Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-24.

2017-09-01__Cina_Nucleare__001sites-of-npps-in-china

La World Nuclear Association ha pubblicato un estensivo lavoro sullo stato attuale e le prospettive future del nucleare in Cina: «Nuclear Power in China»

L’articolo è troppo lungo per essere riportato in toto, per cui ne citeremo solo qualche estratto significativo.

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«- Mainland China has 37 nuclear power reactors in operation, 20 under construction, and more about to start construction.

– The reactors under construction include some of the world’s most advanced, to give a 70% increase of nuclear capacity to 58 GWe by 2020-21. Plans are for up to 150 GWe by 2030, and much more by 2050.

– The impetus for nuclear power in China is increasingly due to air pollution from coal-fired plants.

– China’s policy is to have a closed nuclear fuel cycle.

– China has become largely self-sufficient in reactor design and construction, as well as other aspects of the fuel cycle, but is making full use of western technology while adapting and improving it.

– Relative to the rest of the world, a major strength is the nuclear supply chain.

– China’s policy is to ‘go global’ with exporting nuclear technology including heavy components in the supply chain.»

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«Most of mainland China’s electricity is produced from fossil fuels, predominantly from coal – 73% in 2015. Two large hydro projects are recent additions: Three Gorges of 18.2 GWe and Yellow River of 15.8 GWe. Wind capacity in 2015 was 8.6% of total, but delivering only 3.3% of the electricity.»

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«The IEA notes that since 2012, China has been the country with the largest installed power capacity, and it has increased this by 14% since then to reach 1,245 GWe in 2014, or 21% of global capacity, slightly ahead of the United States (20%). The age structures of the power plants in these two countries differ remarkably: in China almost 70% (865 GWe) was built within the last decade, whereas in the United States half of the fleet (580 GWe) was over 30 years old.»

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«Electricity demand has been slowing from over 14% pa in 2010, corresponding with a 10% growth in GDP, according to the China Electricity Council. Three-quarters of this was in industry. In 2015 electricity demand growth was only 0.5%, corresponding with a 6.9% growth in GDP, showing a marked decoupling of the two metrics, though this is partly due to subdued economic conditions. In the 13th Five-Year Plan, power demand growth is expected to be 3.8-4.6% pa to 2020. Residential consumption is about 13% of the total (compared with about 20% in Europe and 34% in the USA).

Per capita electricity consumption was 3510 kWh in 2012. By 2030 it is expected to be 5500 kWh/yr and by 2050 about 8500 kWh/yr.»

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«Nuclear generation was 24% up on 2015.»

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«it consumed about 4.3 billion tonnes of coal in 2013, more than half the world total, and coal peaked at more than 70% of China’s primary energy»

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«In March 2013 the NDRC announced new plans for seawater desalination.* China aims to produce 2.2 million m3/day of desal water by 2015, more than three times the 2011 level. More than half of the freshwater channelled to islands and more than 15% of water delivered to coastal factories will come from the sea by 2015»

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«In the 13th Five-Year Plan from 2016, six to eight nuclear reactors are to be approved each year.»

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«In December 2011 the National Energy Administration (NEA) said that China would make nuclear energy the foundation of its power-generation system in the next “10 to 20 years”, adding as much as 300 GWe of nuclear capacity over that period»

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«China General Nuclear Power (CGN) was expecting to have 34,000 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2020, providing 20% of the province’s power»

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«37 operating nuclear power reactors: 33,657 MWe»

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«60 nuclear reactors under construction: 68,7006 MWe»

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«179 nuclear reactors proposed: 205,000 MWe»

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In sintesi.

– Le centrali elettriche alimentate a carbone fossile contribuiscono al 73% della produzione elettrica.

– Le centrali atomiche contribuiscono al 24% della produzione elettrica.

– Il restante 3% proviene da fonti idroelettriche ed altre alternative.

– I tre quarti delle centrali elettriche cinesi è stato costruito negli ultimi dieci anni, contro i trenta degli Stati Uniti.

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– La Cina ha al momento in funzione 37 centrali atomiche, 60 sono in costruzione e 179 sono al momento proposte o in fase di progettazione.

Una decina di anni ed il suo fabbisogno energetico sarà supplito nella sua quasi totalità dal nucleare.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Istruzione e Ricerca, Scienza & Tecnica

Cina. Huawei commercializza con Deutsche Telekom il primo device 5Gnr.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-22.

Mela con il Coltello tra i Denti. - Copia

Cercheremo di semplificare al massimo un problema complesso, anche a costo di essere riduttivi: il nostro obiettivo è quello di farci capire da parte di un pubblico utente e non interessato al lato tecnico, ma non per questo sprovveduto.

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È comune esperienza che le comunicazioni senza filo siano comode ed anche più economiche perché non necessitano della messa in opera di cavi: quello che spesso è riferito come l’ultimo miglio.

Per ottenere questo risultato sono necessarie due componenti.

La prima componente è una rete di emittenti, le colonnine nel caso dei telefoni cellulari, regolarmente collocate in modo tale da coprire tutto il territorio di interesse.

La seconda componente è costituita dai terminali mobili. Siano essi cellulari, siano essi calcolatori, devono in ogni caso essere collegabili alle colonnine.

In altri termini, gli strumenti della rete fissa e quelli della rete mobile devono essere compatibili e formano un tutto unico.

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All’utente finale ciò che realmente importa sono alcuni fattori nodali:

– un’ottima copertura del territorio;

– la buona affidabilità del funzionamento del sistema;

– la velocità di trasmissione;

– la economicità della soluzione adottata.

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La Huawei è riuscita a concepire, progettare e costruire una rete che può colloquiare stabilmente ad una velocità che supera ampiamente quella delle soluzioni attualmente in uso.

«In collaboration with Huawei, Deutsche Telekom (DT) announced Europe’s first 5G connection based on the latest 3GPP standard»

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«On DT’s commercial network in central Berlin, the network has gone live with a 5G connection at over two gigabits per second and a low latency of three milliseconds over a 3.7 gigahertz spectrum link»

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«Powered by Huawei user equipment using 3GPP specifications for 5G New Radio (NR), the deployment on commercial sites is the first in Europe and marks an important advancement in the global development of 5G.»

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«5G is essentially a revolutionary paradigm shift in wireless networking to support the throughput, latency and scalability requirements of future use cases such as extreme bandwidth augmented reality applications and connectivity management for Billions of M2M (Machine to Machine) devices»

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«With large scale commercial deployments …. we estimate that 5G networks will generate nearly $250 Billion in annual service»

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Sono anni che in Occidente Silicon Valley e succedanei annunciano mirabolanti previsioni di future linee di trasmissione ad altissima velocità. Il tempo futuro è quello costantemente ricorrente nei loro annunci. “Faremo” è il loro motto: “ho fatto” suona di conservatore.

“Dateci sempre più fondi, e noi faremo.”

Per l’intanto, fiumi di denaro pubblico sono stati profusi sulla Silicon Valley, che aveva promesso di risolvere il problema entro, più o meno, il 2025.

Huawei ha adesso spiazzato tutti.

Senza annunci e clamori, ha sviluppato la teoria fisica che sottende le trasmissioni ultraveloci, ha trasferito i risultati della ricerca pura a quelle tecnologica, ed alla fine è uscita con un prodotto commercializzabile a costi contenuti. Questo ultimo è il punto cardine: produrre innovazione a prezzi accessibili alla grande utenza.

* * * * * * * *

A nessuno sarà però sfuggito il vero risultato ottenuti dai cinesi della Huawei.

Essendo il loro sistema disponibile, la rete mondiale non tarderà ad adeguarvisi: la tecnologia cinese andrà a sostituire quella americana in un settore strategico sia per la vita civile sia per quella militare.

In altri termini: imponendosi come standard, la Huawei diventerà molto difficilmente scalzabile dal mercato.

Questo è uno smacco evidente per l’America, e dovrebbe far pensare a fondo su quanto sia efficiente il sistema universitario occidentale: questo aveva un predominio assoluto e nel breve volgere di meno di trenta anni lo ha perso.

Né ci consola il fatto che le università americane siano diventate “santuari

«A sanctuary campus is any college or university in the United States that adopts policies to protect members of the campus community who are undocumented immigrants. The term is modeled after “sanctuary city”, a status that has been adopted by over 30 municipalities. ….

In November 2016, students around the country staged demonstrations, walk-outs, and sit-ins in an effort to push their schools to declare themselves a “sanctuary campus” from President-elect Donald Trump’s planned immigration policy of mass deportations. The Stanford, Rutgers, and St. Mary’s protests on November 15, 2016 were among the first.»

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L’idea di rimpiazzare un ricercatore con un immigrato illetterato è davvero pellegrina. Per non parlare poi delle ‘quote rosa‘: le università americane sono adesso quasi tutte al femminile e non producono più nulla, con grande soddisfazione dei cinesi.


Huawei. 2017-09-14. Deutsche Telekom and Huawei Go Live with Europe’s First 5G Connection

In collaboration with Huawei, Deutsche Telekom (DT) announced Europe’s first 5G connection based on the latest 3GPP standard.

Deutsche Telekom’s network in Germany is 5G Ready:

On DT’s commercial network in central Berlin, the network has gone live with a 5G connection at over two gigabits per second and a low latency of three milliseconds over a 3.7 gigahertz spectrum link. Powered by Huawei user equipment using 3GPP specifications for 5G New Radio (NR), the deployment on commercial sites is the first in Europe and marks an important advancement in the global development of 5G.

“5G new radio will be critical for meeting our customers’ ever-increasing connectivity requirements that are steadily growing with more and more network connections,” said Claudia Nemat, Deutsche Telekom Board member for Technology and Innovation. “Our achievement demonstrates the feasibility of our plans to deliver a superior, new customer experience.”

Taihua Deng, President Wireless Network, Huawei, said, “As long time partners, both Deutsche Telekom Group and Huawei have joined hands to successfully test 5G NR equipment in field environments based on the latest 3GPP R15 standards. These achievements highlight the capabilities of the 5G NR equipment to meet operators’ requirements for addressing new business opportunities for end users. Huawei is confident that the partnership with Deutsche Telekom can fully prepare the commercial launch of 5GNR services in Europe by 2020 thanks to 3GPP standardization efforts.”

The implementation in a live real-world setting in central Berlin using Huawei equipment and software is based on pre-standard 5G that closely tracks the 3GPP global standard for so-called ‘Non-Standalone New Radio’. With the Non-Standalone 5G NR mode for enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) use-case, it is meant that the connection is anchored in LTE while 5G NR carriers are used to boost data-rates and reduce latency. Therefore, 5G new radio will be deployed with the evolution of 4G LTE as the baseline for wide-area broadband coverage. The specifications enabling that system will be complete by December 2017 as part of the first drop of 3GPP Release 15.

5G New Radio has characteristics that make it ideal to meet the sub 6 GHz mid-band needs for 5G applications that will require mobility support, wide-area coverage, as well as multi-gigabit throughput speeds and millisecond low latency.

“With this real-world achievement, Deutsche Telekom is making its first important step towards a 5G network launch,” said Bruno Jacobfeuerborn, CTO, Deutsche Telekom. “When the standard is defined, we will trial it in 2018 to prepare the ground for a wider deployment of commercial sites and the offering of devices for the mass market as they become available.”

5G Experience Day

The DT and Huawei joint implementation was conducted as part of Deutsche Telekom’s 5G:haus innovation partnership to advance 5G development to make the standard a global success. Both companies look forward to demonstrating this technical breakthrough and the innovative applications it enables during the 5G Experience Day in Berlin on October 12, 2017.


Cision. 2016-03-01. 5G Wireless Market Worth $250 Billion by 2025: $6 Billion Spend Forecast on R&D for 2015-2020

The 2016 research report on 5G wireless market says while LTE and LTE-Advanced deployments are still underway, mobile operators and vendors have already embarked on R&D initiatives to develop so-called “5G” technology, with a vision of commercialization by 2020. 5G is essentially a revolutionary paradigm shift in wireless networking to support the throughput, latency and scalability requirements of future use cases such as extreme bandwidth augmented reality applications and connectivity management for Billions of M2M (Machine to Machine) devices.

Complete report on 5G Wireless Market analysis 103 companies and provides data 59 data tables and figures is available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/498612-the-5g-wireless-ecosystem-2016-2030-technologies-applications-verticals-strategies-forecasts.html

Although 5G is yet to be standardized, vendors are aggressively investing in 5G development efforts with a principal focus on new air interface transmission schemes, higher frequency bands and advanced antenna technologies such as Massive MIMO and beamforming. revenue With large scale commercial deployments expected to begin in 2020, we estimate that 5G networks will generate nearly $250 Billion in annual service by 2025. Driven by regional, national government, mobile operator and vendor initiatives, we expect that over $6 Billion will be spent on 5G R&D and trial investments between 2015 and 2020. 5G networks are expected to utilize a variety of spectrum bands for diverse applications, ranging from established sub-6 GHz cellular bands to millimeter wave frequencies.

The “5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2016 – 2030 – Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the emerging 5G ecosystem including key market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, use cases, vertical market applications, spectrum assessment, mobile operator deployment commitments, case studies, standardization, research initiatives and vendor strategies. The report also presents forecasts for 5G investments and operator services.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report. Order a copy of this report at http://www.reportsnreports.com/purchase.aspx?name=498612.

List of Companies Mentioned in this 5G Wireless Market Report are 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), 5G Americas, 5G Forum, South Korea, 5G Lab (TU Dresden), 5G PPP (5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership), 5GIC (5G Innovation Center, University of Surrey), 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communications Promotion Forum, Japan), 5GRUS, Alcatel-Lucent, Alpental Technologies, América Móvil, ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses), Ascenta, AT&T Mobility, Athena Wireless Communications, ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions), AVC Networks Company, CableLabs, China Mobile, Cisco Systems, Cohere Technologies, DT (Deutsche Telekom), du (Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company), Ericsson, Etisalat, ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research), ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), Facebook, Fraunhofer FOKUS, Fraunhofer HHI, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and more.

Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories.

 

Pubblicato in: Cina, Istruzione e Ricerca, Senza categoria

Cina. Università e preparazione militare.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-19.

2017-09-18__Cina__001

«I greci ci criticano perché siamo così severi con i nostri figli e così lassi con gli schiavi: non hanno capito che i nostri figli dovranno dominare il mondo.»

Questa frase di Seneca è quanto mai logica, e compenetra anche la cultura cinese.

Mente negli atenei occidentali vige la regola del “vietato vietare“, in quelli cinesi è stata instaurata una ferrea disciplina. Se è difficile vincere il concorso per accedervi, ancor più difficile è rimanervi fino al conseguimento della laurea.

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2017-09-18__Cina__002

Di pochi giorni or sono la notizia:

Università. Rank mondiale. Irrompono le cinesi e declinano le liberal.

«Irrompono a viva forza le università cinesi nelle top 100.

Peking University, 27°, richiama il 16% di studenti stranieri;

Tsinghua University, 30°, richiama il 9% di studenti stranieri;

University of Hong Kong, 40°, richiama il 42% di studenti stranieri;

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 44°, richiama il 31% di studenti stranieri;

Chinese University of Hong Kong, 58°, richiama il 31% di studenti stranieri.»

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L’Oriente differisce dall’Occidente in modo stridente.

Il Rettore di una nota università sudkoreana si vantava, a ragione, che il suo era l’ateneo con il maggior numero di suicidi di studenti, dicendo che era il segno tangibile della durezza del corso di studi. Identico discorso fa Mr Terry Gou, il boss di Foxconn, il colosso da un milione e quattrocentomila dipendenti. Eppure, proprio per questo, “Code di più di un chilometro sono state registrate a Zhengzhou, una delle città dove l’azienda taiwanese conta di espandersi“.

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Questi discorsi fanno inorridire gli occidentali cresciuti nell’ideologia liberal, ma per loro buona sorte gli orientali non se ne curano. Hanno lucidamente presente che basterà ancora una generazione e gli occidentali diventeranno loro sottomessi: in quel momento ci penseranno loro a farli lavorare.

Sanno che alla fine la vinceranno loro, perché le loro classi giovani hanno dovuto superare prove severe, senza nessuno sconto.

Non solo:

«According to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on National Defense Education, pupils, middle school students and undergraduates should have military training when term opens or after National Day.

Until high school, students practise basic formation and movement.

High school students drill and study emergency evacuation, as well as national defence.

Undergraduates take formal military training and emergency evacuation.»

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«More than seven million students about to enter China’s universities are undergoing several weeks of intense annual military training that is compulsory for all students, male and female. ….

the military training, known as Junxun in China is to “enhance students’ sense of national defence and national security awareness ….

There is also a need by the military and organisations associated with the military to be able to identify good-quality recruits but that is now more of a secondary purpose»

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«But instilling obedience and loyalty still is an important goal, Tsang says. “It is an extension of China’s ramped up ideological education in universities.”»

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Gli orientali tirano diritto per la loro strada, e le stupite lamentele dei media occidentali formano solo argomento di conversazione nei salotti liberal – chic.

Anche i greci se la ridevano dei romani, ma risero solo fino a quando le legioni non occuparono la Grecia: ride bene solo chi ride ultimo.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Mondiale, Problemia Energetici, Sistemi Politici

Cina. Contratti petroliferi in yuan convertibili in oro.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-06.

2017-09-04__ChinaOilImportPie_article_main_image

«Dum Romae consulitur, Saguntum expugnatur.»

(Tito Livio, Storie, XXI, 7, 1)


Per comprendere a fondo cosa stia succedendo sarebbe opportuno aver ben presente almeno alcuni aspetti della situazione internazionale.

«Da un punto di vista meramente economico, se si considera il pil per potere di acquisto, il mondo genera 108,036,500 milioni Usd, la Cina 17,617,300 (16.31%) e gli Stati Uniti 17,418,00 (16.12%). L’Eurozona rende conto di 11,249,482 (10.41%) ed il Gruppo dei G7 di 31.825,293 (29.46%). Però i Brics conteggiano un pil ppa di 32,379,625 Usd, ossia il 29.97% del pil ppa mondiale. I Brics valgono come i paesi del G7.

Di conseguenza, la voce dell’Occidente vale nel mondo al massimo per il 29.46%, ma quella degli Stati Uniti vale solo il 16.12% e quella dell’Eurozona uno scarno 10.41%.»

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Quanti ragionassero ancora con la visione dell’Occidente padrone del mondo incorrerebbero in un serio errore percettivo: questo era il modo di pensare tipico del passato, ma inconsistente con la situazione attuale e, soprattutto, con quella futura: il Gruppo dei G7 vale meno di quello dei Brics, ed ancor meno di quello dei Brics Plus.

Cina. Quanzhou. I Brics decidono cosa farsene dell’Occidente.

Brics. Il Summit di settembre a Xiamen. Ripudio dell’Occidente.

Cina. Xiamen. Brics Plus alla conquista del mondo.

Cina. Banche Cinesi e Belt and Road. Yuan come valuta internazionale.

^ ^ ^

Lord Keynes e gli autori post-keynesiani in Cina sono studiati nella storia dell’economia: le loro teorie hanno portato al suicidio dell’Occidente e gli Orientali non hanno nessuna intenzione di seguirli. Li lasciano volentieri ai loro contorsionismi mentali ed alla pratica dell’lgbt, da loro peraltro considerata reato e, quindi, penalmente perseguibile.

Cina. Inversione di rotta. Inizia la riduzione del debito.

Trump. Il debito sovrano totale da gennaio è sceso di 102.365 miliardi.

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«Yuan-denominated contract will let exporters circumvent US dollar»

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«China is expected shortly to launch a crude oil futures contract priced in yuan and convertible into gold»

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«The contract could become the most important Asia-based crude oil benchmark, given that China is the world’s biggest oil importer»

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«move will allow exporters such as Russia and Iran to circumvent U.S. sanctions by trading in yuan»

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«To further entice trade, China says the yuan will be fully convertible into gold on exchanges in Shanghai and Hong Kong»

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«It is a mechanism which is likely to appeal to oil producers that prefer to avoid using dollars, and are not ready to accept that being paid in yuan for oil sales to China is a good idea either»

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«By creating a gold contract settled in renminbi [an alternative name for the yuan], Russia may now sell oil to China for renminbi, then take whatever excess currency it earns to buy gold in Hong Kong. As a result, Russia does not have to buy Chinese assets or switch the proceeds into dollars …. It’s a transfer of holding their assets in black liquid to yellow metal. It’s a strategic move swapping oil for gold, rather than for U.S. Treasuries, which can be printed out of thin air»

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«China proposed pricing oil in yuan to Saudi Arabia in late July, according to Chinese media. It is unclear if Saudi Arabia will yield to its biggest customer, but Beijing has been reducing Saudi Arabia’s share of its total imports, which fell from 25% in 2008 to 15% in 2016. Chinese oil imports rose 13.8% year-on-year during the first half of 2017»

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«The rules of the global oil game may begin to change enormously»

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Conclusioni.

Fonti di informazione e difficoltà di tenersi informati.

I grandi media internazionali hanno taciuto sul fatto, ma questo esiste e resta nella realtà dei fatti.

Alcuni elementi da valorizzare.

– La Cina è il maggiore importatore di petrolio e gas naturale al mondo;

– L’economia cinese vale il 16.31% del pil mondiale, ma agendo sempre in collaborazione e sintonia con i Brics, in effetti ne vale 29.97%: ciò che fa determina ciò che accadrà nel resto del mondo;

– Tutto il circuito Obor, One Belt One Road, è finanziato in yuan. Questo sta generando un mercato di questa valuta che quasi ne raddoppia i volumi domestici;

– Dallo scorso anno lo yuan è rientrato nei diritti di prelievo del Fondo Monetario Internazionale;

– La Cina ha tutti gli interessi a mantenere ragionevolmente stabile il rapporto di cambio con il dollaro;

– La possibilità concreta di prezzare i prodotti petroliferi in yuan spezza il monopolio del dollaro in questo settore strategico;

– Nessuno si illuda che lo yuan possa rimpiazzare il dollaro a breve termine: per molti anni si dovrà però prendere atto dell’esistenza della possibilità di acquistare petrolio dia in dollari sia in yuan;

– La convertibilità in oro dei contratti dovrebbe sia ridurne la volatilità sia ostacolare la speculazione finanziaria su questi prodotti. Non solo: fornisce una solida garanzia e, simultaneamente, fonde i due mercati. Inoltre, il mercato energetico è talmente ampio che legarlo all’oro equivale ad un primo passo verso un Gold Standard;

– Nessuno si aspetti una riedizione di Bretton Woods. Però il passo è oltremodo significativo. Stiamo assistendo all’inizio della ricongiunzione della finanza all’economia: anche per questo processo sarà necessario molto tempo, ma la strada è questa;

– Quanto accade però non è un qualcosa di avulso dal resto del contesto, anzi, si muovo tutto in modo coordinato.

– Questi contratti in yuan convertibili in oro sono solo il primo esempio: nella pentola cinese ne stanno soffriggendo innumerevoli altri.

Ricordiamocelo bene: sta cambiando un’epoca.

Cina. Inversione di rotta. Inizia la riduzione del debito.

Trump. Il debito sovrano totale da gennaio è sceso di 102.365 miliardi.

Nota.

212.4 milioni di tonnellate di petrolio corrispondono grosso modo a 1,335 milioni di barili. Ossia ad un prezzo all’ingrosso di  circa 67 miliardi di dollari americani, trasporto e raffinamento escluso.


Crude Oil. 2017-09-03. China Readies Yuan-Priced Crude Oil Benchmark Backed By Gold

The world’s top oil importer, China, is preparing to launch a crude oil futures contract denominated in Chinese yuan and convertible into gold, potentially creating the most important Asian oil benchmark and allowing oil exporters to bypass U.S.-dollar denominated benchmarks by trading in yuan, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

The crude oil futures will be the first commodity contract in China open to foreign investment funds, trading houses, and oil firms. The circumvention of U.S. dollar trade could allow oil exporters such as Russia and Iran, for example, to bypass U.S. sanctions by trading in yuan, according to Nikkei Asian Review. To make the yuan-denominated contract more attractive, China plans the yuan to be fully convertible in gold on the Shanghai and Hong Kong exchanges.

Last month, the Shanghai Futures Exchange and its subsidiary Shanghai International Energy Exchange, INE, successfully completed four tests in production environment for the crude oil futures, and the exchange continues with preparatory works for the listing of crude oil futures, aiming for the launch by the end of this year. ?

“The rules of the global oil game may begin to change enormously,” Luke Gromen, founder of U.S.-based macroeconomic research company FFTT, told Nikkei Asia Review.

The yuan-denominated futures contract has been in the works for years, and after several delays, it looks like it may be launched this year. Some potential foreign traders have been worried that the contract would be priced in yuan.

But according to analysts who spoke to Nikkei Asian Review, backing the yuan-priced futures with gold would be appealing to oil exporters, especially to those that would rather avoid U.S. dollars in trade.  

“It is a mechanism which is likely to appeal to oil producers that prefer to avoid using dollars, and are not ready to accept that being paid in yuan for oil sales to China is a good idea either,” Alasdair Macleod, head of research at Goldmoney, told Nikkei.

Nikkey Asian Review. 2017-09-03. China sees new world order with oil benchmark backed by gold

Yuan-denominated contract will let exporters circumvent US dollar.

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DENPASAR, Indonesia — China is expected shortly to launch a crude oil futures contract priced in yuan and convertible into gold in what analysts say could be a game-changer for the industry.

The contract could become the most important Asia-based crude oil benchmark, given that China is the world’s biggest oil importer. Crude oil is usually priced in relation to Brent or West Texas Intermediate futures, both denominated in U.S. dollars.

China’s move will allow exporters such as Russia and Iran to circumvent U.S. sanctions by trading in yuan. To further entice trade, China says the yuan will be fully convertible into gold on exchanges in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

“The rules of the global oil game may begin to change enormously,” said Luke Gromen, founder of U.S.-based macroeconomic research company FFTT.

The Shanghai International Energy Exchange has started to train potential users and is carrying out systems tests following substantial preparations in June and July. This will be China’s first commodities futures contract open to foreign companies such as investment funds, trading houses and petroleum companies.

Most of China’s crude imports, which averaged around 7.6 million barrels a day in 2016, are bought on long-term contracts between China’s major oil companies and foreign national oil companies. Deals also take place between Chinese majors and independent Chinese refiners, and between foreign oil majors and global trading companies.

Alan Bannister, Asia director of S&P Global Platts, an energy information provider, said that the active involvement of Chinese independent refiners over the last few years “has created a more diverse marketplace of participants domestically in China, creating an environment in which a crude futures contract is more likely to succeed.”

China has long wanted to reduce the dominance of the U.S. dollar in the commodities markets. Yuan-denominated gold futures have been traded on the Shanghai Gold Exchange since April 2016, and the exchange is planning to launch the product in Budapest later this year.

Yuan-denominated gold contracts were also launched in Hong Kong in July — after two unsuccessful earlier attempts — as China seeks to internationalize its currency. The contracts have been moderately successful.

The existence of yuan-backed oil and gold futures means that users will have the option of being paid in physical gold, said Alasdair Macleod, head of research at Goldmoney, a gold-based financial services company based in Toronto. “It is a mechanism which is likely to appeal to oil producers that prefer to avoid using dollars, and are not ready to accept that being paid in yuan for oil sales to China is a good idea either,” Macleod said.

Yuan-denominated gold contracts have significant implications, especially for countries like Russia and Iran, Qatar and Venezuela, said Louis-Vincent Gave, chief executive of Gavekal Research, a Hong Kong-based financial research company.

These countries would be less vulnerable to Washington’s use of the dollar as a “soft weapon,” if they should fall foul of U.S. foreign policy, he said. “By creating a gold contract settled in renminbi [an alternative name for the yuan], Russia may now sell oil to China for renminbi, then take whatever excess currency it earns to buy gold in Hong Kong. As a result, Russia does not have to buy Chinese assets or switch the proceeds into dollars,” said Gave.

Grant Williams, an adviser to Vulpes Investment Management, a Singapore-based hedge fund sponsor, said he expects most oil producers to be happy to exchange their oil reserves for gold. “It’s a transfer of holding their assets in black liquid to yellow metal. It’s a strategic move swapping oil for gold, rather than for U.S. Treasuries, which can be printed out of thin air,” he said.

Market share

China has been indicating to producers that those happy to sell to them in yuan will benefit from more business. Producers that will not sell to China in yuan will lose market share.

Saudi Arabia, a U.S. ally, is a case in point. China proposed pricing oil in yuan to Saudi Arabia in late July, according to Chinese media. It is unclear if Saudi Arabia will yield to its biggest customer, but Beijing has been reducing Saudi Arabia’s share of its total imports, which fell from 25% in 2008 to 15% in 2016.

Chinese oil imports rose 13.8% year-on-year during the first half of 2017, but supplies from Saudi Arabia inched up just 1% year-on-year. Over the same timeframe, Russian oil shipments jumped 11%, making Russia China’s top supplier. Angola, which made the yuan its second legal currency in 2015, leapfrogged Saudi Arabia into second spot with an increase of 22% in oil exports to China in the same period.

If Saudi Arabia accepts yuan settlement for oil, Gave said, “this would go down like a lead balloon in Washington, where the U.S. Treasury would see this as a threat to the dollar’s hegemony… and it is unlikely the U.S. would continue to approve modern weapon sales to Saudi and the embedded protection of the House of Saud [the kingdom’s ruling family] that comes with them.”

The alternative for Saudi Arabia is equally unappetizing. “Getting boxed out of the Chinese market will increasingly mean having to dump excess oil inventories on the global stage, thereby ensuring a sustained low price for oil,” said Gave.

But the kingdom is finding other ways to get in with China. On Aug. 24, Saudi Vice Minister of Economy and Planning Mohammed al-Tuwaijri, told a conference in Jeddah that the government was looking at the possibility of issuing a yuan-denominated bond. Saudi Arabia and China have also agreed to establish a $20 billion joint investment fund.

Furthermore, the two countries could cement their relationship if China were to take a cornerstone investment in the planned initial public offering of a 5% state in Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia’s national oil company. The IPO is expected to be the largest ever, although details on the listing venue and valuation are yet scant.

If China were to buy into Saudi Aramco the pricing of Saudi oil could shift from U.S. dollars to yuan, said Macleod. Crucially, “if China can tie in Aramco, with Russia, Iran et al, she will have a degree of influence over nearly 40% of global production, and will be able to progress her desire to exclude dollars for yuan,” he said.

“What is interesting is that China’s leadership originally planned to clean up the markets next year, but brought it forward to this year. One interpretation of that change is that they have brought forward the day when they pay for oil in yuan,” said Simon Hunt, a strategic adviser to international investors on the Chinese economy and geopolitics.

China is also making efforts to set other commodity benchmarks, such as gas and copper, as Beijing seeks to transform the yuan into the natural trading currency for Asia and emerging markets.

Yuan oil futures are expected to attract interest from investors and funds, while state-backed oil majors, such as PetroChina and China Petroleum & Chemical (Sinopec) will provide liquidity to ensure trade. Locally registered entities of JPMorgan, a U.S. bank, and UBS, a Swiss bank, are among the first to have gained approval to trade the contract. But it is understood that the market will be also open to retail investors.

Pubblicato in: Cina, India, Russia

‘Time for BRICS to assume a leadership role’

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-04.

2017-09-04__Cina__001

Il miglior commento al Summit di Xiamen sembrerebbe essere quello fatto dal Governo della China:

Time for BRICS to assume a leadership role

«For decades, resources have been monopolized by developed nations, leaving developing nations lacking infrastructure and social development.

Contributing more than half of global growth over the past ten years, the BRICS nations are finding their own solutions to address the governance disparity.

The bloc’s New Development Bank (NDB), which was launched in 2014 with a focus on infrastructure and sustainable development projects, stands as a good example of what a new kind of world governance would look like.

In contrast to the quota system of other international financial institutions based on the role of a certain member, members of the NDB have equal voting power, a distinctive feature of the bank.

China has put forward the “BRICS Plus” proposal this year by inviting the leaders of Egypt, Guinea, Mexico, Tajikistan and Thailand to attend the Dialogue of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries during the summit and engage in dialogue with the BRICS members.

This will allow the BRICS summit to be an effective platform for voicing the needs, demands and aspirations of both the developing and underdeveloped nations in the world, and enable the organization to play a more decisive role in global governance.»

*

«Xi will chair the Dialogue of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries on Sept. 5, which will be attended by the leaders from the five BRICS countries, as well as the leaders of Egypt, Mexico, Tajikistan, Guinea and Thailand.»

* * * * * * *

«Time for BRICS to assume a leadership role»

*

Da un punto di vista meramente economico, se si considera il pil per potere di acquisto, il mondo genera 108,036,500 milioni Usd, la Cina 17,617,300 (16.31%) e gli Stati Uniti 17,418,00 (16.12%). L’Eurozona rende conto di 11,249,482 (10.41%) ed il Gruppo dei G7 di 31.825,293 (29.46%). Però i Brics conteggiano un pil ppa di 32,379,625 Usd, ossia il 29.97% del pil ppa mondiale. I Brics valgono come i paesi del G7.

Di conseguenza, la voce dell’Occidente vale nel mondo al massimo per il 29.46%, ma quella degli Stati Uniti vale solo il 16.12% e quella dell’Eurozona uno scarno 10.41%.

*

Fatevi adesso un piccolo conto: quando valgono i Brics Plus?


China Org. 2017-09-04. Xi shares vision on BRICS new ‘golden decade’

Chinese President Xi Jinping has shared his vision for the BRICS cooperation which he believes will enter a second “golden decade” if the emerging-market countries work together to overcome the challenges of weak growth and threats to world peace.

Addressing the BRICS Business Forum in Xiamen on Sunday, with Brazilian President Michel Temer and South African President Jacob Zuma in audience, Xi said after ten years a fully-fledged BRICS cooperation framework is taking shape.

With Russia’s Vladimir Putin and India’s Narendra Modi joining in, the leaders of the world’s five major developing countries will chart way forward for the bloc at the ninth BRICS summit scheduled for Sept. 3-5.

Xi on Sunday refuted the assertion that BRICS is losing luster.

He said despite headwinds causing growth setbacks, the BRICS countries are “fully confident” about their growth potential and the future outlook.

Tangible Benefits

BRIC was first coined in 2001 to describe four emerging economies with fast growth and great potential. The concept turned into a formal cooperation framework in 2006. Four years later, South Africa joined. BRIC became BRICS.

Xi said the past decade has seen the BRICS countries making headway in pursuing common development. Their combined GDP grew 179 percent, trade increased 94 percent and urban population expanded 28 percent during the period.

The development of the BRICS countries over the past decade has delivered tangible benefits to more than 3 billion people.

Xi said three important practices of the shared value should be carried forward — treating each other as equals, seeking results-oriented cooperation, and bearing in mind the well-being of the world.

“Dialogue without confrontation, partnership without alliance,” Xi summed up the cooperation principle in a simple phrase.

He said the principle has gained growing endorsement and has become a positive energy in the international community.

Rising Up To Challenges

The Chinese president said the global economy remains in a period of adjustment featuring weak growth and no apparent new drivers. Due to sluggish growth, protectionism and inward-looking mentality are on the rise. Uneven development and a deficit of fairness have become more acute.

He challenged BRICS countries to create new impetus for growth and continue to improve global economic governance.

“We should not ignore problems arising from economic globalization or just complain about them. Rather, we should make joint efforts to find solutions,” Xi said.

He said the BRICS countries should promote the building of an open global economy, advance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, build new global value chains, and rebalance economic globalization.

“Only openness delivers progress, and only inclusiveness sustains such progress,” Xi said.

The long road to peace is not smooth, Xi said, calling on the BRICS countries to play a constructive part in the process of resolving geopolitical hotspot issues and make due contributions.

He envisioned flames of war dying and displaced refugees returning home as dialogue and consultation settle issues in Syria, Libya and the Palestine-Israel conflict.

Making Bigger Pie

The Chinese president said the development of emerging market and developing countries is not intended to “move the cheese of anyone” but to “make the pie of the global economy bigger.”

Over the past ten years, the share of the five BRICS countries in the global economy has more than doubled. They have contributed to more than half of global growth.

Xi said more emerging market and developing countries should be involved because BRICS, as a platform with global influence, concerns more than five countries.

During the Xiamen summit, China will hold the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries, where the leaders of Egypt, Guinea, Mexico, Tajikistan and Thailand will join the BRICS leaders in discussing global development cooperation and South-South cooperation.

While outreach programs have existed in past BRICS summits since 2013, it is the first time participating leaders have come from around the world, but not just neighbors of the host country.

Xi said this “BRICS Plus” approach should be promoted to build an open and diversified network of development partners for the bloc.

Marching On With Reform

Turning to China, Xi said the country had made the “right choice” on deepening reform and will march on in strides.

“The past decade has not only seen solid progress in the BRICS cooperation; it has also witnessed the unfolding of all-round reform and opening up in China and its rapid economic and social development,” Xi told the forum.

He said China’s economic aggregate grew by 239 percent over the past ten years and the lives of its 1.3 billion-plus people have been significantly improved.

In the first half of 2017, the Chinese economy expanded by 6.9 percent and added 7.35 million new urban jobs.

Xi said China has been making increasingly more contribution to regional and global economy.

He said the Belt and Road Initiative, for example, is not a tool to advance any geopolitical agenda, but a platform for practical cooperation.

The initiative is not a foreign aid scheme, but one that advocates interconnected development with extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits.

“Going forward, China will continue to put into practice the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and inclusive development,” he said.

“We will adapt to and steer the new normal of economic development, push forward supply-side structural reform, accelerate the building of a new system for an open economy, drive economic development with innovation, and achieve sustainable development,” Xi said.


China Org. 2017-09-04. Xi, Putin meet on bilateral ties, DPRK nuclear test

Chinese President Xi Jinping met with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin on Sunday, calling for enhancing mutual support and strategic coordination.

The two leaders also agreed to appropriately deal with the latest nuclear test conducted by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).

Putin is in the southeastern Chinese coastal city of Xiamen, Fujian Province, to attend the ninth BRICS summit and the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries scheduled for Sept. 3-5.

The two sides should consolidate the high-level mutual political trust, firmly strengthen mutual support and enhance strategic coordination, Xi said.

The role of bilateral cooperation mechanisms should be well played to advance projects in key areas including energy, aerospace and aviation, as well as nuclear power.

He urged advancing the integration of the Belt and Road Initiative with the Eurasian Economic Union.

Mutual understanding and friendship between the two peoples should be promoted through closer people-to-people and cultural exchanges and those at local levels, he said.

Xi also called on enhancing military cooperation as well as coordination on multilateral arenas.

China is willing to join hands with Russia to raise the bilateral relations to a higher level, promoting respective development and jointly safeguarding regional and world peace and stability, he said.

On BRICS cooperation, Xi said it is in line with the interests of the BRICS countries and the expectation of international community, especially the emerging market and developing countries, to enhance the group’s cooperation and enable the BRICS countries to play a more important role in international affairs.

The BRICS countries should consolidate solidarity and cooperation to send out positive signals to the world, chart the course and define the priorities for cooperation based on the overall situation, strengthen coordination to enhance international influence, and improve mechanisms of BRICS cooperation, said Xi.

China is willing to work with Russia and other BRICS countries to achieve fruitful results at the Xiamen summit and implement the outcomes effectively so that the BRICS can usher in a second “golden decade” of cooperation.

For his part, Putin said it is significant for China and Russia to strengthen comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination and boost communication and coordination on major international and regional issues.

He said Russia stands ready for closer cooperation with China in such areas as investment, energy, agriculture, infrastructure, and aerospace and aviation.

The two countries should also increase exchanges in culture, education, sports, media and tourism as well as those at local levels. Military exchanges should be closer, he said.

While discussing international and regional issues, the two leaders agreed to appropriately deal with the DPRK’s latest nuclear test.

The DPRK on Sunday successfully detonated a hydrogen bomb that can be carried by an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), DPRK’s Central Television announced. This was the sixth nuclear test the DPRK has undertaken.

China’s Foreign Ministry issued a statement, expressing firm opposition to and strong condemnation of the nuclear test.

Xi and Putin agreed to stick to the goal of denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and keep close communication and coordination to deal with the new situation.

After the meeting, the two leaders visited an exhibition on intangible cultural heritage originated from southern Fujian Province.


China Org. 2017-09-04. Xi calls for synergizing development strategies among BRICS countries.

Chinese President Xi Jinping on Monday called on BRICS countries to synergize their development strategies to stimulate growth potential.

Xi made the remarks while addressing the ninth BRICS summit in the southeastern Chinese city of Xiamen, which was also attended by leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa.

The five countries should find areas where their respective development policies and priorities converge, and work to build a big market for trade and investment, achieve smooth flow of currency and finance, and realize infrastructure connectivity, Xi said.

“Despite our differences in national conditions, our five countries are in a similar stage of development and share the same development goals. We all face an arduous task in growing the economy,” Xi noted.

He said strengthening the complementarity of their development strategies will bring out their comparative strengths in resources, market and labor force, release the growth potential of the five countries and the creativity of their 3 billion people, and open up huge space for development. P Xi said the five countries need to plan well at the macro level and take concrete actions in key areas.

“With a focus on structural reform and sustainable development, we need to expand our converging interests and share experience on innovation, entrepreneurship, industrial development and production capacity to boost our economic development,” said Xi.

He said it is important to strike a balance between the speed of growth and the quality and efficiency of growth. By implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, BRICS countries have the opportunity to achieve balanced economic, social and environmental progress, and bring about interconnected and inclusive development, said Xi.


China Org. 2017-09-04. China to enhance cooperation with Thailand: Xi

Chinese President Xi Jinping met with Thai Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha on Monday, calling for enhanced bilateral cooperation in various fields.

Prayut is in the southeastern Chinese coastal city of Xiamen to attend the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries scheduled for Sept. 5.

China appreciates Thailand’s active participation in the Belt and Road Initiative, and is willing to strengthen cooperation with Thailand in areas of investment, railway, Internet finance, digital economy and e-commerce, Xi said.


China Org. 2017-09-04. Xi stresses China-Mexico strategic synergy

Chinese President Xi Jinping said Monday China and Mexico should synergize development strategies on the basis of their cooperative achievements since the two sides forged diplomatic ties 45 years ago.

Xi made the remarks when meeting with Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto, who came to the southeastern Chinese coastal city of Xiamen to attend the Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries scheduled for Sept. 5.


China Org. 2017-09-04. China expects stronger partnership for upcoming BRICS summit

China wants to build stronger partnerships within and beyond the five BRICS countries during the upcoming BRICS Xiamen Summit, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said in Beijing Wednesday.

Speaking at a press briefing on the summit, Wang said that China expects outcomes in several areas, including strengthening economic and security cooperation, increasing cultural and people-to-people exchanges, enhancing institutional building, as well as promoting stronger partnerships with other emerging market countries and developing countries.

China will hold the BRICS Business Forum from Sept. 3 to 4, which will be the largest so far, Wang said.

Chinese President Xi Jinping will attend the opening ceremony of the forum and deliver a keynote speech, reviewing the progress that BRICS countries have made in the past ten years and looking to the future. Leaders of some other countries will also address the forum.

The BRICS Xiamen Summit opens on Sept. 4.

Xi will chair a small meeting of BRICS leaders, discussing world economy, global governance, international and regional hotspot issues, and national security and development. A larger meeting will focus on deepening cooperation, promoting cultural and people-to-people exchanges, as well as enhancing institutional building.

The BRICS leaders will also attend the opening ceremony of the BRICS Cultural Festival and Photo Exhibition, a meeting of the BRICS Business Council and a signing ceremony, which will be followed by a welcome banquet hosted by Xi and his wife, Peng Liyuan.

Three pillars

The BRICS mechanism has entered a new stage featuring the three pillars of economic cooperation, political and security cooperation, and people-to-people exchanges, Wang said. He added that there will be an increase in cultural activities involving BRICS countries this year as China holds the BRICS chairmanship.

China held the 2017 BRICS Games in its southern city of Guangzhou in June, marking the first comprehensive multilateral sports and cultural exchanges under the framework of BRICS cooperation.

China has also held a media forum, film festival, traditional medicine meeting and young diplomats forum, to promote friendship and understanding between the peoples of BRICS countries.

“The leaders of the BRICS countries will continue to accumulate consensus on strengthening people-to-people exchanges during the upcoming BRICS Xiamen Summit,” Wang said.

Beyond BRICS

Xi will chair the Dialogue of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries on Sept. 5, which will be attended by the leaders from the five BRICS countries, as well as the leaders of Egypt, Mexico, Tajikistan, Guinea and Thailand.

“It is in the interests of all sides to strengthen cooperation among emerging markets and developing countries through the BRICS platform, therefore China has proposed the ‘BRICS plus’ concept based on past experiences,” Wang said.

The dialogue will focus on deepening cooperation and promoting common development, and a statement will be released on the outcomes achieved on implementing a sustainable development agenda, promoting South-South cooperation, building partnerships and improving global governance.

Xi will hold a press conference after the dialogue to summarize the outcomes of the BRICS Xiamen Summit.

“China stands ready to work with other BRICS countries to make BRICS cooperation bigger, stronger and more solid to benefit not only the five BRICS countries, but also the whole world,” Wang said.


China Org. 2017-09-04. Ambassadors on BRICS Plus

BRICS Plus, as a model of expansion, was proposed by China on the basis of successful practices in former BRICS Summits. It is sought to establish widespread partnerships between BRICS member countries and other developing countries through dialogues and cooperation, expand our circle of friends, and shape the BRICS mechanism into an influential cooperation platform for South-South cooperation, so as to better reflect the common ground and collective will of the developing countries.

Then how do other developing countries make of the proposal? What opportunities does the BRICS Plus promise to them? To get some insight about these, China Today interviewed ambassadors of Iran, Georgia, Nepal, and South Sudan to China as well as two diplomats from Argentina and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Iranian Ambassador to China Ali Asghar Khaji

“Since its founding, the BRICS cooperation mechanism has been representing a new cooperation concept, and played an important role in giving a voice in the international community on behalf of the developing world. The Iranian government showed its support to the BRICS Plus proposal when it was first put forward. As an important developing country in the region of North Africa and West Asia, Iran is poised to strengthen its cooperation with China under the framework of the Belt and Road and the BRICS Plus. In addition, we also hope China as a leading developing country, can play a bigger role in advancing cooperation among developing countries on such aspects as economy, security and social development.”

Pubblicato in: Cina, Russia

Brics Summit. Xiamen. Punto di vista della Bbc.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-04.

2017-09-04__Xiamen__001

Diciamo subito che questo riportato sembrerebbe essere più un articolo di routine che un ripensamento approfondito.

A nostro sommesso parere, ovviamente opinabile, considera il Summit esclusivamente dal punto di vista occidentale: questa è una caratteristica, non certo un difetto. Ma l’ottica resta pur sempre parziale.

Non solo. Sicuramente l’aspetto economico e finanziario è del massimo interesse, ma ciò non esclude che esista e si stia sviluppando anche un progetto politico.

«China’s vice minister of commerce, Wang Shouwen, also suggested China was interested in establishing a free trade agreement with Mexico.»

*

«The Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto is attending the dialogue at the invitation of the Chinese president.»

*

«The development of emerging markets and developing countries won’t touch anyone’s cheese, but instead will diligently grow the world economic pie»

*

«I am convinced that the Belt and Road initiative will serve as a new platform for all countries to achieve win-win cooperation»

*

«But the initiative has made India in particular quite uneasy, as it includes projects worth $62bn (£48bn) to be implemented in its neighbour and rival Pakistan»

*

«Construction began over the weekend on headquarters in Shanghai for the New Development Bank (NDB), which is the Brics alternative to the World Bank»

*

«To date, the NDB has invested in 11 projects, lending $1.5bn in 2016 with an additional $2.5bn in loans set for this year»

*

«China’s official Xinhua news agency reported that Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin met on the sidelines of the Brics meeting, and agreed to “appropriately deal” with North Korea’s nuclear test.»

*

«China said it strongly condemned the nuclear test and urged Pyongyang to stop its “wrong” actions»

*

«The US President suggested on Twitter that the US might stop “all trade with any country doing business with North Korea”»

* * * * * * *

Attendiamo che siano diffuse le relazioni ufficiali e le conclusioni del summit, tenendo però ben presente che non tutti gli accordi potrebbero essere resi pubblici.

Notiamo soltanto che alla presenza dell’Egitto si è aggiunta quella del Messico. Altri tasselli si stanno aggiungendo al puzzle sino-russo.


Bbc. 2017-09-04. Four things to watch at the Brics summit

The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa are meeting amid heightened geopolitical tensions.

*

The summit of the so-called Brics nations brings together the five fast-growing economies, who are seeking a greater say in world affairs.

Economic ties will top the agenda at the three-day gathering in Xiamen, China which began Sunday.

But North Korea’s nuclear test and a border standoff between China and India could also colour discussions.

So what are the four key things to watch out for at this meeting?

  1. ‘Growing the pie’ without ‘touching the cheese’

While US President Donald Trump has pushed a protectionist trade agenda, pulling the US out of the Trans Pacific Partnership and renegotiating the North America Free Trade Agreement, China is striking a very different tone.

Chinese President Xi Jinping told the meeting that there is little to fear from closer trade ties.

“We should push for an open world economy, promote trade liberalisation and facilitation, jointly create a new global value chain, and realise a global economic rebalancing,” President Xi Jinping told Brics business leaders and senior officials in a speech on Sunday.

“The development of emerging markets and developing countries won’t touch anyone’s cheese, but instead will diligently grow the world economic pie,” he said.

But many countries have criticised China’s trade policies, saying they discriminate against foreign businesses.

Even within Brics, trade is heavily tilted in China’s favour, which has led to complaints from fellow members.

China’s vice minister of commerce, Wang Shouwen, also suggested China was interested in establishing a free trade agreement with Mexico.

The Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto is attending the dialogue at the invitation of the Chinese president.

  1. One Belt One Road

The sheer scale of China’s massive international infrastructure project – known as One Belt One Road – means it is often on the agenda at high level economic meetings like this one.

The project aims to expand trade links between Asia, Africa, Europe and beyond through infrastructure investments.

“I am convinced that the Belt and Road initiative will serve as a new platform for all countries to achieve win-win cooperation,” said President Xi.

But the initiative has made India in particular quite uneasy, as it includes projects worth $62bn (£48bn) to be implemented in its neighbour and rival Pakistan.

Also, tensions between China and India remain high after a border standoff, which was resolved just days before the conference.

  1. The New Development Bank

Construction began over the weekend on headquarters in Shanghai for the New Development Bank (NDB), which is the Brics alternative to the World Bank.

The NDB was seen as the first major Brics achievement after the group came together to press for a bigger say in the world’s financial affairs.

The bank aims to address a massive infrastructure funding gap in the member countries, which account for almost half the world’s population.

To date, the NDB has invested in 11 projects, lending $1.5bn in 2016 with an additional $2.5bn in loans set for this year.

Still, the bank is small potatoes when compared with the World Bank, and some have questioned China’s commitment, given it heads up the bigger Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

  1. The nuclear elephant in the room

The conference had an unwelcome surprise in the form of North Korea’s sixth nuclear test on Sunday.

China’s official Xinhua news agency reported that Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin met on the sidelines of the Brics meeting, and agreed to “appropriately deal” with North Korea’s nuclear test.

China said it strongly condemned the nuclear test and urged Pyongyang to stop its “wrong” actions.

The US President suggested on Twitter that the US might stop “all trade with any country doing business with North Korea”.

China is an obvious target of his comments, given that it is North Korea’s largest trading partner.

Some critics, however, have suggested that this is very unlikely, as it would do significant damage to the US economy because China is also America’s largest trading partner.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Putin, Russia

Cina. Xiamen. Discorsi introduttivi dei capi di stato.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-03.

Pechino-Cina

È davvero interessante leggersi le dichiarazioni preliminari rilasciate dai capi di stato prima di raggiungere Xiamen.

Sono tutte rilasciate in linguaggio diplomatico, per cui sarebbe opportuno leggersele tra le righe ed estrapolarle ben oltre la stringata sintesi delle frasi. Questo vale soprattutto per la dichiarazione rilasciata dal Presidente Putin.

L’arte di saper leggere aiuta a capire meglio. – Science.

Fonti di informazione e difficoltà di tenersi informati.

È significativo come la pagina Reuters dedicata alla Cina non riporti nulla a tutt’oggi.

^ ^ ^

«Chinese President Xi Jinping said Sunday BRICS countries should uphold global peace and stability, stressing a vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security»

*

«We BRICS countries are committed to upholding global peace and contributing to the international security order»

*

«We should uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and basic norms governing international relations, firmly support multilateralism, work for greater democracy in international relations, and oppose hegemonism and power politics»

*

«I am convinced that as long as we take a holistic approach to fighting terrorism in all its forms, and address both its symptoms and root causes, terrorists will have no place to hide»

^ ^ ^

«Egypt’s participation in the BRICS summit will open new horizons for Egypt’s economy as it will boost its economic cooperation with the bloc»

*

«I hope one day Egypt becomes a BRICS member, not just a guest of honor, because this will open massive horizons for cooperation with the group’s members, which will surely be very beneficial to the Egyptian economy»

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«We appreciate China’s support for the Egyptian economy, which was clearly shown when Egypt suffered a shortage of foreign currency and China made a currency swap deal with Egypt to carry out trade exchange in their local currencies»

^ ^ ^

«Russian President Vladimir Putin said Russia highly values the multifaceted cooperation with BRICS to create a fair multipolar world and equal development conditions for all»

*

«Putin said he appreciated China’s significant contribution as this year’s chair of the organization, “which has allowed the BRICS countries as a group to move forward in all key areas of our partnership, including politics, the economy and culture.”»

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«It is important that our group’s activities are based on the principles of equality, respect for one another’s opinions and consensus.Within BRICS, nothing is ever forced on anyone»

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«This open and trust-based atmosphere is conducive to the successful implementation of our tasks»

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«Putin said Russia stands for closer coordination of the BRICS countries’ foreign policies, primarily at the United Nations and Group of 20, as well as other international organizations»

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«Only the combined efforts of all countries can help bring about global stability and find solutions to many acute conflicts»

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«Putin said the region’s problems should only be settled through a direct dialogue of all the parties concerned without any preconditions. …. Provocations, pressure, and militarist and insulting rhetoric are a dead-end road»

* * * * * * * *

Ricordiamo alcuni elementi utili.

-> Da un punto di vista meramente economico, se si considera il pil per potere di acquisto, il mondo genera 108,036,500 milioni Usd, la Cina 17,617,300 (16.31%) e gli Stati Uniti 17,418,00 (16.12%). L’Eurozona rende conto di 11,249,482 (10.41%) ed il Gruppo dei G7 di 31.825,293 (29.46%). Però i Brics conteggiano un pil ppa di 32,379,625 Usd, ossia il 29.97% del pil ppa mondiale. I Brics valgono come i paesi del G7.

Di conseguenza, la voce dell’Occidente vale nel mondo al massimo per il 29.46%, ma quella degli Stati Uniti vale solo il 16.12% e quella dell’Eurozona uno scarno 10.41%.

*

-> I Brics allargati hanno la maggioranza in seno all’Assemblea delle Nazioni Unite. Ci si ricordi che:

Egypt blocks U.N. call to respect ‘democratically elected’ government in Turkey


Xinhua. 2017-09-03. Xi stresses world peace, security at BRICS Business Forum

XIAMEN, Sept. 3 (Xinhua) — Chinese President Xi Jinping said Sunday BRICS countries should uphold global peace and stability, stressing a vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security.

“We BRICS countries are committed to upholding global peace and contributing to the international security order,” he said while delivering a keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the BRICS Business Forum scheduled for Sept. 3-4 in the southeastern coastal city of Xiamen.

This year, the BRICS countries have held the Meeting of High Representatives for Security Issues and the Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. The countries have put in place the regular meeting mechanism for permanent representatives to the multilateral institutions, and convened the Foreign Policy Planning Dialogue, the Meeting of Counter-Terrorism Working Group, the Meeting of Cybersecurity Working Group, and the Consultation on Peacekeeping Operations.

These efforts aim to strengthen consultation and coordination on major international and regional issues and build synergy among BRICS countries, Xi said.

“We should uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and basic norms governing international relations, firmly support multilateralism, work for greater democracy in international relations, and oppose hegemonism and power politics,” he said.

He also called on BRICS countries to take a constructive part in the process of resolving geopolitical hotspot issues and make due contributions.

“I am convinced that as long as we take a holistic approach to fighting terrorism in all its forms, and address both its symptoms and root causes, terrorists will have no place to hide,” he said.

When dialogue, consultation and negotiation are conducted to create conditions for achieving political settlement of issues such as Syria, Libya and the PalestineIsrael conflict, the flame of war can be put out, and displaced refugees will eventually return to their homes, he said.


Xinhua. 2017-08-31. Interview: Joining BRICS summit opens new horizons for Egypt’s economy: veteran journalist

CAIRO, Aug. 31 (Xinhua) — Egypt’s participation in the BRICS summit will open new horizons for Egypt’s economy as it will boost its economic cooperation with the bloc, the head of Egypt’s largest state-run newspaper Al-Ahram told Xinhua in an exclusive interview.

“I hope one day Egypt becomes a BRICS member, not just a guest of honor, because this will open massive horizons for cooperation with the group’s members, which will surely be very beneficial to the Egyptian economy,” said Abdel-Mohsen Salama, chief executive officer of Al-Ahram Foundation and head of Egypt’s Syndicate of Journalists.

At the invitation of Chinese President Xi Jinping, Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi will soon fly to the southeastern Chinese city of Xiamen to attend the ninth summit of the large economic bloc scheduled for Sept. 3-5.

The BRICS summit was first launched by Brazil, Russia, India and China in 2006 and expanded to include South Africa in 2010.

“We appreciate China’s support for the Egyptian economy, which was clearly shown when Egypt suffered a shortage of foreign currency and China made a currency swap deal with Egypt to carry out trade exchange in their local currencies,” Salama told Xinhua.

“That move positively affected the Egyptian economic conditions then,” he added.

The economic cooperation between Egypt and China is a “win-win situation” as China could help boost the Egyptian economy while Egypt can be China’s commercial portal in the Arab and African worlds, Salama noted.

Under the leadership of Sisi and Xi, the Sino-Egyptian ties have been elevated to a comprehensive strategic partnership, while the bilateral trade volume increased to 11.3 billion U.S. dollars in 2016, making Egypt China’s third largest trade partner in Africa.

Salama, who will be part of the Sisi-led delegation to Xiamen, expects his first visit to China to be a chance for learning more about the Chinese experience which has turned the country into the second largest economy in the world in a few decades.

“The Chinese experience needs to be well examined. I would like to learn more about the details of the Chinese experience as it is important to my personal knowledge and to my career as a chief journalist in Egypt,” the veteran journalist said.

Egypt sees its participation in the BRICS summit as a good opportunity to continue consultation with China on various issues of mutual interest and to follow up on their joint projects in many fields, given that several Chinese companies are promoting infrastructure projects in Egypt.

In a recent interview with Chinese media, Sisi said the BRICS Business Forum, a major side-event of the BRICS summit, is a good opportunity to present the economic reform by the Egyptian government and its measures to attract foreign investment.”Egypt needs technical aid from China to learn how to copy the Chinese industrial experience in Egypt, so that Egypt can change from an interest-based economy to a production-based one,” said Salama.

The Al-Ahram chief expressed the hope that China can help Egypt by exporting its expertise to the Arab country, “especially in the industrial fields where China has achieved a lot of progress.”

Egypt is also a focal point in China’s Belt and Road Initiative launched by Xi four years ago. The initiative comprises the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, designed to revive ancient trade routes to link China with a number of countries in Asia, Africa and Europe through trade and infrastructure networks.

Salama hailed the initiative as a “very important and active springboard” for further economic cooperation through sustainable development projects among the states along the Belt and Road routes.

“Egypt attaches importance to this initiative and takes part in it, as it comes within the framework of fast-growing economic relations between Egypt and China,” Salama said.


Xinhua. 2017-08-31. UNDP chief: BRICS sends promising signal

UNITED NATIONS, Aug. 31 (Xinhua) — Achim Steiner, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Administrator told Xinhua here Wednesday that the BRICS countries together are sending a promising signal to the world in peace and development.

Steiner said “I hope that through the BRICS summit, to be held next week in China’s harbor city of Xiamen, these emerging economy countries could play their role in meeting the big challenges humanity is facing.”

He said that the economic transformation in the past decades have elevated these countries not only in economic term, but also provided them a platform to influence the outcomes of global significance.

Steiner said that counties should look after not only their own interests, but also collective interests, which is the core idea of UN system.

The UN official said in 2015, the General Assembly, or the parliament of the world, adopted the agenda for 2030, the 17 goals for sustainable development goals (SDGs) were based on lessons learned through decades of development in the world that climate change, population, poverty, refugees, economic and financial instability, and inequality could become the risks to world economy, peace and stability.

The SDGs are an expression the goals of interdependence. Nations poor or rich, small or large, depend on one another for our future, he said, adding that fast economies will be at risk if they do not dress the problem of inequality.

The future of our future generations will be compromised if pollution and climate changes are not collectively handled. In this perspective, climate change and pollution is a sustainable issue which might otherwise be an inter-generation problem.

Above all, SDGs is a commitment to collaboration, we must act together to face all the challenges which go back to the core idea of UN which is multilateralism, Steiner said.

China, which has helped hundreds of millions of people out of poverty in the past decades and contributed enormously to the world, is trying to address the problem of inequality which are often found in fast economies, Steiner said.

No one should be left behind, either geographically or in terms of their income levels, he said.

In the past few years, China has been taking its economic growth path and lessons learned into a broader international context, as the country depends on the rest of the world for relations, market, resources and partners.

In its Belt and Road Initiative, and China-Africa Summit, we have seen that China embraces the notion of being partners to other countries of the world and addresses sharing its success with other countries, the UN official said.

China, with its economic size and development priories, is leading the world in south-south cooperation, which is very important for UNDP in accomplishing its goals, he said.

Through its ecological civilization policies and policies its government is still mapping out, China’s development is benefiting the world, he said.

China’s renewable energy technology and mass production ability have lowered threshold for many African countries in getting their cleaner energy. This, again is a good example of what China has been doing in south-south cooperation, Steiner said.

The coming BRICS summit is expected to offer another platform for emerging countries to share their lessons in development and bring them closer in facing challenges ahead, he said.

BRICS — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, is recognized as an important force in global governance. China holds the BRICS presidency this year.


Xinhua. 2017-09-01. Putin says looking forward to developing strategic partnerships with BRICS

MOSCOW, Sept. 1 (Xinhua) — Russian President Vladimir Putin said Russia highly values the multifaceted cooperation with BRICS to create a fair multipolar world and equal development conditions for all, in a signed article published on Friday.

In the article for the 9th BRICS Summit to be held in Xiamen, China on Sept. 3-5, Putin said he appreciated China’s significant contribution as this year’s chair of the organization, “which has allowed the BRICS countries as a group to move forward in all key areas of our partnership, including politics, the economy and culture.”

The BRICS is the acronym for a group of five emerging economies — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. Since 2009, the BRICS countries have met annually at formal summits.

“It is important that our group’s activities are based on the principles of equality, respect for one another’s opinions and consensus. Within BRICS, nothing is ever forced on anyone,” Putin added, “This open and trust-based atmosphere is conducive to the successful implementation of our tasks”.

Putin said Russia stands for closer coordination of the BRICS countries’ foreign policies, primarily at the United Nations and Group of 20, as well as other international organizations. “Only the combined efforts of all countries can help bring about global stability and find solutions to many acute conflicts,” he wrote in the article.

As for the situation on the Korean Peninsula where tensions have grown recently, Putin said the region’s problems should only be settled through a direct dialogue of all the parties concerned without any preconditions. “Provocations, pressure, and militarist and insulting rhetoric are a dead-end road,” he wrote.

“Russia and China have created a roadmap for a settlement on the Korean Peninsula that is designed to promote the gradual easing of tensions and the creation of a mechanism for lasting peace and security,” Putin said in the article.

Putin also called for promoting the interaction of the BRICS countries in the area of global information security. He proposed that the five countries should come together to draft and adopt universal rules of responsible behavior in this sphere.

In the article, Putin pointed out that though Russia shares the BRICS countries’ concerns over the unfairness of the global financial and economic architecture, he felt confident that “the BRICS countries will continue to act in a consolidated manner against protectionism and new barriers in global trade.”

“We hope to be able to discuss new large-scale cooperation tasks in trade and investment and industrial cooperation at the Xiamen Summit,” Putin said.

“I am convinced that the Xiamen Summit will help invigorate our countries’ efforts towards finding solutions to the challenges of the 21st century and will propel cooperation within BRICS to a higher level,” he said.

Pubblicato in: Cina

Oriente. La nuova guerra del’oppio.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-01.

Gufo_019__

Gli Orientali hanno un’ottima memoria storica ed, al contrario della tendenza liberal democratica in Occidente, non solo non rinnegano il proprio passato, ma anzi lo pongono come fondamento del proprio presente e futuro.

Non c’è fanciullo in Oriente che non abbia studiato già alle elementari la storia delle guerre dell’oppio e la rivolta dei Boxer.

Forse, un micro ripasso della storia potrebbe essere utile.

«Le guerre dell’oppio furono due conflitti, svoltisi dal 1839 al 1842 e dal 1856 al 1860 rispettivamente, che contrapposero l’Impero cinese sotto la dinastia Qing al Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda, i cui interessi militari e commerciali nella regione erano stati posti sotto il controllo della Compagnia britannica delle Indie orientali. Le guerre giunsero al culmine di annose dispute commerciali tra i due Paesi: in risposta alla penetrazione commerciale britannica che aveva aperto il mercato cinese all’oppio proveniente dall’India britannica, la Cina inasprì i propri divieti sulla droga e ciò scatenò il conflitto.

Sconfitto in entrambe le guerre, l’Impero cinese fu costretto a tollerare il commercio dell’oppio e a firmare con i britannici i trattati di Nanchino e di Tientsin, che prevedevano l’apertura di nuovi porti al commercio e la cessione dell’isola di Hong Kong al Regno Unito. Ebbe così inizio l’era dell’imperialismo europeo in Cina, numerose altre potenze europee seguirono l’esempio e firmarono con Pechino trattati commerciali. Gli umilianti accordi con gli occidentali ferirono l’orgoglio cinese e alimentarono un sentimento nazionalista e xenofobo che si sarebbe poi espresso nelle rivolte di Taiping (1850-1864) e dei Boxer (1899-1901).

….

L’oppio era stato introdotto in Cina nel XVII secolo dagli olandesi, ma il dilagare della tossicodipendenza aveva indotto l’imperatore Yongzheng a proibirne nel 1729 la vendita e l’uso, permettendone l’importazione solo a fini terapeutici. In virtù di tale decisione, i britannici avevano evitato a lungo di portarlo in Cina, ed erano stati i portoghesi a continuarne l’esportazione a Macao per farne medicinali. La Compagnia britannica delle Indie orientali, dopo aver conquistato il Bengala sconfiggendo i francesi nella Battaglia di Plassey del 1757, iniziò la coltivazione intensiva del papavero da oppio assicurandosi il predominio nei traffici selezionando gradualmente una qualità di oppio molto migliore e imponendo un sensibile aumento del suo prezzo nei mercati internazionali, concentrando inizialmente le esportazioni nel Sudest asiatico. Per appianare i bilanci scompensati dalla sproporzione tra entrate e uscite con la Cina nonché da altri problemi tra cui i tagli delle sovvenzioni statali dopo l’indipendenza degli Stati Uniti, verso la fine del XVIII secolo la Compagnia britannica delle Indie orientali cominciò ad esportare oppio in Cina, dove malgrado la proibizione era tornato di moda specialmente tra le classi più abbienti.

….

Le nuove leggi predisposte dalla corte di Pechino per porre fine al fenomeno furono regolarmente eluse dai mercanti stranieri e la situazione creò nel Paese preoccupazioni sempre maggiori, una delle quali fu il timore che la diffusione dell’oppio tra le classi più povere potesse favorire eventuali rivolte. Un’altra delle ragioni per cui i cinesi non riuscivano ad estirpare il traffico fu la dilagante corruzione tra i suoi funzionari, in particolare i governatori di Canton.» [Fonte]

*

La memoria storica degli immani disastri provocati dall’uso di sostanze stupefacenti è vivida nella mente degli Orientali e costituisce uno dei tanti elementi di acredine nei confronti degli Occidentali.

I Governi orientali non hanno la minima intenzione di sottostare ad una nuova invasione di commercianti di droga, di assistere senza far nulla contro la droga che rende debosciati i suoi utilizzatori: per esempio, in Cina l’art. 347 del codice penale prevede la pena di morte per i reati connessi alla droga.

Né ci si illuda: gli Orientali covano nel loro animo uno spirito di rivalsa nei confronti dell’Occidente.

* * * * * * *

«Indonesia’s President Joko Widodo in July ordered police to shoot suspected drug dealers if they resisted arrest, saying “there should be no mercy”.»

*

«Recently, the President [Duterte] said he will also kill human rights advocates if the campaign against drugs is stopped because of them and the illegal drug problem gets worse»

*

Nelle Filippine è in vigore l’Act Strengthening Nongovernment Organizations (Ngos), e sue successive modificazioni, riportato sulla Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.

Soros George. Uno stato negli stati. Ecco i suoi principali voivodati.

Cina. Durissima risposta al report Usa sui ‘diritti umani’.

Orban contro Soros. Nuova legge sulle Ong.

Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administration of Activities of Overseas Nongovernmental Organizations in the Mainland of China.

Filippine. La situazione analizzata dal punto di vista cinese. Xinhua.

*

Non si resta quindi minimamente stupiti che quella parte del mondo occidentale che vive lucrando sullo spaccio della droga, quali i liberals democratici negli Stati Uniti e nell’Unione Europea, abbiano scatenato una guerra mediatica e politica contro i paesi orientali che hanno leggi proibizioniste circa la droga. In particolare, negli ultimi tempi, contro le Filippine di Mr Duterte.

Le finalità dei commercianti internazionali di droga sono sia di mero guadagno, lo spaccio di droga rende molto bene, sia quello di destabilizzazione delle facoltà mentali e volitive della popolazione. Esattamente gli stessi motivi che avevano portato alla guerra dell’oppio e, poi, a quella dei Boxer.

«Amnesty International has condemned what it described as an alarming number of police killings of suspected drug dealers in Indonesia.»

Ma chi è mai Amnesty International?

Quanto conta il suo parere?

Si presentino a libere elezioni e si potrà vedere nei fatti quanto contano.

Intano, fuori dall’Occidente contano meno di nulla.


Aljazeera. 2017-08-26. Duterte’s war on drugs and those reporting it

What’s behind the Philippine president’s war on the media and NGOs? Plus, reporting on the working class in the US.

*

On The Listening Post this week: The most violent week yet in Duterte’s Philippines sees over 90 killed and NGO workers threatened. Plus, reporting on labour and the working class in the US.

Duterte’s war on drugs and those reporting it

Since coming to power last June, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte has been on a mission to eradicate what he claims is the country’s pandemic drug problem.

The brutal crackdown on the drug trade in the country is showing no signs of slowing down. Last week, 58 alleged drug dealers and users were killed in and around the capital, Manila. One of the victims, a 17-year-old, made headlines. Police say he was killed in a two-way firefight. Eyewitnesses, backed by CCTV footage, tell a different story.

President Rodrigo Duterte has dismissed the killings of children as “collateral damage” while labelling anyone who criticises his deadly approach as an “enemy of the state”.

Contributors:

Maria Ressa, CEO, Rappler

Vergel Santos, chairman, Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

RJ Nieto, publisher, Thinking Pinoy

Karen Gomez-Dumpit, commissioner, Commission on Human Rights

Felipe Villamor, Philippines reporter, The New York Times


Aljazeera. 2017-08-26. Amnesty sounds alarm as Indonesia slays drug suspects

As police kill 60 people in 2016 compared to 18 last year, group says country could be following Philippines’ footsteps.

*

Amnesty International has condemned what it described as an alarming number of police killings of suspected drug dealers in Indonesia.

The rights group said on Wednesday that police had killed at least 60 suspects this year, compared to 18 in all of 2016.

The group warned that Indonesian authorities could be looking to emulate the “war on drugs” in the Philippines, in which thousands have been killed.

“This shocking escalation in unlawful killings by the police sounds serious alarms bells,” said Usman Hamid, Amnesty’s Indonesia director.

The group said it had collected data of the killings.

Shooting people on sight is not only unlawful, said Hamid, “it will also do nothing to address the root causes that lead to drug use in the first place”.

Indonesia’s President Joko Widodo in July ordered police to shoot suspected drug dealers if they resisted arrest, saying “there should be no mercy”.

His remarks drew comparison to those made by Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte, whose controversial crackdown on drugs has left more than 3,000 dead over the course of a year.

The killings in the Philippines may amount to “extrajudicial executions”, Amnesty International said.

The rights group accused the police of resembling a criminal enterprise, killing mainly poor people suspected of being drug users or sellers, or paying others to kill them.

“Duterte should not under any circumstances be considered a role model for Indonesia,” Usman said.

Of those killed in Indonesia in 2017, at least eight were foreigners, including three Chinese men.

Police said the suspects were shot because they resisted arrest, but no independent investigations were conducted, according to Amnesty International.

Indonesia has tough laws against drugs.

Since Widodo took office in 2014, Indonesia has executed 18 people for drug trafficking, defying international calls for mercy.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Mondiale, Politica Mondiale

Cina. Xiamen. Brics Plus alla conquista del mondo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-30.

Pechino-Cina

Abbiamo già riferito del Simposio di Quanzhou e del programma Belt and Road.

Cina. Quanzhou. I Brics decidono cosa farsene dell’Occidente.

Russia, Cina e Stati Uniti. Venezuela. I venezuelani sono comparse.

Belt and Road Forum. L’alternativa a Davos ed al G20.

Obor. Progetto cinese su di un terzo del pil mondiale, per ora.

Brics. Il Summit di settembre a Xiamen. Ripudio dell’Occidente.

Cina. Banche Cinesi e Belt and Road. Yuan come valuta internazionale.

Filippine. La situazione analizzata dal punto di vista cinese. Xinhua.

*

Cina. Inversione di rotta. Inizia la riduzione del debito.

*

I Brics crescono ogni giorno che passa.

Da un punto di vista meramente economico, se si considera il pil per potere di acquisto, il mondo genera 108,036,500 milioni Usd, la Cina 17,617,300 (16.31%) e gli Stati Uniti 17,418,00 (16.12%). L’Eurozona rende conto di 11,249,482 (10.41%) ed il Gruppo dei G7 di 31.825,293 (29.46%). Però i Brics conteggiano un pil ppa di 32,379,625 Usd, ossia il 29.97% del pil ppa mondiale. I Brics valgono come i paesi del G7.

Di conseguenza, la voce dell’Occidente vale nel mondo al massimo per il 29.46%, ma quella degli Stati Uniti vale solo il 16.12% e quella dell’Eurozona uno scarno 10.41%.

Il pil ppa rende bene l’idea, ma non è l’unico modo di conteggiare. Secondo altre metodiche i Brics varrebbero il 25% dell’economia mondiale e renderebbero conto del 50% della crescita dei sistemi economici. Un risultato molto simile al 29.97%.

Il pil ppa rende conto del reale potere di acquisto.

* * * * * * *

Brics. Il Summit di settembre a Xiamen. Ripudio dell’Occidente.

Cina. Banche Cinesi e Belt and Road. Yuan come valuta internazionale.

Filippine. La situazione analizzata dal punto di vista cinese. Xinhua.

 *

La Cina sta per lanciare il progetto Brics Plus.

The Valdai Discussion Club. 2017-07-19. BRICS-Plus: Alternative Globalization in the Making?

«Given that the BRICS is a unique grouping that is present in all key regions and continents of the developing world, it could serve as a platform for expanding South-South cooperation and economic integration across a wide range of areas. In this regard, rather that seeking to expand core membership, the BRICS+ construct is first and foremost about a different approach to economic integration and a different technology of how alliances are structured globally.»

The Valdai Discussion Club. 2017-07-19. BRICS Plus: New Technology, New Vision for Economic Integration

*

The Times of India. 2017-05-09. China wants ‘BRICS plus’ to include ‘friendly’ countries

The Quint. 2017-08-23. BRICS-Plus? Or a BRICS-Minus Modi Summit in Xiamen?

First Post. 2017-06-20. China says proposed ‘BRICS Plus’ will enhance cooperation with other countries, will not become military alliance

China Daily. 2017-04-17. ‘BRICS Plus’ can become new integration model for world economy

China Org. 2017-03-26. The BRICS-Plus paradigm

* * * * * *

«China will host the ninth BRICS annual summit in the southeastern coastal city of Xiamen, Fujian Province, from September 3 to 5»

*

«the growing impact of the association of emerging countries on the world»

*

«The actions of the BRICS members have a global impact rather than just being restricted to the five member countries»

*

«Foreign Minister Wang Yi said China would explore the expansion modalities for “BRICS Plus” and build a wider partnership by holding dialogues with other major developing countries»

*

«Currently, the BRICS group has five member countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – and potential new members such as Mexico, Pakistan and Sri Lanka»

*

«This governance approach could provide a reference point for other countries with some adaptations to meet varying national conditions …. various options for governance suited to their own situation»

*

«to discuss good practices of domestic governance as well as new approaches to global governance»

* * * * * * *

Cerchiamo di ragionare, nei limiti del possibile.

– Quanto a potere di spesa, al momento i Brics valgono come i paesi del G7;

– Già ora i Brics Plus sarebbero il blocco economico più grande del mondo;

– Prendendo atto del tasso di crescita, tra dieci anni, che passano presto, saranno il blocco economico capace di imporre le proprie regole al mondo, relegando l’Occidente a ruolo subalterno;

– Il “governance approach” dei Brics è esattamente l’opposto di quello occidentale o, più esattamente, di quello liberal e socialista ideologico, che esce storicamente battuto, in declino;

– I Brics hanno un obiettivo dichiarato, ossia quello di proporre, ed imporre de facto, il proprio “new approaches to global governance“.

* * * * * * *

Il modello di governo offerto dai cinesi tende a rispettare e valorizzare le singole identità statali, e questa è la carta vincente. Propone, non impone. Esattamente l’opposto della visione liberal. L’opposto di quanto nell’Unione Europea stanno cercando di fare Frau Merkel e Mr Macron. È immune da pruriti ideologici ed avversa la visione etica e morale dei liberal.

Distruggendo il proprio retaggio religioso, storico, culturale e sociale l’Occidente che abbatte le statue dei suoi grandi, che è ossessionato da ogni possibile perversione sessuale assunta a traguardo di civiltà, non fa altro che spianare la strada all’innalzamento dei Brics e della Cina.

Se non fosse fantapolitica, si dovrebbe concludere che i liberal democratici ed i socialisti ideologici europei siano al soldo della Russia e della Cina.

Nota.

L’articolo citato di China Org usa il termine “socialismo” secondo l’accezione cinese del termine, non secondo quella occidentale: si evitino le confusioni.


China Org. 2017-08-23. Huang Youyi: BRICS influence beyond five countries

“With improved cooperation, improved economy and shared solutions for fighting world challenges, BRICS will further expand its influence in the next decade,” predicted a Chinese expert on Thursday during a seminar in southeastern China.

Huang Youyi, a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) and executive vice president of the Translators Association of China, foresaw the growing impact of the association of emerging countries on the world stage during an interview with China.org.cn on the sidelines of the BRICS Seminar on Governance that opened Aug. 17 in Quanzhou, Fujian Province.

“The actions of the BRICS members have a global impact rather than just being restricted to the five member countries,” said Huang, pointing out that more countries were showing interest in the mechanism and would like to learn from each country’s successful development models.

As many as 160 people from government agencies, business circle and the academia in the BRICS nations and over 10 countries outside the bloc joined the seminar to discuss good practices of domestic governance as well as new approaches to global governance, leading to openness, inclusiveness, mutual benefits and win-win output.

Earlier this year, Foreign Minister Wang Yi said China would explore the expansion modalities for “BRICS Plus” and build a wider partnership by holding dialogues with other major developing countries and organizations, so as to turn BRICS into the world’s most influential platform for South-South cooperation.

Currently, the BRICS group has five member countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – and potential new members such as Mexico, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The seminar in Quanzhou, in Huang’s words, “fully reflects the BRICS spirit as well as China’s position of common consultation and win-win resolution”, with people from different parts of the world, including Africa, Asia and Latin America, coming together to exchange ideas and explore various options for governance suited to their own situation.

Explaining China’s approach to domestic governance, Huang said that, after many trials and tribulations and more than 100 years of experience, only in the last decades had the nation managed to find a path suitable to its own conditions, namely, the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, able to carry out reforms and meet various important goals.

This governance approach could provide a reference point for other countries with some adaptations to meet varying national conditions, he added.

Besides the domestic approach, China’s global governance style has met with strong support, with its ideas like building a community of shared future for mankind, inclusive development and common consultation gaining popularity worldwide.

This, Huang argued, was proved by the sheer number of international participants in and outside the BRICS mechanism attending the Quanzhou seminar.

“The idea of ‘BRICS Plus’ does sound attractive,” he added.

Before the organization, as expected, includes more members, he believed there would be all kinds of forums as well as annual meetings held under the BRICS mechanism involving the participation of more people outside of the five countries.

China will host the ninth BRICS annual summit in the southeastern coastal city of Xiamen, Fujian Province, from September 3 to 5, as the country takes the rotating chair of the influential bloc.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Sistemi Politici

Cina. Inversione di rotta. Inizia la riduzione del debito.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-08-28.

Pechino-Cina

李克强:抓住有利时机推动央企降杠杆

La caratteristica che ha permesso al Governo ed all’economia cinese di imporsi quale prima forza sui mercati mondiali è riassumibile in poche parole: meritocrazia ed empirismo totalmente deideologizzato.

Le azioni di governo politico ovvero economico dipendono dalle circostanze e non da ciò che reciterebbe una qualche teoria.

L’esatto opposto del modo di pensare occidentale.

È anche per questo motivo che gli occidentali trovano grande difficoltà a comprendere la Cina e sbagliano regolarmente interpretazioni e previsioni.

Il Governo Cinese ha varato una direttiva in accordo alla quale le imprese di stato dovranno ridurre la loro esposizione debitoria, anche attraverso un deleveraging appositamente studiato.

I miserandi economisti occidentali, liberal ideologici, trasecoleranno e prediranno il tracollo a breve della Cina: tutte le loro teorie sul debito sono diventate cascami storici.

«Lower debts can benefit the whole economy»

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«A government guideline to further reduce the debt ratios for central SOEs in an active and steady manner will also be rolled out.»

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«We should seize the opportunity and step up the deleveraging of SOEs. Lower debts can benefit the whole economy»

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«Central SOEs are the backbone of the economy»

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«In the first seven months of this year, central SOEs registered a profit of 846.9 billion yuan ($127.2 billion), up by 16.4 percent year-on-year, compared with a 3.7 percent drop in the same period last year»

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«Central SOEs’ debt ratio was 66.5 percent in July, down by 0.2 percentage points from the start of this year»

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«China will further reduce leverage at central State-owned enterprises by establishing multiple channels to reduce corporate debts»

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«Lower debts can benefit the whole economy»

Adesso tutto il mondo dovrà adeguarsi.

Dura lezione della storia dover andare a lezione dai cinesi per imparare l’economica classica di Adam Smith.

Nota. Soes è acronimo di State-owned enterprise.


The State Council. The People’s Republic Of China. 2017-08-26. China to step up deleveraging at central SOEs.

China will further reduce leverage at central State-owned enterprises by establishing multiple channels to reduce corporate debts, a State Council executive meeting chaired by Premier Li Keqiang decided on Aug 23.

In the first seven months of this year, central SOEs registered a profit of 846.9 billion yuan ($127.2 billion), up by 16.4 percent year-on-year, compared with a 3.7 percent drop in the same period last year. Central SOEs’ debt ratio was 66.5 percent in July, down by 0.2 percentage points from the start of this year, according to the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council.

The performance by central SOEs in quality and efficiency improvements over the past two years has received full affirmation from the Premier.

“Central SOEs are the backbone of the economy. We need to conduct in-depth analysis to find key drivers that contribute to the transition to profits and consolidate the upward momentum,” Premier Li said.

“We should seize the opportunity and step up the deleveraging of SOEs. Lower debts can benefit the whole economy,” he added.

The meeting decided that the government will establish an alert line mechanism for debt ratios of different overly leveraged sectors. Central SOEs will face strict control over investments out of their main business portfolios and in programs that could increase their debt ratios. Enterprises that see sharp profit growth will be urged to pay down their debts. A government guideline to further reduce the debt ratios for central SOEs in an active and steady manner will also be rolled out.

The debt-for-equity swaps will be pushed forward in line with market rules and the law, and explore new market-based models for the swaps. Agencies that implement the swaps will receive support to expand their funding channels. Companies that are invested or run by State capital or qualified central SOE funds will be encouraged to take part in the swaps using various market channels.