi anni, Taiwan ha acquistato una quantità crescente di prodotti dalla Cina continentale e viceversa.

Negli ultimi cinque anni, le importazioni di Taiwan dalla Cina continentale sono aumentate di circa l’87%, contro una crescita del 44% delle importazioni dagli Stati Uniti. Le esportazioni di Taiwan verso la Cina continentale sono cresciute del 71% tra il 2016 e il 2021. Ma le esportazioni verso gli Stati Uniti sono quasi raddoppiate, con una crescita del 97%. Nel 2021, le aziende di Taiwan riceveranno 200.1 miliardi di dollari in ordini di esportazione dagli Stati Uniti.

* * * * * * *

«Taiwan’s trade with China is far bigger than its trade with the U.S.. Mainland China and Hong Kong accounted for 42% of Taiwan’s exports last year, while the U.S. had a 15% share. About 22% of Taiwan’s imports last year came from mainland China and Hong Kong, versus 10% from the U.S. Many Taiwan-based companies operate factories in mainland China. In 2021, Taiwan businesses received $200.1 billion in U.S. export orders»

«Data show that Taiwan depends more on China for trade than it does on the U.S., even if U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi threw her weight behind Taiwan this week in a high-profile visit»

«The U.S. recognizes Beijing as the sole legal government of China, while maintaining unofficial relations with Taiwan. Still, Taiwan’s business and economic ties with mainland China and Hong Kong have grown so large that the region is by far the island’s largest trading partner»

«Many large Taiwanese companies in high-tech industries such the world’s biggest chipmaker — Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., or TSMC. — operate factories in mainland China. Last year, mainland China and Hong Kong accounted for 42% of Taiwan’s exports, while the U.S. had a 15% share. In all,

. Taiwan’s exports to Southeast Asia were even greater than those to the U.S. — at $70.25 billion to the region, versus $65.7 billion to the U.S. As a source of Taiwan’s imports, mainland China and Hong Kong again ranked first with a 22% share. The U.S. only had a 10% share, ranking behind Japan, Europe and Southeast Asia. Taiwan’s exports to Southeast Asia were even greater than those to the U.S. — at $70.25 billion to the region, versus $65.7 billion to the U.S. As a source of Taiwan’s imports, mainland China and Hong Kong again ranked first with a 22% share. The U.S. only had a 10% share, ranking behind Japan, Europe and Southeast Asia»

«In recent years, Taiwan has bought an increasing amount of products from mainland China, and vice versa.

Over the last five years, Taiwan’s imports from mainland China have surged by about 87% versus 44% growth in imports from the U.S. Taiwan’s exports to mainland China grew by 71% between 2016 and 2021. But exports to the U.S. nearly doubled, growing by 97%. In 2021, Taiwan businesses received $200.1 billion in U.S. export orders»

* * * * * * *


Taiwan’s trade with China is far bigger than its trade with the U.S.

– Mainland China and Hong Kong accounted for 42% of Taiwan’s exports last year, while the U.S. had a 15% share, according to official Taiwan data accessed through Wind Information.

– About 22% of Taiwan’s imports last year came from mainland China and Hong Kong, versus 10% from the U.S., official data showed.

– Many Taiwan-based companies operate factories in mainland China. In 2021, Taiwan businesses received $200.1 billion in U.S. export orders, according to the U.S. Congressional Research Service.

* * * * * * *

Beijing — Data show that Taiwan depends more on China for trade than it does on the U.S., even if U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi threw her weight behind Taiwan this week in a high-profile visit.

Taiwan came under military and economic pressure from Beijing this week, after the democratically self-ruled island allowed the visit of Pelosi — the highest-ranking U.S. official to set foot on Taiwan in 25 years.

The visit came despite warnings from China, which considers Taiwan part of its territory and maintains the island should have no right to conduct foreign relations. The U.S. recognizes Beijing as the sole legal government of China, while maintaining unofficial relations with Taiwan.

Still, Taiwan’s business and economic ties with mainland China and Hong Kong have grown so large that the region is by far the island’s largest trading partner.

Many large Taiwanese companies in high-tech industries such the world’s biggest chipmaker — Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., or TSMC. — operate factories in mainland China.

Last year, mainland China and Hong Kong accounted for 42% of Taiwan’s exports, while the U.S. had a 15% share, according to official Taiwan data accessed through Wind Information.

In all, Taiwan exported $188.91 billion in goods to mainland China and Hong Kong in 2021. More than half were electronic parts, followed by optical equipment, according to Taiwan’s Ministry of Finance.

Taiwan’s exports to Southeast Asia were even greater than those to the U.S. — at $70.25 billion to the region, versus $65.7 billion to the U.S., the data showed.

As a source of Taiwan’s imports, mainland China and Hong Kong again ranked first with a 22% share. The U.S. only had a 10% share, ranking behind Japan, Europe and Southeast Asia.

                               Growing trade with mainland China

In recent years, Taiwan has bought an increasing amount of products from mainland China, and vice versa.

Over the last five years, Taiwan’s imports from mainland China have surged by about 87% versus 44% growth in imports from the U.S.

Taiwan’s exports to mainland China grew by 71% between 2016 and 2021. But exports to the U.S. nearly doubled, growing by 97%.

Top U.S. purchases of Taiwan’s goods include electrical machinery, vehicles, plastics and iron and steel products, according to U.S. government data.

Many Taiwan-based companies — such as Apple supplier Foxconn — operate factories in mainland China.

In 2021, Taiwan businesses received $200.1 billion in U.S. export orders, according to the U.S. Congressional Research Service.

                         Comparable to Shanghai

According to a 2020 census, about 157,900 people from Taiwan resided in mainland China, a roughly 7% decrease over the preceding decade.

The entire island of Taiwan was home to about 23.6 million people in 2020, slightly less than Shanghai’s population of roughly 25 million people at the time.

However, Taiwan’s economy is larger than Shanghai’s, at about $781.58 billion versus $680.31 billion last year, according to official figures.

In 2021, Shanghai’s share of mainland China’s GDP was 3.8%.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Brasile, Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, India, Materie Prime, Russia

Algeria. È interessata ad entrare nel Club di Brics.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-09.

0000-0000__ Brics 001

È nella logica delle cose che l’Algeria confluisca nel Club dei Brics.

Questi sono un insieme di paesi emergenti, in parte già emersi, collegati da rapporti economici privi di imposizioni ideologiche, rispettosi delle altrui sovranità. È una parte di mondo libero.

L’ingresso della Algeria nel Club dei Brics assommerebbe in questo Club la maggior quota mondiale degli energetici estrattivi lasciando l’enclave liberal occidentale sostanzialmente immiserito, sempre che non scompaia.

* * * * * * *

I BRICS ci interessano come alternativa ai centri di potere tradizionali, ha dichiarato il presidente algerino Abdelmadjid Tebboune in un’intervista televisiva. Il Presidente algerino Abdelmadjid Tebboune ha suggerito che il suo Paese, il più grande esportatore di gas naturale dell’Africa, potrebbe entrare a far parte del gruppo economico dei BRICS, che comprende Russia e Cina. Il commento di Tebboune arriva dopo che il presidente russo Vladimir Putin – il cui Paese è colpito da sanzioni occidentali per l’invasione dell’Ucraina – a giugno ha invitato i leader dei BRICS a muoversi verso la formazione di un vero sistema multipolare di relazioni intergovernative.

Il gruppo BRICS comprende anche le principali economie emergenti di Brasile, India e Sudafrica. Il presidente ha aggiunto che il Paese nordafricano soddisfa buona parte dei criteri economici per entrare nel blocco. I membri dei BRICS rappresentano attualmente quasi un quarto del prodotto interno lordo mondiale.

Tebboune ha partecipato a un vertice virtuale dei BRICS alla fine di giugno, quando Putin ha invitato i leader del gruppo a cooperare di fronte alle azioni egoistiche dell’Occidente. Algeri si è astenuta quando l’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite ha approvato a maggioranza una risoluzione a marzo che chiedeva alla Russia di ritirarsi immediatamente dall’Ucraina. Anche Cina, India e Sudafrica si sono astenuti. Durante una visita in Algeria a maggio, il ministro degli Esteri russo Sergei Lavrov ha dichiarato che l’anno scorso gli scambi commerciali tra il suo Paese e l’Algeria hanno raggiunto i 3 miliardi di dollari.

* * * * * * *

«The BRICS interest us as an alternative to traditional power centres, Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune said in a televised interview. Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune has suggested that his country, Africa’s largest natural gas exporter, could join the BRICS economic group that includes Russia and China. Tebboune’s comment comes after Russian President Vladimir Putin — whose country is hit with Western sanctions over its Ukraine invasion — in June called on BRICS leaders to move towards formation of a truly multipolar system of inter-government relations»

«The BRICS group also includes the major emerging economies of Brazil, India and South Africa. The president added that his North African country meets a good part of the economic criteria for joining the bloc. BRICS members currently account for nearly a quarter of the world’s gross domestic product»

«Tebboune participated in a BRICS virtual summit at the end of June, when Putin called on leaders of the group to cooperate in the face of selfish actions from the West. Algiers abstained when the United Nations General Assembly overwhelmingly passed a resolution in March demanding Russia immediately withdraw from Ukraine. China, India and South Africa also abstained. On a visit to Algeria in May, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said trade between his country and Algeria had reached $3 billion last year»

* * * * * * *

Algeria, Africa’s Largest Natural Gas Exporter, Talks Of Joining BRICS

“The BRICS interest us” as an alternative to traditional power centres, Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune said in a televised interview.

Algiers: Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune has suggested that his country, Africa’s largest natural gas exporter, could join the BRICS economic group that includes Russia and China.

Tebboune’s comment comes after Russian President Vladimir Putin — whose country is hit with Western sanctions over its Ukraine invasion — in June called on BRICS leaders to move towards “formation of a truly multipolar system of inter-government relations”.

The BRICS group also includes the major emerging economies of Brazil, India and South Africa.

“The BRICS interest us” as an alternative to traditional power centres, Tebboune said in a televised interview late Sunday. “They constitute an economic and political force.”

He underlined that there was no need to “get ahead of things” but promised “good news”.

The president added that his North African country meets “a good part” of the economic criteria for joining the bloc.

BRICS members currently account for nearly a quarter of the world’s gross domestic product.

Tebboune participated in a BRICS virtual summit at the end of June, when Putin called on leaders of the group to cooperate in the face of “selfish actions” from the West.

Sanctions over Ukraine have pushed Putin to seek new markets and strengthen ties with countries in Africa and Asia.

Algiers abstained when the United Nations General Assembly overwhelmingly passed a resolution in March demanding Russia immediately withdraw from Ukraine.

China, India and South Africa also abstained.

On a visit to Algeria in May, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said trade between his country and Algeria had reached $3 billion last year.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Materie Prime, Russia, Unione Europea

Russia, Cina ed Unione Europea. Il problema degli energetici.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-04.

Gufo_019__

La Russia sta incrementando le spedizioni di gas naturale verso la Cina, mentre frena i flussi verso l’Europa, il che potrebbe offrire un po’ di tregua dall’impennata dei costi energetici

Il prezzo del gas in Europa è salito dopo che la Russia ha tagliato le forniture …. Gazprom sta trasportando volumi record verso la Cina e questo sta aiutando a bilanciare il mercato …. I crescenti flussi di gas dalla Russia alla Cina sono destinati a sostituire il gas a prezzi più elevati sul mercato cinese.

I maggiori giacimenti della Siberia, che alimentano l’Europa, saranno infine collegati alla Cina, dando alla Russia uno sbocco alternativo per le sue vaste risorse.

I prezzi europei sono preoccupati per la rapidità con cui la Cina uscirà dalla crisi.

Con la ripresa dell’attività economica, la Cina potrebbe iniziare a competere con l’Europa per i carichi di gas naturale liquefatto ….. Se la Russia interrompesse i flussi di gas verso l’Europa, i prezzi salirebbero di cinque volte rispetto al livello attuale.

Il rischio di una recessione globale ridurrà il consumo di gas fino al 16% nell’Unione Europea il prossimo anno …. Il contesto di prezzi elevati non è sostenibile a lungo termine se l’inverno sarà peggiore del passato.

* * * * * * *

«Russia is boosting natural gas shipments to China as it curbs flows to Europe, which may offer some respite from the surge in energy costs»

«The price of gas in Europe went up after Russia cut supplies …. Gazprom is shipping record volumes to China and that this is helping to balance the market …. Increasing flows of gas from Russia to China are set to replace higher priced gas in the Chinese market»

«Siberia’s biggest fields, which feed Europe, will eventually be connected to China, giving Russia an alternative outlet for its vast resources»

«Europe’s prices are worried about how quickly China comes out of covids»

«as Chinese economic activity recovers, it may start to compete with Europe for Liquefied Natural Gas cargo …. If Russia stopped gas flows to Europe, prices would go up five times the current level»

«The risk of a global recession will reduce gas consumption by as much as 16% in the European Union next year …. The high price environment is not sustainable in the long term if the winter is worse than in the past»

* * * * * * *


Russian Gas Pivot Toward China Will Ease Europe’s Energy Crunch

Russia is boosting natural gas shipments to China as it curbs flows to Europe, which may offer some respite from the surge in energy costs.

The price of gas in Europe went up after Russia cut supplies. Ogan Kose, a managing director at Accenture, said that Gazprom is shipping record volumes to China and that this is helping to balance the market.

Kose said in an interview this week that Russian gas being supplied to China will make a difference. As a result of that, China will no longer want to import Liquefied Natural Gas.

European nations want to cut their dependence on Russian gas and are looking for more supplies of Liquefied Natural Gas. Producers are redirecting capacity toward Europe because the region is expected to remain a premium market.

Increasing flows of gas from Russia to China are set to replace higher priced gas in the Chinese market.

Russia’s plans to build new links to China have been accelerated because of the war. Siberia’s biggest fields, which feed Europe, will eventually be connected to China, giving Russia an alternative outlet for its vast resources.

Russian gas will be sold in Asia. There will always be someone else buying that gas.

                         China imports gas and oil.

The China Gas Quarterly was published by the National Development and Reform Commission.

China, which also imports gas via Central Asia, is buying more gas and less of it.

China has been absent from spot purchases of liquified natural gas so far this year and its appetite may remain low through September due to high prices and uncertainty about the economy.

Europe’s prices are worried about how quickly China comes out of covids. Goldman Sachs Group Inc. said in a note last week that as Chinese economic activity recovers, it may start to compete with Europe for Liquefied Natural Gas cargo.

If Russia stopped gas flows to Europe, prices would go up five times the current level. Kose said that the average price in 2023 would be less than this year.

                         Recession risk

The risk of a global recession will reduce gas consumption by as much as 16% in the European Union next year. The European Union wants a 15% reduction in gas use through the winter, while the French utility says that clients are cutting gas use.

The combination of demand destruction in Europe and Asia and Russian gas finding new outlets will bring gas prices down. The high price environment is not sustainable in the long term if the winter is worse than in the past.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Africa, Materie Prime

Guinea. Simandou. La Cina sta acquisendo la principale fonte mondiale di ferro.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-03.

2022-08-03__ Simandou 001

Il termine ‘iron ore’ è generico e spesso ambiguo: si riferisce al ferro estrattivo indipendentemente dalla concentrazione del metallo. È evidente che maggiore sia la concentrazione minori siano i costi di raffinazione.

Con il sistema economico in piena espansione, la Cina necessita di oltre un miliardo di tonnellate di ferro all’anno.

La sua produzione interna è del tutto insufficiente e, per di più, l’estratto è di bassa qualità. A questo consegue un maggiore costo di raffinazione.

Le miniere di Simandou estraggono minerale di alta qualità, con una concentrazione superiore al 60%. e sono stimate contenere oltre la metà delle scorte mondiali.

Da anni la Cina tesse la sua rete politica e diplomatica per assicurarsi il controllo di Simandou, ed adesso sembrerebbe essere alla conclusione dell’accordo.

* * *

Guinea. Ha le maggiori intonse scorte di materiali ferrosi, che tutti vorrebbero. – Caixin

Cina. Consolida il suo impero in Africa.

Perché alla Cina interessa l’Africa

Gruppo Wagner. La entità che non esiste ma agisce. Figlio negletto mai riconosciuto.

Cina. Ferro. Importa circa il 70% del materiale estratto a livello mondiale.

* * * * * * *

L’importanza del Simandou risiede nella sua capacità di fornire ai principali consumatori di minerale di ferro, come la Cina, un’alternativa alle principali fonti di approvvigionamento come l’Australia e il Brasile.

Due consorzi hanno dichiarato che cercheranno finanziamenti per costruire più di 600 chilometri di infrastrutture ferroviarie che si estendono dal sud al sud-ovest della Guinea e infrastrutture portuali nella prefettura di Forecariah, nella Guinea Marittima.

A regime, Simandou sarebbe in grado di esportare fino a 100 milioni di tonnellate di minerale di ferro all’anno, rivaleggiando con i volumi di produzione di pesi massimi australiani come Fortescue Metals e della mega-mineraria brasiliana Vale.

Ma le future miniere della Guinea, che si estendono in quattro blocchi su due lotti settentrionali e meridionali e su oltre 100 chilometri di terreno accidentato e delicato.

Ma mercoledì i due consorzi proprietari dei quattro blocchi, Winning Consortium Simandou e Rio Tinto Simfer, e il governo guineano hanno concordato di sviluppare congiuntamente le infrastrutture multiutente per Simandou, un passo avanti nel progresso delle operazioni minerarie.

I due consorzi hanno dichiarato che cercheranno finanziamenti per costruire più di 600 chilometri di infrastrutture ferroviarie che si estendono dal sud al sud-ovest della Guinea, nonché infrastrutture portuali nella prefettura di Forecariah, nella Guinea Marittima.

Il Consorzio Winning Simandou comprende la società di Singapore Winning International Group, la società cinese Weiqiao Aluminum e la United Mining Suppliers International.

La presenza di società cinesi nelle operazioni di Simandou indica la speranza di Pechino di esplorare e diversificare ulteriormente le proprie fonti di minerale di ferro.

Togliere potere di mercato a società come BHP, Rio Tinto, Vale e Fortescue non è un’idea nuova in Cina.

L’ulteriore punto di forza di Simandou è il minerale di altissima qualità, con un contenuto di ferro del 65%. La maggior parte dei minatori australiani e brasiliani tende a esportare minerali tradizionali con un contenuto del 60%-62%.

* * * * * * *

«Simandou’s significance lies in its ability to provide major iron ore consumers such as China with an alternative to top supply sources like Australia and Brazil»

«Two consortiums say they will seek financing to construct more than 600 kilometers of rail infrastructure extending from the south to the southwest of Guinea as well as port infrastructure in the Forecariah prefecture in Maritime Guinea»

«When fully operational, Simandou would be able to export up to 100 million tonnes of iron ore a year, rivaling the production volumes of Australian heavyweights such as Fortescue Metals and Brazilian mega-miner Vale»

«But the future Guinea mines, stretched across four blocks on two northern and southern parcels and over 100 kilometers of rough and sensitive terrain»

«But on Wednesday, the two consortium owners of the four blocks, Winning Consortium Simandou and Rio Tinto Simfer, and the Guinean government, agreed to co-develop multi-user infrastructure for Simandou, a step forward in progressing mining operations»

«The two consortiums say they will seek financing to construct more than 600 kilometers of rail infrastructure extending from the south to the southwest of Guinea as well as port infrastructure in the Forecariah prefecture in Maritime Guinea»

«Winning Consortium Simandou comprises Singaporean company, Winning International Group; Chinese company, Weiqiao Aluminum; and United Mining Suppliers International»

«The presence of Chinese companies in the Simandou operations point to Beijing’s hope to further explore and diversify its iron ore sources»

«Taking market power away from the likes of BHP, Rio Tinto, Vale and Fortescue is not a new idea in China»

«Simandou’s additional point of difference lies in its top quality ore, which have 65% iron content. Most of the miners in Australia and Brazil tend to export traditional 60% to 62% content ores»

* * * * * * *


China is one small step closer to getting alternative iron ore supply from Simandou

– Simandou’s significance lies in its ability to provide major iron ore consumers such as China with an alternative to top supply sources like Australia and Brazil.

– Two consortiums say they will seek financing to construct more than 600 kilometers of rail infrastructure extending from the south to the southwest of Guinea as well as port infrastructure in the Forecariah prefecture in Maritime Guinea.

– When fully operational, Simandou would be able to export up to 100 million tonnes of iron ore a year, rivaling the production volumes of Australian heavyweights such as Fortescue Metals and Brazilian mega-miner Vale. 

* * * * * * *

The development of one of the largest untapped high-grade iron ore deposits in the world in Guinea, Simandou, has moved a step forward after miners struck a deal to develop key infrastructure at the West African location. 

Simandou’s significance lies in its ability to provide major iron ore consumers such as China with an alternative to top supply sources like Australia and Brazil, creating raw material diversification for Chinese and other steel mills while offering coveted higher-quality ore. 

But the future Guinea mines, stretched across four blocks on two northern and southern parcels and over 100 kilometers of rough and sensitive terrain, are notoriously difficult to develop, resulting in years of delays and a production stalemate.

But on Wednesday, the two consortium owners of the four blocks, Winning Consortium Simandou and Rio Tinto Simfer, and the Guinean government, agreed to co-develop multi-user infrastructure for Simandou, a step forward in progressing mining operations. 

“WCS and Rio Tinto Simfer are committed to co-develop the rail and port infrastructures in line with internationally recognised environmental, social and governance standards,” a statement by the consortium owners and the Guinean government said. 

“The infrastructure constitutes the backbone of the Simandou project, that presents a significant opportunity for the economic growth of the Republic of Guinea, in addition to the mining activities it will support.”

The two consortiums say they will seek financing to construct more than 600 kilometers of rail infrastructure extending from the south to the southwest of Guinea as well as port infrastructure in the Forecariah prefecture in Maritime Guinea.

The inked deal comes after several rounds of delays which saw the Guinean government again suspend activities at Simandou last month when both consortium parties failed to reach a deadline. 

Winning Consortium Simandou comprises Singaporean company, Winning International Group; Chinese company, Weiqiao Aluminum; and United Mining Suppliers International.

The Simfer joint venture comprises Simfer S.A., owned by the Government of Guinea, and Simfer Jersey, which is made up of Anglo-Australian miner Rio Tinto Group and Chinese group Chalco Iron Ore Holdings.

The presence of Chinese companies in the Simandou operations point to Beijing’s hope to further explore and diversify its iron ore sources, given its heavy dependence on Australian ore in particular. 

China has been importing about 60% of its total from Down Under. Another 20% comes from Brazil, according to Chinese customs figures.

However, frail relations between China and Australia in recent years have ignited a debate over China’s desire to push forward with the Simandou project

“China is particularly exposed to international iron ore prices given it only produces 15% to 20% of the iron ore it consumes,” said Vivek Dhar, a mining and energy commodities analyst at Commonwealth Bank of Australia, in a note last week.

“Taking market power away from the likes of BHP, Rio Tinto, Vale and Fortescue is not a new idea in China.”

Alongside expediting new sources of iron ore, Dhar said China is attempting to control its iron ore supply by centralizing purchases of the material rather than allowing steel mills to do so in a piecemeal fashion, although that project might be hard to coordinate.

When fully operational, Simandou would be able to export up to 100 million tonnes of iron ore a year, rivaling the production volumes of Australian heavyweights such as Fortescue and Brazilian mega-miner Vale. 

Simandou’s additional point of difference lies in its top quality ore, which have 65% iron content. Most of the miners in Australia and Brazil tend to export traditional 60% to 62% content ores. Higher iron ore content means better yield and profits for miners. 

Simandou is expected to start production in 2025, although the project has had a checkered history of delays in the past two decades that also involved scandals such as bribery and corruption.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Russia, Stati Uniti

Usa. Le sanzioni di Joe Biden hanno generato un possente mercato dello Yuan.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-02.

 2022-08-01__ Rublo Yuan 001

«Joe Biden’s assertion that sanctions had turned the ruble into rubble»

«L’affermazione di Joe Biden secondo cui le sanzioni avrebbero ridotto il rublo in macerie»

si è rivelata essere una galattica cantonata.

L’effetto più vistoso ed importante è stata la generazione di un blocco euroasiatico politico, finanziario, economico e militare.

La Russia prosegue a vendere i propri prodotti energetici entro questo blocco, mentre l’enclave liberal occidentale soffre una severa penuria di materie prime.

Russia. 2022Q2. Export 153.1 miliardi. Annualizzato sarebbero 612.4 miliardi.

Tutta questa impresa ha gravato sui Contribuente Elettori americani, concorrendo potentemente alla generazione di una inflazione incontrollata.

Usa. Misurata in modo corretto l’inflazione è al 17.1% annualizzato. – Bloomberg.

Sequenziali gli aggiustamenti sui mercati internazionali.

Cina. Le riserve in dollari americani sono scese sotto il trilione.

Ma l’effetto di maggiore portata è stato sul mercato valutario

«The war in Ukraine has accelerated Russia’s pivot east and sent local demand for China’s yuan surging»

«They are actively shifting to currencies other than the dollar and the euro»

Nel blocco euroasiatico lo yuan è diventato la valuta di riferimento e di riserva, scalzando il dollaro americano.

Sta prendendo corpo una larga porzione di stati a livello mondiale che si avviano alla dedollarizzazione.

In pratica, tutto il modo libero si sta dollarizzando.

Brics Plus. Sono diventati la prima potenza mondiale e l’occidente liberal ne è escluso.

Joe Biden è diventato il becchino degli Stati  Uniti.

* * * * * * *

La guerra in Ucraina ha accelerato l’orientamento della Russia verso est e ha fatto impennare la domanda locale di yuan cinese, contribuendo a domare un rally del rublo durato quattro mesi che ha messo sotto pressione le imprese e il bilancio.

I volumi di scambio giornalieri della coppia yuan-rublo sono quasi raddoppiati questa settimana rispetto alla scorsa, raggiungendo mercoledì il massimo giornaliero di 7,82 miliardi di yuan (1,16 miliardi di dollari).

I volumi della coppia di valute yuan-rublo sono ora superiori a quelli della coppia euro-rublo. …. Si stanno spostando attivamente verso valute diverse dal dollaro e dall’euro. …. Il gigante dell’alluminio Rusal offre il primo bond locale russo in yuan.

Nonostante l’isolamento della Russia, la sua valuta ha registrato un’impennata da febbraio. Le aziende hanno continuato a convertire in rubli miliardi di dollari di entrate derivanti dalle esportazioni di energia, mentre i controlli valutari e il crollo delle importazioni hanno fatto sì che ci fosse poco appetito per il biglietto verde.

Ma l’appetito per lo yuan, così come il taglio dei tassi superiore alle previsioni della scorsa settimana, sembrano raffreddare un rally che ha minato l’affermazione del presidente statunitense Joe Biden secondo cui le sanzioni avrebbero trasformato il rublo in macerie.

Il volume degli scambi yuan-rublo ha raggiunto i 94 miliardi di yuan a luglio, rispetto ai 54 miliardi di giugno.

Prestate attenzione alla coppia yuan-rublo, e vedrete che la valuta cinese si è rafforzata in modo più significativo quando i volumi di scambio hanno raggiunto un record.

Il volume degli scambi è quasi raddoppiato nell’ultimo mese, mentre non si può ancora parlare di una ripresa così forte delle importazioni.

* * * * * * *

«The war in Ukraine has accelerated Russia’s pivot east and sent local demand for China’s yuan surging, helping tame a four-month ruble rally that’s piled pressure on companies and the budget»

«Daily trading volumes in the yuan-ruble pair are on track to almost double this week compared with last, hitting an all-time daily high of 7.82 billion yuan ($1.16 billion) on Wednesday»

«Volumes for the yuan-ruble currency pair are now higher than for the euro-ruble pair»

They are actively shifting to currencies other than the dollar and the euro ….     Aluminum Giant Rusal Offers Russia’s First Local Bond in Yuan»

«Despite Russia’s isolation, its currency had been on a tear since February. Companies continued to convert billions of dollars of revenue from energy exports into rubles, while currency controls and collapsing imports meant there was little appetite for the greenback»

«But appetite for the yuan, as well as a bigger-than-forecast rate cut last week, appear to be cooling a rally that undermined US President Joe Biden’s assertion that sanctions had turned the ruble into “rubble.”»

«The volume of yuan-ruble trading reached 94 billion yuan in July compared with 54 billion in June»

«Pay attention to the yuan-ruble pair, and you’ll see the Chinese currency strengthened more significantly when trading volumes were at a record»

«The trading volume almost doubled over the past month, while we can’t yet talk about such a strong recovery in imports»

* * * * * * *


Ruble Is Stumbling as Yuan Trading Volumes Soar to Record

(Bloomberg) — The war in Ukraine has accelerated Russia’s pivot east and sent local demand for China’s yuan surging, helping tame a four-month ruble rally that’s piled pressure on companies and the budget. 

Daily trading volumes in the yuan-ruble pair are on track to almost double this week compared with last, hitting an all-time daily high of 7.82 billion yuan ($1.16 billion) on Wednesday, according to Moscow Exchange data. Volumes for the yuan-ruble currency pair are now higher than for the euro-ruble pair, the figures show. The ruble is the worst performer against the dollar among emerging markets this month. 

Sweeping sanctions since the invasion of Ukraine have cut Russia off from global markets, making dollar and euro investments toxic for local investors. The government has suggested buying the currencies of so-called friendly nations to cool the ruble’s surge this year, but there’s no indication that the latest jump in yuan trading was due to coordinated interventions.  

“Not only Russia’s government, but also private and institutional investors, participants in foreign economic activity are interested in avoiding external infrastructure risks,” said George Vaschenko, the head of Russian stock-market operations at Freedom Finance LLC. “They are actively shifting to currencies other than the dollar and the euro.” 

Aluminum Giant Rusal Offers Russia’s First Local Bond in Yuan

The Bank of Russia didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment. 

Despite Russia’s isolation, its currency had been on a tear since February. Companies continued to convert billions of dollars of revenue from energy exports into rubles, while currency controls and collapsing imports meant there was little appetite for the greenback. 

The ruble touched its strongest level in seven years years last month, stoking concern the gains would hinder companies’ competitiveness and reduce budget revenue from exports in local-currency terms. 

                         Ruble as Rubble? 

But appetite for the yuan, as well as a bigger-than-forecast rate cut last week, appear to be cooling a rally that undermined US President Joe Biden’s assertion that sanctions had turned the ruble into “rubble.”

The currency is down more than 16% in so far in July and is set to snap a four month run of losses against the dollar. The volume of yuan-ruble trading reached 94 billion yuan in July compared with 54 billion in June, according to Bloomberg calculations based on Moscow Exchange daily data as of the close Thursday. 

“The dollar gained through cross-currency effects,” said Egor Zhilnikov, chief analyst at Promsvyazbank PJSC. “Pay attention to the yuan-ruble pair, and you’ll see the Chinese currency strengthened more significantly when trading volumes were at a record.”

At the end of June, Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said the government is considering reviving a version of its pre-war fiscal rule to divert energy earnings into foreign exchange, thus indirectly weakening the ruble. The new approach would target currencies not hit by sanctions. He didn’t specify what currencies might be considered.

Governor Elvira Nabiullina said last week that the Bank of Russia is ready to start purchases under the budget rule as early as this year.

Andrey Kochetkov, a dealer at Otkritie Bank FC in Moscow, suggested that the government may already be in the market. 

“The trading volume almost doubled over the past month, while we can’t yet talk about such a strong recovery in imports,” he said. “So it seems that the participation of the authorities in foreign exchange trading is the most likely reason” for the ruble’s weakness, he said.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Diplomazia, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Unione Europea

Croazia. Cina inaugura il ponte Pelješac. La Cina c’è ed agisce, proprio qui in Europa.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-08-01.

Croazia Pelješac Bridge 001 

«The Pelješac Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge in Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croatia. The purpose of the bridge is to provide a fixed link from the southeastern Croatian semi-exclave to the rest of the country while bypassing Bosnia and Herzegovina’s short coastal strip at Neum. The bridge spans the sea channel between Komarna on the northern mainland and the peninsula of Pelješac, thereby passing entirely through Croatian territory and avoiding any border crossings with Bosnia and Herzegovina at Neum.

Construction started on 30 July 2018, and the bridge was connected on 28 July 2021. The bridge and its access roads opened for traffic on 26 July 2022.» [Fonte]

Croazia Pelješac Bridge 002

* * * * * * *

Quando l’ex Jugoslavia si è sciolta e la Croazia è diventata indipendente nel 1991, i nuovi confini hanno fatto sì che due parti della costa croata fossero divise da un tratto di costa bosniaca lungo 9 km, noto come corridoio di Neum.

Salutato come uno dei momenti più importanti della storia croata, è stato inaugurato un ponte a lungo atteso che collega le zone costiere meridionali al resto del Paese.

Finora i croati dovevano attraversare il territorio della Bosnia-Erzegovina. Il ponte di Peljesac, lungo 2.4 km, è stato costruito dalla Cina.

L’UE ha accettato di finanziare l’85% del ponte, per un importo di 357 milioni di euro (300 milioni di sterline), utilizzando i fondi di coesione per quello che, a suo dire, avrebbe migliorato significativamente la vita quotidiana dei croati.

Inizialmente la Bosnia si era lamentata che il ponte avrebbe compromesso il suo accesso al mare, finché la Croazia non ha accettato di aumentare l’altezza del ponte a 55 metri.

La società statale cinese che si è aggiudicata l’appalto croato per il ponte – la China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) – ha presentato un’offerta molto inferiore a quella dei suoi rivali europei.

* * * * * * *

Questo fatto si presta a numerose considerazione.

In primo luogo, la Cina è diventata da tempo un attore determinato nello scenario europeo. Occupa le posizioni abbandonate o sguarnite da parte del blocco europeo. Contratta su base paritaria, nel pieno rispetto della sovranità altrui. Così facendo si sta conquistando sempre più numerosi amici.

In secondo luogo, si noti come la offerta fatta dalla The China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC)  sia stata di gran lunga inferiore alle offerte fatte da parte di imprese europee. È inutile girare attorno a questo problema: le imprese europee sono fuori mercato.

In terzo luogo, dovrebbe essere evidente la latitanza del Consiglio Europeo. È davvero imbarazzante che sia la Cina a risolvere i problemi della Europa.

* * * * * * *

«When the former Yugoslavia broke up and Croatia became independent in 1991, the new borders meant that two parts of the Croatian coastline were split by a 9km-long section of Bosnian coastline known as the Neum corridor»

«Hailed as one of the biggest moments in Croatian history, a long-awaited bridge has opened that links southern coastal areas to the rest of the country»

«Until now, Croatians had to cross land belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina …. The 2.4km (1.5-mile) Peljesac bridge was built by China»

«The EU agreed to fund 85% of the bridge, to the tune of €357m (£300m), using cohesion funds for what it said would improve significantly the everyday lives of Croatians»

«Bosnia initially complained the bridge would affect its access to the sea, until Croatia agreed to increase the bridge’s height to 55m (181ft)»

«The Chinese state-owned company that won the Croatian contract for the bridge – The China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) – bid far less than its European rivals»

* * * * * * *


Fanfare as Croatia’s Chinese-built bridge finally opens.

Hailed as one of the biggest moments in Croatian history, a long-awaited bridge has opened that links southern coastal areas to the rest of the country.

Until now, Croatians had to cross land belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The 2.4km (1.5-mile) Peljesac bridge was built by China but largely funded by the European Union.

Celebrations took place throughout the day, with 250 runners crossing the bridge and small boats with Croatian flags sailing beneath the six pylons.

Residents also took the opportunity to walk along the initial stretch of the bridge before the day culminated in a glittering firework display.

Chinese Premier Li Keqiang delivered a video message at the ceremony. His Croatian counterpart Andrej Plenkovic declared “tonight, we are uniting Croatia!” and described the bridge as a necessity, not a luxury.

During the opening ceremony, a Croatian-made electric hypercar called the Rimac Nevera made the first official crossing.

The EU agreed to fund 85% of the bridge, to the tune of €357m (£300m), using cohesion funds for what it said would improve significantly the everyday lives of Croatians. It also funded access roads, tunnels and other infrastructure.

When the former Yugoslavia broke up and Croatia became independent in 1991, the new borders meant that two parts of the Croatian coastline were split by a 9km-long section of Bosnian coastline known as the Neum corridor.

Bosnia’s right to coastal access dates back to 1699, when Neum was ceded by Dubrovnik – in modern-day Croatia – to what was then the Ottoman Empire.

As Bosnia is not in the EU and Croatia is, anyone trying to go north from the medieval city of Dubrovnik on the southernmost Adriatic coast or cross from the Peljesac peninsula to the mainland had to go through two border checks. Now anyone can drive straight along Croatia’s Adriatic coast via the new bridge.

The mayor of Neum, Dragan Jurkovic, told Bosnian TV that the new bridge would reduce traffic along the coast during the summer months and that he could only see benefits in the new bridge. However, some restaurateurs and traders were concerned that the decline would be bad for the area’s economy.

Tourists, many of them Czechs, Poles and Germans, have become regular visitors to Neum, where prices are considered far cheaper than in Dubrovnik but that is now likely to change.

The bridge has not been without controversy.

Bosnia initially complained the bridge would affect its access to the sea, until Croatia agreed to increase the bridge’s height to 55m (181ft).

The Chinese state-owned company that won the Croatian contract for the bridge – The China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) – bid far less than its European rivals. That prompted an Austrian company to file a complaint, alleging that CRBC was “price-dumping” and receiving Chinese state aid.

China’s Xinhua state news agency said the bridge opening was expected to further deepen mutual trust and expand co-operation between Croatia and Beijing.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Stati Uniti

Xi e Biden. Un inconcludente contatto telefonico.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-07-29.

2022-07-14__ Bden 001

Il presidente degli Stati Uniti Joe Biden e il presidente cinese Xi Jinping si sono sentiti giovedì per la quinta volta come leader e Xi ha messo in guardia dal “giocare con il fuoco” su Taiwan, mentre crescevano le preoccupazioni per una possibile visita del presidente della Camera degli Stati Uniti Nancy Pelosi sull’isola rivendicata dalla Cina.

I media statali cinesi hanno dichiarato che Xi ha detto a Biden che gli Stati Uniti dovrebbero attenersi al “principio di una sola Cina” e ha sottolineato che la Cina si oppone fermamente all’indipendenza di Taiwan e all’interferenza di forze esterne.

Chi gioca con il fuoco non potrà che bruciarsi …. (Speriamo che gli Stati Uniti lo vedano chiaramente. …. discussione sull’invasione dell’Ucraina da parte della Russia, che la Cina non ha ancora condannato.

Washington non ha relazioni ufficiali con Taiwan e segue una “politica di una sola Cina” che riconosce diplomaticamente Pechino, non Taipei.

Biden ha voluto discutere anche di questioni legate al clima e alla concorrenza economica, nonché dell’idea di porre un tetto al prezzo del petrolio russo per punire Mosca per la sua guerra in Ucraina.

La Casa Bianca ha ribadito che la sua politica di una sola Cina non è cambiata, nonostante le speculazioni su un possibile viaggio di Pelosi, che lo speaker non ha ancora confermato.

* * * * * * *

«Chinese state media said Xi told Biden that the United States should abide by the “one-China principle” and stressed that China firmly opposed Taiwanese independence and interference of external forces»

«Those who play with fire will only get burnt …. (We) hope the U.S. side can see this clearly»

«discussion of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which China has yet to condemn»

«Washington does not have official relations with Taiwan and follows a “one-China policy” that recognizes Beijing, not Taipei, diplomatically»

«Biden also wanted to discuss climate and economic competition issues as well as the idea of placing a price cap on Russian oil to punish Moscow for its war in Ukraine»

«The White House has reiterated that its “one-China” policy has not changed despite speculation over a possible trip by Pelosi, which the speaker has yet to confirm»

* * * * * * *


In call with Biden Xi warns against ‘playing with fire’ over Taiwan

Washington/Beijing, July 28 (Reuters) – U.S. President Joe Biden and Chinese President Xi Jinping held a fifth call as leaders on Thursday, and Xi warned against “playing with fire” over Taiwan, as concerns mounted over a possible visit to Chinese-claimed island by U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.

Chinese state media said Xi told Biden that the United States should abide by the “one-China principle” and stressed that China firmly opposed Taiwanese independence and interference of external forces.

Beijing has issued escalating warnings about repercussions should Pelosi – a Democrat like Biden – visit Taiwan, a move that would be a dramatic, though not unprecedented, show of U.S. support for the island, which says it is facing increasing Chinese military and economic threats.

“Those who play with fire will only get burnt,” Chinese state media quote Xi as telling Biden. “(We) hope the U.S. side can see this clearly.”

The White House said the call lasted over two hours. U.S. officials had said it would have a broad agenda, including discussion of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which China has yet to condemn.

At its core though, U.S. officials said they saw the exchange as another chance to manage competition between the world’s two largest economies, whose ties have been increasingly clouded by tensions over democratically governed Taiwan, which Xi has vowed to reunite with the mainland, by force if necessary.

Washington does not have official relations with Taiwan and follows a “one-China policy” that recognizes Beijing, not Taipei, diplomatically. But it is obliged by U.S. law to provide the island with the means to defend itself, and pressure has been mounting in Congress for more explicit support.

“This is about keeping the lines of communication open with the president of China, one of the most consequential bilateral relationships that we have, not just in that region, but around the world, because it touches so much,” White House national security spokesman John Kirby told reporters ahead of the call.

One person briefed on planning for the call said the Biden administration thinks leader-to-leader engagement is the best way to lower tensions over Taiwan.

Some analysts believe Xi also has an interest in avoiding escalation as he seeks an unprecedented third term in office at a congress of China’s ruling Communist Party expected in the fall.

Biden also wanted to discuss climate and economic competition issues, the person briefed said, as well as the idea of placing a price cap on Russian oil to punish Moscow for its war in Ukraine, an issue Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen raised with Chinese counterparts earlier in July. read more

The Biden administration has been debating whether to lift some tariffs on Chinese goods as a way to ease soaring inflation, but U.S. officials have said a decision was not expected ahead of the call. read more

When Biden last spoke to Xi in March, he warned of “consequences” if Beijing gave material support for Russia’s war, and the U.S. government believes that that red line has not been crossed in the months since.

Taiwan has complained of stepped-up Chinese military maneuvers over the past two years to try and force it to accept Beijing’s sovereignty. Just ahead of Thursday’s call, Taiwan’s military said it fired flares to warn away a drone that “glanced by” a strategically located and heavily fortified island close to the Chinese coast that was possibly probing its defenses. read more

TOXIC TIES

The White House has reiterated that its “one-China” policy has not changed despite speculation over a possible trip by Pelosi, which the speaker has yet to confirm.

The last time a speaker of the U.S. House visited Taiwan was in 1997, and as a co-equal branch of government, the U.S. executive has little control over congressional travel.

China has grown more powerful militarily and economically since, and some analysts worry such a visit at a time of fraught ties, could spur a crisis across the 100-mile (160-km) wide Taiwan Strait waterway separating China and Taiwan.

Kirby said the administration has been in touch with Pelosi’s office to make sure she has “all the context” she needs to make decisions about her travel.

China has given few clues to specific responses it might take if Pelosi, a long time critic of China, particularly on human rights issues, does go to Taiwan.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Stati Uniti

Cina. Le riserve in dollari americani sono scese sotto il trilione.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-07-28.

Banca Centrale Cina

Le notizie importanti non hanno bisogno di essere espresse con molte parole.

* * * * * * *

La Cina detiene il debito statunitense sotto i 1,000 miliardi di dollari per la prima volta dal 2010 …. A maggio il portafoglio cinese di debito pubblico è sceso a 980.8 miliardi di dollari.

Si tratta di un calo di quasi 23 miliardi di dollari rispetto ad aprile e di quasi 100 miliardi di dollari, pari al 9%, rispetto al mese precedente …. Il Giappone è ora il principale detentore del debito statunitense con 1,200 miliardi di dollari.

Il calo del debito arriva mentre la Federal Reserve statunitense ha aumentato i tassi per fermare l’inflazione che corre al ritmo più veloce dal 1981.

* * * * * * *

«China holdings of U.S. debt fall below $1 trillion for the first time since 2010 …. China’s portfolio of government debt in May dropped to $980.8 billion»

«That’s a decline of nearly $23 billion from April and down nearly $100 billion, or 9%, from the year-earlier month …. Japan is now the leading holder of U.S. debt with $1.2 trillion»

«The debt decline comes as the U.S. Federal Reserve has been raising rates to stop inflation running at its fastest rate since 1981»

«When rates rise on bonds, prices drop, meaning a capital loss for investors who sell the bonds ahead of maturity»

* * * * * * *


China holdings of U.S. debt fall below $1 trillion for the first time since 2010

– China’s portfolio of government debt in May dropped to $980.8 billion, according to Treasury Department data released Monday.

– It marked the first time since May 2010 that China’s holdings fell below the $1 trillion mark.

* * * * * * *

China’s holdings of U.S. debt have fallen below $1 trillion for the first time in 12 years amid rising interest rates that have made Treasurys potentially less attractive.

Continuing a trend that began early in 2021, China’s portfolio of U.S. government debt in May dropped to $980.8 billion, according to Treasury Department data released Monday. That’s a decline of nearly $23 billion from April and down nearly $100 billion, or 9%, from the year-earlier month.

It also marked the first time since May 2010 that China’s holdings fell below the $1 trillion mark. Japan is now the leading holder of U.S. debt with $1.2 trillion.

The debt decline comes as the U.S. Federal Reserve has been raising rates to stop inflation running at its fastest rate since 1981. When rates rise on bonds, prices drop, meaning a capital loss for investors who sell the bonds ahead of maturity.

China’s holdings of U.S. debt have fallen below $1 trillion for the first time in 12 years amid rising interest rates that have made Treasurys potentially less attractive.

Continuing a trend that began early in 2021, China’s portfolio of U.S. government debt in May dropped to $980.8 billion, according to Treasury Department data released Monday. That’s a decline of nearly $23 billion from April and down nearly $100 billion, or 9%, from the year-earlier month.

It also marked the first time since May 2010 that China’s holdings fell below the $1 trillion mark. Japan is now the leading holder of U.S. debt with $1.2 trillion.

The debt decline comes as the U.S. Federal Reserve has been raising rates to stop inflation running at its fastest rate since 1981. When rates rise on bonds, prices drop, meaning a capital loss for investors who sell the bonds ahead of maturity.