Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Sistemi Economici

Cina. I problemi di una economia matura.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-07-21.

2017-07-11__Cina__Pil__

La tabella dovrebbe essere eloquente. (Il dato per il 2016 è provvisorio).

Negli ultimi venti anni il pil cinese è decuplicato, sia se valutato in valore assoluto, sia se valutato come pil pro capite.

Se questo risultato appare semplicemente essere strabiliante, ancor più sbalorditivo è il fatto che il pil pro capite è passato dai 781 Usd del 1997 agli 8,113 Usd del 2016. In parole povere, la Cina è emersa da una condizione di miseria ad una di relativo benessere.

Non solo: queste cifre, già lusinghiere di per sé stesse, lo sarebbero ancora di più se esaminate alla luce del potere di acquisto: il pil pro capite ppa valeva nel 2016 14,107 Usd.

Sicuramente la strada verso un benessere generalizzato è ancora lunga, altrettanto sicuramente il miglioramento potrebbe essere più faticosa rispetto alla prima fase di crescita, ma il lavoro fatto è davvero immenso, senza nessun altro riscontro storico.

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È del tutto naturale che adesso inizino ad evidenziarsi molti dei problemi con i quali l’Occidente ha dovuto cimentarsi in passato. Sta vivendo una pausa di assestamento, che potrebbe anche essere alquanto dolorosa.

Questo titolo è davvero eloquente.

In China, rural rich get richer and poor get poorer

La Cina è entrata nel periodo economico in cui la ricchezza genera ulteriore ricchezza per chi ne dispone, mentre i meno abbienti sembrerebbero retrocedere, invece di proseguire a crescere, sia pure in ragione modesta.

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Parlare della Cina si scontra con un problema insormontabile: è un continente di quasi un miliardo e mezzo di persone. È evidente quanto gli indici medi a livello nazionale siano utili per una valutazione globale, ma inidonei a rappresentare simultaneamente tutte le realtà geoeconomiche. In linea generale, mentre le fasce costiere della Cina hanno quasi raggiunto i livelli di vita occidentali, tutte le zone interne a prevalente vocazione agricola sono tuttora sostanzialmente arretrate.

In questa fase però il macrofenomeno di interesse è l’urgente necessità di riequilibrare gli assetti finanziari, specialmente per far fronte alle nuove richieste di investimento. Se in passato erano sufficienti impegni modesti in relazione ad una realtà continentale, al momento gli investimenti devono essere cospicui per diventare poi a loro volta produttivi.

Tradotto in un linguaggio che descriva l’economia familiare, occorre avere pazienza, tanta pazienza. Fenomeni di questo tipo necessitano di tempi lunghi per essere risolti. E richiederebbero soprattutto di saper resistere alla tentazione di redistribuire artificiosamente il reddito.

La povertà non la si cura impoverendo i ricchi: così facendo si ritorna tutti poveri.

Nota. Avere pause di ripensamento non significa per nulla che la situazione si sia deteriorata. Significa solamente un riassestamento degli equilibri.

Cina. Q1 pil +6.9%.

Cina. Pil secondo trimestre +6.9%. Un esempio da seguire.

Germania. Le banche non son quasi più tedesche.

ICB of China è la più grande banca del mondo con attivi per 3.297 mld €.


South China Morning Post. 2017-07-09. As China grows, equal opportunity and social mobility are fast becoming a cruel lie

Joe Zhang considers how his family’s fortunes reflect the changing times in a newly wealthy China. Social mobility, which once enabled the talented and hardworking to make good, is now an unattainable dream for many.

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Twice a year, I go from Hong Kong to Jingmen (荊門), in central China’s Hubei ( 湖北 ) province, to visit my parents and other relatives. But my trip last week was depressing as I found most of my cousins and their children beating a reluctant retreat back to our village from coastal cities like Shenzhen because of dimming prospects and the soaring costs of living.

On my way to Jingmen, I visited my 55-year-old cousin, Jinghuai, in Yantian port in Shenzhen, where he has been a lorry driver for two decades. Jinghuai counts himself lucky as he bought a small two-bedroom flat six years ago for around 1 million yuan (HK$1.15 million) after pooling his adult children’s savings. When I visited him, eight people from four generations lived in it. But, now, he has to look for a new job; a driver’s life is getting harder with slowing port throughput. His 30-year-old son makes only 3,000 yuan a month as a warehouse guard at the port. Jinghuai’s options are very limited as he and his family cannot afford to relocate to another part of this expensive city.

Jinghuai’s brother, Jinggui, and sister, Jinghua, are in a tougher spot. Jinggui and his son recently lost their jobs as lorry drivers at Mawan, another port in Shenzhen, and are moving back to our village; so are Jinghua and her family. Jinghua had just quit her job in a garment factory and her daughter Juhua quit hers in a diamond shop, for the same reason: their salaries were barely enough to feed themselves.

Juhua, 19, spent two years in a polytechnic learning accounting. But her investment was totally wasted as she could not afford to study further, towards a diploma, and get the necessary accreditations for an accounting job. But even with the accreditations, she would have had trouble finding a job in a fiercely competitive labour market. After all, her blue-collar parents would not be able to give her tips for job interviews or open the right doors.

Back in Jingmen, my brother, Hualiang, and his wife have been out of work for two years, having left a hopeless labour market in Hainan ( 海南 ).

At my parents’ place, I met Jianxin and Fengling, my other cousins. I have not seen them for about 15 years. Both divorced, they have also returned from Taizhou (台州), in coastal Zhejiang ( 浙江 ) province, together with their grown-up children. They operated factory canteens there principally for migrant workers, but it became harder to continue their business due to the dwindling number of migrant workers there.

In 1979, I was extremely lucky to enter university and, four years later, I was offered a graduate position and then an economist job at the central bank in Beijing. In 1989, after barely three years on the job, the central bank sent me to Australia to pursue further studies. In those years, my humble background never affected my progress. In 1985, my sister, Junmei, became a manager at a power plant run by the Huadian Corporation.

Today, the rules of the game seem different. To get a job, who you know is far more important than before. Given the commercialisation of education, housing and everything else, equal opportunity and social mobility have become a cruel lie.

Twenty-three years ago, I came to work in Hong Kong’s investment banking industry. Initially I had many colleagues from working-class and even rural backgrounds. But, over time, more and more new hires come from rich and powerful families. I had become increasingly uncomfortable. As the head of research or of investment banking teams at several investment banks for close to two decades, I always found excuses to wiggle out of campus recruiting trips to the US, Europe and China. I was often sent résumés of privileged candidates, and I could not help but notice the changing socio-economic mix of the candidate pool, which reflected growing inequality and the worsening corruption in China as a whole. Many senior bankers had hired princelings to facilitate their business, a practice that in recent years has attracted the attention of anti-corruption investigators in both the US and Hong Kong.

Back in my village, my brother and cousins face a common challenge: their land has mostly given way to construction sites, and jobs are rare to come by. They have some savings but how long will that last?

Most of my cousins left their farmland about two decades ago for the construction boom in Shenzhen and Zhejiang, and their adult children joined them in recent years. Now their journey back to the village is going to be a painful one.

My cousin Jinghuai is staying put in Shenzhen for now. In 1979, he was almost beaten to death by public security officials for fighting with our village head, and I helped secure his release because I had the unique social status of being the first and only university student from the commune at the time. Jinghuai dreads moving back to the village, but he will have to if he cannot find another job in Shenzhen soon.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Cina. Pil secondo trimestre +6.9%. Un esempio da seguire.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-07-17.

Pechino-Cina

«Il Pil della Cina sale nel secondo trimestre 2017 al passo annuo del 6,9%»

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«Il governo ha fissato a inizio anno un obiettivo di crescita intorno al 6,5%»

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«il 6,7% del 2016 che è stato il ritmo più lento di oltre 25 anni»

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«+11% vendite dettaglio giugno, massimi da dicembre 2015»

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«+7,6% produzione industriale giugno, +6,9% in semestre»

* * * * * * *

La Cina è la dimostrazione vivente di come uno stato possa far crescere a ritmo sostenuto il proprio sistema economico.

Gli economisti classici, quelli che al momento non si studiano più in Occidente, sostenevano che esempi del genere avrebbero dovuto essere studiati ed imitati.

Sarebbero molti i punti da prendere in considerazione: ne citeremo solo alcuni.

«Il governo cinese ha ridotto la pressione fiscale alle piccole imprese, nell’ambito di un pacchetto di misure che punta ad aiutare l’economia. …. Si tratta di circa sei milioni di aziende. La misura fa parte di un pacchetto piu’ complessivo di stimoli all’economia approvato ieri dal governo su proposta del premier, Li Keqiang. Tra gli altri provvedimenti varati dall’esecutivo e’ previsto un fondo per lo sviluppo delle ferrovie, l’offerta di rimborsi fiscali e l’impegno a mantenere lo yuan a un livello “ragionevole” Per spingere il commercio con l’estero.» [Fonte]

*

«Il 19 aprile, il premier cinese Li Keqiang ha tenuto una riunione esecutiva del Consiglio di Stato durante la quale sono state decise ulteriori misure per ridurre la pressione fiscale e rilanciare l’economia reale attraverso la riduzione dei costi e l’aumento della sua forza trainante. La riunione ha deciso che attraverso il miglioramento dell’ambiente commerciale sarà possibile impegnarsi di più per aumentare la vitalità e l’innovazione delle imprese e consolidare la buona tendenza dell’economia attraverso una riqualificazione strutturale.» [Fonte]

* * *

In parole poverissime, lo stato deve mantenere un basso regime di pressione fiscale su imprese e cittadini contribuenti, in modo da lasciare loro le disponibilità effettive per poter compiere investimenti le imprese ed incrementare i consumi interni i Contribuenti. Meno stato e più privato.

Quando la tassazione sale oltre un certo limite, il sistema economico si blocca e si avvia alla stagnazione.

Di conserva, è necessario che lo stato si attivi a vivacizzare la produzione industriale: una nazione prospera se produce, non se consuma.

*

La Cina sta facendo esattamente l’opposto di quanto sta facendo l’Unione Europea.

Un particolare.

L’Unione Europea lancia altissimi lai:

«Un nuovo rapporto sostiene che il principale emettitore mondiale di CO2, la Cina, potrebbe raddoppiare le sue emissioni entro il 2030. Il paese asiatico afferma che l’aumento sarebbe dovuto alle attività produttive per conto dei mercati occidentali.»


Ansa. 2017-07-17. Cina, +6,9% Pil in secondo trimestre

 Il Pil della Cina sale nel secondo trimestre 2017 al passo annuo del 6,9%, meglio delle stime degli analisti (6,8%) e confermando il dato del primo trimestre, mentre su base congiunturale il rialzo è dell’1,7%, confermando le previsioni della vigilia e facendo meglio dell’1,3% dei primi tre mesi: i dati, diffusi dall’Ufficio nazionale di statistica, scontano alcune incertezze come quelle legate alla stretta sulle transazioni immobiliari e sui prestiti bancari. Il governo ha fissato a inizio anno un obiettivo di crescita intorno al 6,5%, dopo il 6,7% del 2016 che è stato il ritmo più lento di oltre 25 anni. Pur tra i rischi finanziari, rimarcati da ultimo la scorsa settimana da Fitch, il premier Li Keqiang ha detto a maggio di ritenere che il Paese possa centrare i target di crescita.

+11% vendite dettaglio giugno, massimi da dicembre 2015 – Le vendite al dettaglio sono salite in Cina a giugno dell’11% su base annua, in rialzo rispetto al 10,7% del mese precedente e del 10,6% stimato dagli analisti. Si tratta, secondo l’Ufficio nazionale di statistica, del ritmo più veloce da dicembre 2015, in scia alle spese per tlc (+18,5%), auto (+9,8%) e materiali per l’edilizia (+15,2%).

+7,6% produzione industriale giugno, +6,9% in semestre  – La produzione industriale in Cina accelera a giugno con un rialzo annuo del 7,6%, oltre il 6,5% relativo ai due mesi precedenti e alle stime degli analisti. Il dato nel primo semestre, secondo l’Ufficio nazionale di statistica, è del 6,9%, a fronte del 6,8% del primo trimestre. Il ritmo di giugno è il più sostenuto da marzo, spinto dal comparto manifatturiero (+8%) e dalla produzione di elettricità, gas e acqua (+7,3%).


Reuters. 2017-07-17. China second quarter GDP growth tops forecasts on strong investment, consumption

BEIJING (Reuters) – China’s economy grew faster than expected in the second quarter as industrial output and consumption picked up and investment remained strong, though analysts expect slower growth over the rest of the year as policymakers seek to reduce financial risk.

The economy grew 6.9 percent in the second quarter from a year earlier, the same rate as the first quarter, the National Bureau of Statistics said on Monday. Analysts polled by Reuters had expected the economy to expand 6.8 percent in the April-June quarter.

On a quarterly basis, growth picked up to 1.7 percent from 1.3 percent in the first quarter, in line with expectations.

Strength in retail sale and industrial output data helped offset a weak start for China stocks, which may have been linked to talk of tighter financial regulations.

Growth in China’s economy this year has beaten expectations as exports recover and property construction remains strong, though many analysts expect the world’s second-largest economy to lose steam later in the year as policy measures to rein in red-hot housing prices and a rapid build-up in debt take a greater toll on growth.

“Overall, the economy continued to show steady progress in the first half…but international instability and uncertainties are still relatively large, and the domestic long-term buildup of structural imbalances remains,” the statistics bureau said in a statement with the data.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Geopolitica Africa

Cina. Prima base militare permanente a Djibouti in Africa. Prima non c’era.

iuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-07-16.

2017-07-14__Cina_Gibuti__

«China has dispatched troops to Djibouti in advance of formally establishing the country’s first overseas military base.»

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«Two Chinese Navy warships left the port of Zhanjiang on Tuesday, taking an undisclosed number of military personnel on the journey across the Indian Ocean»

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«China joins the US, France and Japan, among others, with permanent bases in Djibouti, a former French colony with a population of less than one million residents»

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«Though small in both population and size, Djibouti’s position on the tip of the Horn of Africa offers strategic access to the Bab el-Mandeb Strait»

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«The strait, which is only 18 miles wide at its narrowest point, connects the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean beyond»

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«The US military has some 4,000 troops at Camp Lemonnier, a 100-acre base for which it signed a 10-year, $630 million lease in 2014»

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2017-07-13__Cina_Gibuti__

Negli ultimi anni la Cina ha compiuto uno sforzo non indifferente per ristrutturare le proprie forze armate.

Nel 2009 la Cina aveva un budget militare di 98.8 miliardi Usd, salito a 145.8 miliardi nel 2015, ed arrivato a 215.7 miliardi Usd nel 2016.

Negli ultimi anni ha dispiegato un grande impegno nel riarmo delle proprie forze di mare.

Tutto ciò associato ad una intensa attività diplomatica ed economica di penetrazione nel continente africano

Kenya. Nuova linea ferroviaria Nairobi – Mombasa finanziata dalla Cina.

«Cost comparisons have been made between this line and Ethiopia’s 756km Addis Ababa-Djibouti line launched last year»

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Cina. C919 ed An-225. Si sviluppa l’industria aeronautica cinese.

«La Cina ha rilevato i progetti relativi all’An-124 ed all’An-225. Sono aerei da trasporti di progettazione e costruzione russa. Il primo è un quadrimotore turboventola per il trasporto strategico che volando alla velocità di crociera di 850 km/h può trasportare 150 tonnellate per circa 5,000 kilometri. Il secondo è un esamotore turbofan che ad una velocità di crociera i 860 km/h può trasportare 250 tonnellate di materiali per 15,000 kilometri.»

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Militari, armi e basi: così la Cina mostra i muscoli in Africa

«Negli ultimi cinque anni la presenza militare cinese in Africa è cambiata. Fino al 2012 si limitava a fornire supporto di basso profilo nelle operazioni internazionali di peacekeeping, preferiva mandare ingegneri e medici che militari. Oggi non è più così. Di fatto la Repubblica popolare è l’ottavo paese per numero di unità militari che partecipano alle operazioni dei Caschi blu in Africa e il primo in assoluto tra i cinque membri permanenti del Consiglio di sicurezza Onu.»

*

Cina e Myanmar. Un possibile sbocco sull’Oceano Indiano.

Cina ed Africa. Una politica di rapporti internazionali paritetici.

Cina. Consolida il suo impero in Africa.

Pirateria. Fregata cinese abborda nave piratata e la libera.

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Nell’aprile di questo anno una fregata cinese che pattugliava il Golfo di Aden ha liberato una nave da carico dai pirati che la avevano assalita.

«Giornali cinesi locali avrebbero riportato che molti dei pirati sarebbero morti dopo diversi giorni di atroci agonie, amorosamente accuditi da cinesi specializzati nella bisogna».

La pirateria somala è quasi svanita nel nulla per carenza di volontari. I metodi cinesi sono maieutici.

*

Una unica considerazione.

Prima i cinesi non c’erano, ma oggi ci sono.

Nota.

Abbiamo riportato un articolo persino della Cnn, emittente americana che ha dovuto licenziare numerosi suoi giornalisti per aver riportato notizie false ed altre falsificate. Tranquillizziano i signori Lettori: abbiamo controllato con cura che, almeno in questa occasione, non raccontassero troppe frottole, pur essendo la Cnn uno dei sacri templi liberal democratici.


Bbc. 2017-07-12. Djibouti: Chinese troops depart for first overseas military base

Ships carrying Chinese troops are heading to Djibouti to set up Beijing’s first overseas military base, reports state media.

China says the support base will be used for peacekeeping and humanitarian aid in Africa and West Asia.

It will also be used for military co-operation, naval exercises and rescue missions, Xinhua said.

China has ramped up investment in Africa, as well as rapidly modernised its military in recent years.

The Xinhua report said the ships departed from the port city of Zhanjiang in China’s southern Guangdong province on Tuesday.

It did not specify the number of troops or ships that departed for Djibouti, nor when the base would start operations.

The report said the Djibouti base came after “friendly negotiations” between the two countries. Previous reports said construction began last year.

The base is widely seen as a move by China to stake its military presence in the region.

But an editorial (in Chinese) on Wednesday in the state-run Global Times said that the “essential purpose of China’s development of its military might is to protect ‘China’s safety’, and is not about seeking to control the world”.

The newspaper pointed out that the US, Japan and France also have military bases in Djibouti.

Djibouti, a tiny country at the Horn of Africa, is favoured for its location as it sits near a busy shipping route. It is also seen as a stable country in an otherwise volatile region.

In 2015, at a major summit with African nations, China pledged to invest $60bn (then £40bn) in Africa’s development.

Besides becoming the continent’s largest trading partner, it has also poured in funds and manpower for infrastructure projects.

Many of them are railways linking up African countries, including one that connects Djibouti with the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, as well as railways in Angola, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia.

In return, Africa supplies China with natural resources, minerals and energy.

China also embarked on its first foreign peacekeeping mission in South Sudan in 2015.


Cnn. 2017-07-12. China sends troops to Djibouti, establishes first overseas military base

China has dispatched troops to Djibouti in advance of formally establishing the country’s first overseas military base.

Two Chinese Navy warships left the port of Zhanjiang on Tuesday, taking an undisclosed number of military personnel on the journey across the Indian Ocean.

An editorial Wednesday in the state-run Global Times stressed the importance of the new Djibouti facility — in the strategically located Horn of Africa — to the Chinese military.

“Certainly this is the People’s Liberation Army’s first overseas base and we will base troops there. It’s not a commercial resupply point… This base can support Chinese Navy to go farther, so it means a lot,” said the paper.

The Global Times said the main role of the base would be to support Chinese warships operating in the region in anti-piracy and humanitarian operations.

“It’s not about seeking to control the world,” said the editorial.

Chinese military presence

At a regular press briefing Wednesday, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang described the base as part of ongoing efforts to help bring peace and security to the region.

“China has been deploying naval ships to waters off Somalia in the Gulf of Aden to conduct escorting missions since 2008,” said Geng. “The completion and operation of the base will help China better fulfill its international obligations in conducting escorting missions and humanitarian assistance … It will also help promote economic and social development in Djibouti.”

China has expanded its military ties across Africa in recent years. According to a report by the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR), cooperation with Africa on peace and security is now an “explicit part of Beijing’s foreign policy.”

In 2015 Chinese President Xi Jinping committed 8,000 troops to the UN peacekeeping standby force — one fifth of the 40,000 total troops committed by 50 nations — China also pledged $100 million to the African Union standby force and $1 billion to establish the UN Peace and Development Trust Fund.

More than 2,500 Chinese combat-ready soldiers and police officers are now deployed in blue-helmet missions across the African continent, with the largest deployments in South Sudan (1,051), Liberia (666), and Mali (402), according to the ECFR.

“Blue-helmet deployments give the PLA a chance to build up field experience abroad — and to help secure Chinese economic interests in places such as South Sudan,” said the ECFR report.

Africa is home to an estimated one million Chinese nationals, with many employed in infrastructure projects backed by the Chinese government.

“China’s involvement in African security is a product of a wider transformation of China’s national defense policy. It is taking on a global outlook … and incorporating new concepts such as the protection of overseas interests and open seas protection,” said the ECFR report.

US ‘strategic interests’

China joins the US, France and Japan, among others, with permanent bases in Djibouti, a former French colony with a population of less than one million residents.

Though small in both population and size, Djibouti’s position on the tip of the Horn of Africa offers strategic access to the Bab el-Mandeb Strait.

The strait, which is only 18 miles wide at its narrowest point, connects the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean beyond.

One of the world’s most important sea lanes, millions of barrels of oil and petroleum products pass through the strait daily, according to GlobalSecurity.org.

US Marine Corps Gen. Thomas Waldhauser, the head of the Pentagon’s Africa Command, stressed Djibouti’s location during a visit to the US Camp Lemonnier garrison there earlier this year.

“This particular piece of geography is very, very important to our strategic interests,” Waldhauser said in joint appearance with US Defense Secretary James Mattis.

The US military has some 4,000 troops at Camp Lemonnier, a 100-acre base for which it signed a 10-year, $630 million lease in 2014, according to media reports.

Elsewhere in Djibouti, the US military operates the Chabelley Airfield, from which the Pentagon stages drone airstrikes, likely into Somalia and across the Bab el-Mandeb Strait into Yemen, according to the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College in New York. The Pentagon is investing millions in the base, and satellite photos show several construction projects, the center reported last year.

‘Get-rich-quick scheme’

Japan, which has seen tense relations with China over disputed islands in the East China Sea, has established what it calls an “activity facility” to support its anti-piracy efforts there.

A spokesperson for the Japan Self Defense Forces said 170 troops are at its 30-acre facility in Djibouti.

Lease terms would not be released, but Japan will spend about $9 million to operate the facility this fiscal year, the spokesperson said.

Edward Paice, director of the London-based Africa Research Institute, said a base in Djibouti makes a lot of sense for China, just as it does for Japan or the US.

“It (China) has cited its desire to play a greater role in peacekeeping, and it has combat troops in both South Sudan and Mali. It’s logical that it needs an actual base somewhere in Africa, which is really no different from the Americans saying that they need Camp Lemonnier as a headquarters for operations in Africa, whether in peacekeeping or counterterror or whatever,” Paice said on The Cipher Brief website.

Paice points out that China made a substantial investment in Djibouti — about $500 million, according to reports — to build the Djibouti portion of a rail line to the capital of neighboring Ethiopia.

“It’s a confluence of these factors — trade, military, and stability in the host country’s government” that brought China to Djibouti, Paice said.

Meanwhile, for Djibouti, it’s all about money, Paice said. “This is a fantastic get-rich-quick scheme — to rent bits of desert to foreign powers. It’s as simple as that.”

Pubblicato in: Cina, Finanza e Sistema Bancario

ICB of China è la più grande banca del mondo con attivi per 3.297 mld €.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-07-13.

Banchieri__101

Ricerche e Studi S.p.A. MBRES, Ufficio Studi Mediobanca ha rilasciato il Report «Dati Cumulativi delle principali Banche Internazionali»

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«ICB of China diventa a fine 2016 la più grande banca del mondo con attivi per 3.297 miliardi di euro, scalzando JP Morgan Chase che scivola in seconda posizione (3.178 miliardi).»

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«Delle prime sei, quattro banche sono cinesi, due statunitensi, la settima è giapponese (Mitsubishi)»

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«Lo studio analizza risultati economici e struttura patrimoniale dei 66 maggiori gruppi bancari internazionali: ventotto hanno sede in Europa, quattordici in Giappone e altri quattordici negli Stati Uniti. La Cina, cui è dedicato un apposito focus, è presente con le sue dieci maggiori banche»

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«Dal 2009 la cinese Industrial Bank è cresciuta più di tutti (+357%), ma tutte le cinesi hanno almeno raddoppiato la dimensione»

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«Solo la statunitense Capital One tiene il passo con loro (+110%).»

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«La britannica HSBC in ottava posizione è la prima banca europea (2.352 miliardi attivi) e precede la francese BNP Paribas ( 2.341). UniCredit resta 24esima (879 miliardi, -7,5%), Intesa SP perde una posizione al 35esimo (766 miliardi, +16%).»

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Partendo virtualmente dal nulla, in meno di 27 anni la Cina è riuscita a piazzare quattro sue banche nel novero delle prime dieci a livello mondiale. Negli ultimi otto anni la Industrial Bank è cresciuta del +357%.

Sono molte le ragioni di un simile successo, che non trova riscontro negli annali della storia economica. Qui si vorrebbe sottolinearne solo alcuni.

– Il personale bancario cinese è selezionato con criteri meritocratici davvero molto rigidi tra una popolazione studentesca a sua volta sottoposta ad uno stretto vaglio meritocratico. Ma se essere assunti da una banca cinese è difficile, molto difficile, ancor di più è il rimanervi.

Coloro che non sanno mantenere i ritmi e non raggiungono il livello prestazioni / costo richiesti sono eliminati in modo quasi automatico. La politica si intromette, ma in punta di piedi, solo ai massimi livelli, ma con grande circospezione.

– Con un cost-income ratio del 35,5% nel 2015, quasi 29 punti percentuali in meno del valore medio delle banche di riferimento, è facile prevedere a breve-medio termine una netta prevalenza del sistema bancario cinese.

«Ha poi contribuito al risultato, in modo determinante, la bassa incidenza dei costi operativi, con un cost-income ratio del 35,5% nel 2015, quasi 29 punti percentuali in meno del valore medio delle banche della triade. Lo scostamento risulta particolarmente evidente nella componente costo del lavoro, pari al 16,9% dei ricavi, contro il 33,8% ed il 36,3% rispettivamente delle banche degli Stati Uniti ed europee. Il costo del lavoro per dipendente delle banche cinesi risulta peraltro in forte crescita: +ll% in media all’anno dai 2006 al 2015, mentre il numero degli occupati è aumentato del 35% circa.»


Reuters. 2017-07-13. Banche internazionali, Mediobanca: sale la marea cinese, ICB of China prima per attivi

MILANO (Reuters) – ICB of China diventa a fine 2016 la più grande banca del mondo con attivi per 3.297 miliardi di euro, scalzando JP Morgan Chase che scivola in seconda posizione (3.178 miliardi). Delle prime sei, quattro banche sono cinesi, due statunitensi, la settima è giapponese (Mitsubishi).

Il sorpasso è sancito dall’aggiornamento annuale dell’indagine sulle principali Banche Internazionali dell’Area studi Mediobanca, presentato oggi.

Lo studio analizza risultati economici e struttura patrimoniale dei 66 maggiori gruppi bancari internazionali: ventotto hanno sede in Europa, quattordici in Giappone e altri quattordici negli Stati Uniti. La Cina, cui è dedicato un apposito focus, è presente con le sue dieci maggiori banche.

Dal 2009 la cinese Industrial Bank è cresciuta più di tutti (+357%), ma tutte le cinesi hanno almeno raddoppiato la dimensione. Solo la statunitense Capital One tiene il passo con loro (+110%).

La britannica HSBC in ottava posizione è la prima banca europea (2.352 miliardi attivi) e precede la francese BNP Paribas ( 2.341). UniCredit resta 24esima (879 miliardi, -7,5%), Intesa SP perde una posizione al 35esimo (766 miliardi, +16%).

Lo studio presenta anche alcuni dati del primo trimestre 2017: l’Europa è più dinamica degli Usa per ricavi (+4,1% che si confronta con +3,9%) e risultato netto (+19,7% vs +11,4%).

Tornando al 2016, i ricavi della banche Usa sono cresciuti dell’1,7%, in Europa sono calati del 6,2%. Le banche europee hanno ceduto margine d’interesse (-5,3% vs +3,8% in Usa)e commissioni (-6% vs -2,6%) e non si sono risollevate neanche con il trading (-14% vs +14%).

Giocoforza il contenimento dei costi operativi (-2,8% in Europa e -0,4% in USA), anche perché le rettifiche su crediti continuano a essere consistenti (+10,8% Europa, +22,1% in Usa). Il risultato corrente si contrae di quasi il 25% in Europa e cresce del 2% negli Usa, quello netto cade del 32% in Europa (5 istituti su 21 in perdita) e migliora del 23,6% negli Usa.

Le banche europee hanno maggiori costi operativi di quelle Usa (cost/income a 68,9% rispetto 61%) e maggiori svalutazioni dei crediti. Sono meno redditizie con un roe a 2,8% da 9,4%, fanno meno raccolta con depositi (43,5% del totale attivo vs 49,4%) e più con obbligazioni (13,6% vs 9,2%).

Le banche Ue hanno però migliori ratio regolamentari (total capital ratio: 18,7% vs 15,1%).

Guardando alle maggiori banche italiane, i crediti dubbi sono al 6,7% degli impieghi, quasi quattro volte la media europea (1,8%), anche se in riduzione (8,8% nel 2014 e 8,3% nel 2015). Fra le altre peculiarità, presentano elevate esposizioni al debito sovrano, che rappresenta il 17,1% del totale attivo (9,7% la media europea).

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Mondiale, Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici, Putin, Russia, Trump, Unione Europea

G20. Parole e fatti. Adesso vedremo quanto valga Frau Merkel.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela

2017-07-06.

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Il mondo ha problemi ben più gravi ed importanti del ‘clima‘ e del ‘free trade‘ nei quali la Bundeskanzlerin Frau Merkel vorrebbe restringere le discussioni in senso al G20.

Questi problemi sono politici, economici e militari. Argomento questo ultimo di cui nessuno avrebbe piacere di parlare, ma che pesa come un macigno: è il convitato di pietra.

Frau Merkel si gioca in due giorni la sua reputazione, correndo il serio pericolo di ritrovarsi isolata nei fatti: sicuramente rinnovata in una cancelleria che nessuno stia più a sentire. Ha deciso di sfidare Mr Trump: ora faccia vedere le sue carte.

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«Chancellor Angela Merkel wants to focus the G20 summit on her two pet issues of climate change and world trade. She’ll need to perform miracles to make it a success.»

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«the G20 is more divided than at any point since meetings in the current format began nine years ago at the height of the financial crisis.»

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«Mr. Trump sees Germany as an economic rival rather than a strategic partner»

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«The German economics ministry is already drafting concrete plans to retaliate if the US imposes import tariffs on German products»

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«Climate policy is even more difficult. There’s no sign yet of any compromise. Ms. Merkel has just reiterated her commitment to the Paris climate agreement as “irriversible and non-negotiable.” She can’t make meaningful concessions without being seen as caving»

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«G20 governments are providing nearly 4 times more public finance to fossil fuels than to clean energy. With the United States indicating that it intends to pull out of the Paris Agreement, other governments must provide leadership in the clean energy transition: the remaining G20 governments will need to step up. Governments simply cannot be climate leaders while continuing to finance fossil fuels at current rates. …. public energy financing in G20 countries and at the major multilateral development banks (not including national-level subsidies or investments by majority government-owned banks and state-owned enterprises) adds up to $122.9 billion annually averaged from 2013 to 2015 – or roughly 7 percent of the total estimated $1.8 trillion in annual global investment in energy.» [Price of Oils]

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«From 2013 to 2015, the G-20 nations spent $71.8 billion annually supporting fossil fuels, the study said, compared with $18.7 billion each year on direct support for clean energy such as solar, wind, geothermal or hydro power. Most of the fossil fuels money went to oil and gas exploration, but some also went to coal, which critics say is the dirtiest-burning fuel and the greatest driver of the greenhouse gas pollution that the Paris treaty was supposed to address»

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«If other G-20 governments are serious about standing up to Trump’s climate denial and meeting their commitments under the Paris agreement, they need to stop propping up the outdated fossil fuel industry with public money»

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I dati di bilancio, ossia il denaro pubblico investito effettivamente, sono chiarissimi: l’Accordo di Parigi è una farsa. Una cosa sono le parole altisonanti ed una totalmente differente il denaro sborsato.

E Frau Merkel si presenta al G20 con un operato ben poco credibile: le sue azioni contraddicono vistosamente le sue parole. Difficile prestarle fede.

Merkel, Trump e G20. Vincere o morire. – Handelsblatt.

Macron. Affarucci in barba a sanzioni, ‘clima’ e diritti umani. Gli affari francesi sono sacri.

Putin e Merkel. Una strana telefonata. Help me, please, Mr Putin!

G20. Il cuoco servirà cosciotti Merkel mit bratkartoffeln.

Merkel. «Tedeschi, volete ‘clima’ od acciaio?»

Macron & Merkel Masonry Ldt sulla graticola di Mr Trump.

Trump. Sanzioni contro la Russia che massacrano Francia e Germania.

Tra Germania e Usa è scontro anche sul gasdotto Nord Stream 2

Industriali tedeschi: Trump ha ragione e Merkel torto. – Handelsblatt.

Francia e Germania piangono non sul clima ma sull’Unep. Un gran bel gruzzolo.

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Come se tutto questo non bastasse, ci sono i problemi della sicurezza e militari. Si potrebbe partire dalle differenti visioni in seno alla Nato, al fatto che gli Usa sono stanchi di essere gli unici a finanziarne i costi specie dell’armamento atomico, ma si dovrebbe proseguire con la guerra in Siria ed i precari equilibri mediorientali, per arrivare alla fine al nodo Nord Korea ed ai delicatissimi equilibri con Russia e Cina.

Questi argomenti fanno sicuramente aggio sui temi tanto a cuore di Frau Merkel, che non disponendo di forze armate in questo settore strategico conta come la polvere nelle strade.

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L’Unione Europea è divisa: profondamente divisa.Queto è solo un piccolo, ultimo esempio.

«The countries where Mr. Trump has the most widespread support are Poland (73 percent see the US favorably) and Hungary (63 percent) …. Mr. Trump will undoubtedly try to deepen the EU’s internal divisions, by playing its eastern flank against its western members» [Handelsblatt]

Se tutti ci si augura che Frau Merkel riesca a mettere tutti di accordo, con altrettanta franchezza si dovrebbe concludere che questa sia una missione impossibile.


The Washington Times. 2017-07-06. Merkel to take charge of G-20 agenda, press multilateralism message to Trump

BERLIN — When President Trump arrives late Thursday for his inaugural gathering of leaders from the world’s 20 largest economies, he will be contending not only with Russian President Vladimir Putin in their fraught first face-to-face meeting, but also with host Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, an experienced leader who has clashed with Mr. Trump and hopes to keep the summit tightly focused on her favored agenda.

The biggest theatrics at the Friday-Saturday Group of 20 summit in Hamburg center on the highly anticipated meeting between Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin, as well as violent street protests planned by left-wing extremists and anarchists who have descended on the northern German port city in recent days.

But for most Germans, the most significant aspect of the G-20 is that Ms. Merkel, a staunch backer of “green energy” and multilateral free trade policies, is hosting the summit on her own turf — she was born in Hamburg — and could be the heaviest hitter at a gathering that includes the world’s most famous and nationalistic strongmen, including Mr. Trump, Mr. Putin and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Her local allies note that Ms. Merkel is the only world leader to have attended every G-20 summit, which includes the leading industrial and developing nation economies, since the first was held in 2008.

Angela Merkel knows that maybe she’s the most experienced head of government who will be at the G-20,” said Juergen Hardt, a member of the German chancellor’s Christian Democratic Union party and chairman of the foreign affairs committee in the Bundestag, Germany’s parliament.

“This is her chance to show that the multilateral way is the best way,” Mr. Hardt said in an interview Wednesday. “We need to enforce multilateral structures, but we have some leaders in the world who are not convinced yet that the multilateral approach is the better way to solve problems.”

In addition to the crises of the day, Mr. Trump is walking into unfriendly territory where his “America first” foreign and economic policy clash with cherished EU ideals.

Mr. Hardt pointed to seething EU frustration with Mr. Trump’s withdrawal from the 2015 Paris climate accord — the vast international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions — on grounds, according to Mr. Trump, that it unfairly stacked the deck against the U.S. and “doesn’t serve America’s interests.”

Ms. Merkel has suggested that she will use the G-20 as a high-profile stage to dramatize to Mr. Trump the fallout from his Paris decision.

“We cannot expect easy discussions on climate change at the G-20 summit,” she told German lawmakers last week.

More generally, Ms. Merkel has expressed distaste with Mr. Trump’s protectionist trade rhetoric, including sharp criticism of Germany’s bilateral trade surplus, and plans to rally world leaders behind the cause of free trade through large multinational agreements.

Anyone who “thinks that the problems of this world can be solved by protectionism and isolation lives under a huge misconception,” Ms. Merkel said without naming any names.

The message seemed tailored to win over Asian leaders who will be in attendance at the G-20, most notably Japan and South Korea, which are still reeling from Mr. Trump’s torpedoing of the Trans-Pacific Partnership — a massive trade agreement that the Obama administration spent years trying to reach between nations from Asia to North and South America.

In a deal whose timing will send a message, Japan and the European Union indicated that they are ready to announce a wide-ranging free trade agreement on Thursday as the G-20 summit opens.

EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom told reporters that she was “quite confident” that a broad agreement can be announced with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to lower tariffs on autos and agricultural goods.

“You can do good, fair, transparent and sustainable trade agreements where you win and I win, and not the American view, which seems to be, ‘You lose and I win,’” Ms. Malmstrom said.

If Mr. Trump is having second thoughts about trade, though, it was not evident from his Twitter account as he departed Washington on Wednesday night for a trip that includes a stop in Poland.

“The United States made some of the worst Trade Deals in world history,” Mr. Trump tweeted. “Why should we continue these deals with countries that do not help us?”

The president’s bilateral meeting with Mr. Putin is likely to dominate news from the summit after months of saturated media coverage about Russian meddling in the presidential election and five ongoing investigations in Washington into suspected collusion between Trump campaign aides and Moscow — charges that Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin both vehemently deny.

But with Islamic State, Ukraine, Afghanistan and now the North Korean missile launch on the list of bilateral issues Russia and the U.S. have to discuss, it’s not clear how much time each crisis will receive. White House deputy press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders wouldn’t say Wednesday whether Mr. Trump even plans to raise the issue of election interference with Mr. Putin.

“We’re not going to get ahead of their meetings,” she told reporters traveling with the president.

Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson, who will attend the G-20 gathering, said in a statement Wednesday night that Syria — and the endgame after the impending defeat of Islamic State — will be one topic that Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin will definitely discuss.

“The United States and Russia certainly have unresolved differences on a number of issues, but we have the potential to appropriately coordinate in Syria in order to produce stability and serve our mutual security interests,” Mr. Tillerson said. “If our two countries work together to establish stability on the ground, it will lay a foundation for progress on the settlement of Syria’s political future.”

“The United States believes Russia, as a guarantor of the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad] and an early entrant into the Syrian conflict, has a responsibility to ensure that the needs of the Syrian people are met and that no faction in Syria illegitimately retakes or occupies areas liberated from [Islamic State] or other terrorist groups’ control,” he added.

During the election campaign, Mr. Trump called for friendlier relations with Mr. Putin to join forces against the Islamic State terrorist group. But amid the probes, the White House is treading cautiously about expectations for the meeting and how Mr. Putin might portray it.

Russia is a major power, and it can play a constructive or a not-constructive role on a whole host of international issues,” said Jeffrey Rathke, a foreign policy analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. “So there remains that desire for an improved relationship.”

But he added, “There clearly are risks when you’ve got a foreign policy process as disorganized as it appears to be in this administration.”

For Ms. Merkel, the real push will be to get the G-20 countries to agree that the best way to address the central challenges facing humankind today, whether it’s environmental change, terrorism, immigration or refugee flows, is through tightly woven multinational cooperation and agreements, Mr. Hardt said.

The extent to which she will be successful is up for debate. Germany will “no doubt do its best to refocus G-20 commitment on global cooperation,” said Fyodor Lukyanov, who heads the Council on Foreign and Defense Policy, a think tank of high-ranking Russian government officials and business leaders in Moscow.

“But [she] has no magic wand,” Mr. Lukyanov wrote in an analysis circulated this week by the U.S.-based Council on Foreign Relations.

“The global economy faces acute problems of a purely political nature, [and] it was feared in 2008 that protectionism would be the spontaneous reaction of several governments,” he wrote. “It is now the deliberate and official policy of the most powerful member of G-20, the United States. If the United States proclaims ‘America First,’ it is just [a] matter of time until the rest of the world will turn to more mercantilist thinking as well.”

‘Militant resistance’

The likelihood is also high for clashes between demonstrators and some 20,000 German police officers who have set up heavily guarded perimeters around Hamburg. With posters plastered around other German cities calling for protests in Hamburg, as many as 100,000 demonstrators are expected, although reports say the danger stems from about 8,000 left-wing extremists believed to be heading to the city.

While the protesters will speak out against a wide range of issues such as war, nuclear power, climate change, racism and big business, the motto for one of the approximately 30 demonstrations has been announced as “Welcome to hell.”

“It’s a combative message,” organizer Andreas Blechanschmidt told Agence France-Presse. “But it’s also meant to symbolize that G-20 policies worldwide are responsible for hellish conditions like hunger, war and the climate disaster.”

He described plans to try to block access to the venue where G-20 leaders will gather and said activists “reserve for themselves the option of militant resistance” against police.

 


The Washington Times. 2017-07-06. Despite Paris accord, G-20 countries invest four times as much in fossil fuels as green energy

The biggest critics of President Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate accord are also the world’s biggest hypocrites on energy policy, top environmental groups charged Wednesday in a report that found many top nations’ rhetoric on cutting emissions doesn’t line up with how and where they spend their money.

The study examined Group of 20 member countries and was released a day before Mr. Trump arrived in Germany for meetings with other members of the key international group, with energy and climate change expected to be at the top of the agenda.

The key finding: The G-20 nations spend roughly four times as much in public financing for fossil fuels as they do supporting renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. The report examines loans, grants, guarantees, insurance and other types of public finance offered either by the governments, government-owned financial institutions and credit agencies, and multilateral groups made up of G-20 countries.

2017-07-07__Hamburg__002 trumps_climate_war_74848_c0-250-4832-3067_s885x516

From 2013 to 2015, the G-20 nations spent $71.8 billion annually supporting fossil fuels, the study said, compared with $18.7 billion each year on direct support for clean energy such as solar, wind, geothermal or hydro power. Most of the fossil fuels money went to oil and gas exploration, but some also went to coal, which critics say is the dirtiest-burning fuel and the greatest driver of the greenhouse gas pollution that the Paris treaty was supposed to address.

“Our research shows that the G-20 still hasn’t put its money where its mouth is when it comes to the clean energy transition. If other G-20 governments are serious about standing up to Trump’s climate denial and meeting their commitments under the Paris agreement, they need to stop propping up the outdated fossil fuel industry with public money,” said Alex Doukas, a senior campaigner at Oil Change International, one of the groups that authored the study.

The Sierra Club, Friends of the Earth and the World Wildlife Fund’s European office also were a part of the project.

On its surface, the report would seem to give credence to the argument that the Paris accord doesn’t ask much from other nations. Mr. Trump made that argument — along with putting America’s economy first — the centerpiece of his rationale for leaving the deal last month.

Indeed, environmentalists now say the same nations that have criticized Mr. Trump’s decision aren’t doing their part either.

In fact, the most outspoken opponents of Mr. Trump’s decision to pull the U.S. from the Paris deal — which included a pledge by President Obama to cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by at least 26 percent by 2025 — are some of the worst offenders.

Within hours of Mr. Trump’s announcement on June 1, the leaders of Germany, Italy and France issued a joint statement castigating the U.S. and saying the Paris pact is non-negotiable. They said the Trump administration should not try to revamp the deal in order to secure more favorable terms.

“We firmly believe that the Paris agreement cannot be renegotiated,” the three heads of state said in a joint statement, expressing “regret” with the course Mr. Trump chose.

Words and deeds

But two of those countries are hardly backing up their harsh words with action.

Germany supplied $3.5 billion annually in public finance for fossil fuels from 2013 to 2015, compared with $2.4 billion annually for clean energy, according to the study. Italy funneled $2.1 billion toward fossil fuels, compared with $123 million annually for clean energy.

Canada, another vocal critic, directed $3 billion annually in public finance for oil, gas and coal from 2013 to 2015 while putting $171 million annually toward clean energy.

China, the world’s top polluter, provided $13.5 billion annually for fossil fuel financing compared with less than $85 million annually for clean energy.

France directed more money toward renewable energy than fossil fuels, making it a notable exception to the broader trend.

France aside, green groups say the hypocrisy is striking.

“These countries have been talking out of both sides of their mouths,” said Nicole Ghio, a senior international campaign representative at the Sierra Club. “It’s unconscionable that any nation would continue to waste public funds on fossil fuels when clean energy sources like wind and solar are not only readily available, but are more cost-effective and healthier for families and communities across the globe. It is past time for G-20 nations to stop subsidizing fossil fuels once and for all.”

The Paris deal came into effect at the end of 2015, the final year examined as part of the deal. Since then, world leaders have, at least with words, recommitted their countries to developing and subsidizing clean energy.

The U.S. is in line with most of the world in terms of where it puts its money. It provided $6 billion annually for fossil fuels and $1.3 billion for renewable energy, according to the study.

On its surface, it appears the U.S. would have had to make the most drastic shift in energy financing in order to meet its Paris target. The American commitment of a 26 percent reduction by 2025 would have required massive increases in government financing of clean energy. China, on the other hand, committed only to start cutting its emissions by 2030, meaning it could in theory continue to prop up fossil fuels for the next 13 years.

Mr. Trump said that dynamic is unacceptable but that he is open to rejoining the accord so long as the terms don’t punish the U.S. economy.

“We’re getting out, but we will start to negotiate, and we will see if we can make a deal that’s fair,” he said in a Rose Garden address last month. “And if we can, that’s great. And if we can’t, that’s fine.”

 


Handelsblatt. 2017-07-06. Merkel’s Mission Impossible

Chancellor Angela Merkel wants to focus the G20 summit on her two pet issues of climate change and world trade. She’ll need to perform miracles to make it a success.

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Chancellor Angela Merkel will need all her famed diplomatic skills this week to fulfil what many see as a mission impossible: preventing an open break of the G20, the closest thing the world has to a government, at this week’s summit of the world’s wealthiest nations.

As host, it will fall on her to try to patch up deep rifts in the world order. Wherever you look, there is dissent and conflict. US President Donald Trump is threatening Europe and China with import tariffs and has pulled out of the Paris Climate Agreement.

China and America can’t agree on how to deal with North Korea’s mounting aggression and are at odds over China’s territorial claims in the South China Sea. Russia, internationally isolated since the Ukraine conflict, is hacking its way into Western elections and confounding the West with its military support for the Assad regime in the Syrian civil war.

And then there’s the never-ending dispute with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who fired yet another salvo at Berlin this week by declaring in an interview with Die Zeit newspaper that Germany was “committing suicide” by not allowing him to speak to Turks at a rally in Germany. “What kind of spirit is that? That is very ugly,” he said.

«“It’s alarming to me that almost all Trump’s comments on Germany are negative. Just as almost all his comments about the EU are negative.”» [Nicholas Burns, Foreign policy expert]

Ms. Merkel knows she won’t be able to cure the world of all its ills at the summit in Hamburg. That’s why she plans to focus the talks on two issues that are particularly important to her: safeguarding free trade and combating global warming. Progress on either issue would also bolster her campaign for a fourth term in the September election, although her party is so far ahead in opinion polls that she doesn’t need to worry too much on that score.

But there’s a real chance that the summit will end in failure. Mr. Trump, her main opponent in the talks, has so far steadfastly refused to budge on trade or climate change. And if he can’t be swayed, the mega-event costing hundreds of millions of euros with its 6,000 delegates, 100,000 protesters and 15,000 police could yield nothing more than a pointless, watered-down consensus. That’s why Ms. Merkel’s strategists are working flat out to save what can be saved.

On Friday evening, when Ms. Merkel hosts the leaders in the grand, newly opened dockside Elbphilhamonie concert hall-turned-fortress, their negotiators will start what could well turn into an all-night session of last-ditch talks.

While the leaders and their spouses savor the sublime acoustics of the futuristic hall as an orchestra plays Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy,” the functionaries will attempt to finalize the summit communique. It won’t be a joyful task because the G20 is more divided than at any point since meetings in the current format began nine years ago at the height of the financial crisis.

Officials have been talking since Tuesday in a Hamburg hotel. Mr. Trump and Ms. Merkel spoke on the phone on Monday when he assured her the summit would be a “success.” But she can’t bank on significant concessions from the “America First” president.

Mr. Trump sees Germany as an economic rival rather than a strategic partner, said foreign policy expert Nicholas Burns. “It’s alarming to me that almost all Trump’s comments on Germany are negative. Just as almost all his comments about the EU are negative. The entire way Trump deals with relations with Germany is destructive.”

But amid all the differences, there are some chinks of light. Contrary to recent speculation, there’s no sign of major disagreement on classic G20 issues such as financial market regulation or tax policy. The US continues to support the G20 stance, as the meeting of G20 finance ministers in Baden Baden in March showed.

At the G7 summit in Sicily in May, Mr. Trump agreed to include a pledge to fight trade protectionism in the final communique. But then, at a meeting of OECD ministers shortly afterwards, the US distanced itself from that promise again.

In Hamburg, Ms. Merkel wants to avoid falling back behind the G7 declaration, so even a repeat of the pledge given in Sicily would be seen as a success. But she won’t have been encouraged by a speech given by US Trade Secretary Wilbur Ross to a business conference of her conservative party in Berlin last week. Speaking via video link, he reiterated US criticism of Germany’s trade surplus and said the US wanted a bigger share of the European market.

The German economics ministry is already drafting concrete plans to retaliate if the US imposes import tariffs on German products. Possible measures could include tariffs on imports of American agricultural produce.

Climate policy is even more difficult. There’s no sign yet of any compromise. Ms. Merkel has just reiterated her commitment to the Paris climate agreement as “irriversible and non-negotiable.” She can’t make meaningful concessions without being seen as caving. On the other hand, she needs Mr. Trump’s agreement or the summit will fail. She can’t afford to isolate him, partly because he might respond by trying to sway Saudi Arabia and India whose support for the Paris accord is seen as shaky.

She’s looking for a face-saving compromise, a choice of words that the president can sign up to. So far, the circle hasn’t been squared. He regards jobs as more important than protecting the climate, while Ms. Merkel must defend the Paris accord.

Officials plan to get a draft communique ready by Thursday evening so that Ms. Merkel and Mr. Trump can discuss it. Then on Friday night, it will be returned to the negotiators.

But Mr. Trump isn’t the only risk. If the planned anti-G20 protests end in chaos and violence, images of a teargas-shrouded Hamburg will haunt her right up to the election.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Africa

Kenya. Nuova linea ferroviaria Nairobi – Mombasa finanziata dalla Cina.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-06-11.

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«Kenya’s new railway at a glance:

– Cost $3.2bn (£2.5bn)

– Funding for the 472km (293 mile) project was provided by China

– It took three-and-a-half years to build, using Chinese track-laying technology

– The line is supposed to eventually connect land-locked South Sudan, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi and Ethiopia to the Indian Ocean

– It cuts the journey time between Mombasa and Nairobi to four-and-a-half hours, compared with nine hours by bus or 12 hours on the previous railway

– An economy class ticket costs 900 Kenyan shillings ($9; £7), slightly cheaper than a bus ticket. A business class ticket is $30» [Fonte]

2017-06-09__Kenya__002

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La differenza è lampante.

Obama lectures Kenyan president on gay rights [Cnn]

«President Barack Obama on Saturday lectured Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta about his country’s gay rights record.

“When you start treating people differently not because of any harm they are doing to anybody, but because they are different, that’s the path whereby freedoms begin to erode,” Obama said at a joint press conference with the Kenyan leader in Nairobi. “And bad things happen. …. Obama equated legalized discrimination of gays to legalized racism in America”»

bad things happen“: se il Kenya non accetta la teoria del gender non avrà nessun aiuto economico dall’Occidente. Ed ecco che il Kenya è stato gettato a viva forza nel’orbita politica ed economica cinese.

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Cina ed Africa. Una politica di rapporti internazionali paritetici.

Cina. Consolida il suo impero in Africa.

Belt and Road Forum. L’alternativa a Davos ed al G20.

Cina. Una diplomazia alla conquista del mondo.

Cina. La diplomazia ferroviaria.

Cina – Pakistan. Inaugurata la strada Gwadar – Kashgar.

Prosegue e si allarga la rivolta all’impèrio mondiale. Gambia.

Kenyatta: Gay rights is a non-issue for Kenya

Rifugiati. Uganda un milione in un anno, e tutti zitti.

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Al contrario degli Stati Uniti e dell’Occidente in genere, massimamente le Nazioni Unite, la Cina non vincola i propri investimenti alla soddisfazione di propri modi di vedere e sentire i problemi etici e morali. Accetta le altre realtà così come esse siano e richiede solo rapporti paritetici. La Cina investa in Africa ed Asia soprattutto in progetti infrastrutturali, quali ferrovie e strade.

Il solo progetto Belt and Road è dotato di un budget di 124 miliardi di Usd.

«China has touted what it formally calls the Belt and Road initiative as a new way to boost global development since Xi unveiled the plan in 2013, aiming to expand links between Asia, Africa, Europe and beyond underpinned by billions of dollars in infrastructure investment.»

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Nulla da stupirsi quindi che la Cina stia intrattenendo rapporti cordiali con la totalità dei paese africani e moltissimi asiatici: le infrastrutture rimangono ed alla fine producono indotto e prosperità.

Gli africani hanno bisogno di poter vivere in pace, poter mobilizzare le proprie risorse, potersi guadagnare quello che loro occorre per vivere, essere trattati da esseri umani.

Dovrebbero essere ben chiari i motivi dei fallimenti delle politiche occidentali in Africa.

Senza Realpolitik si fanno solo guai.


Bbc. 2017-06-08. Will Kenya get value for money from its new railway?

The first major new railway line in Kenya for more than a century, running between the capital Nairobi and the coastal city of Mombasa, faces an immediate challenge of justifying its relatively high cost.

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At $5.6m per kilometre for the track alone, Kenya’s line cost close to three times the international standard and four times the original estimate.

So it is perhaps not surprising that Kenyans have been asking why they seem to have paid so much.

Kenya’s new 472km (293 mile) railway is the country’s biggest infrastructure investment since its independence in 1963. Built to a modern “standard gauge”, it runs parallel to the now-dilapidated metre gauge railway line from the colonial era.

While everyone agrees that Kenya desperately needs more infrastructure, not everyone agrees that this was the most economically sensible solution.

Cost comparisons have been made between this line and Ethiopia’s 756km Addis Ababa-Djibouti line launched last year.

Both are Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) projects financed by Chinese loans, costing $3.4bn (£2.6bn) for Ethiopia and $3.2bn for Kenya.

Ethiopia’s line is more than 250km longer and is electrified, which is typically more expensive; trains running on Kenya’s line will be diesel-powered.

The Kenyan government has said the reasons for this high cost include the terrain that required many bridges and tunnels, land compensation and a need for specifications that would handle greater cargo volumes than Ethiopia’s line.

Therefore, it says, the two projects are not directly comparable.

About 80% of the money for the new railway came through loans from China.

The loans are the country’s biggest yet – amounting to roughly 6% of Kenya’s gross domestic product (GDP), which is a measure of a country’s economic activity, including all the services and goods produced in a year.

Before Kenya started building the railway, government advisers Canadian Pacific Consulting Services (CPSC) challenged its economic viability in a 2009 study.

It concluded that the benefit of building a new standard gauge railway would be marginal. It was considered “cost prohibitive” using “even the most optimistic” traffic and income projections, it said.

But Transport Minister James Macharia has said the Kenyan government expects the new line to boost GDP by 1.5%, allowing the Chinese loans to be paid back “in about four years”.

That projection runs counter to recent fears that Kenya may soon become unable to pay the large amounts owing on existing loans.

Heavy borrowing has seen public debt rise to more than half of GDP in the last four years, yet there has been no corresponding growth in revenue.

Most of the railway’s revenue is expected to come from transporting cargo. Only 5% of cargo is currently being transported on the old railway line while 95% goes by road, but Kenya Railways is aiming to push its share to 40% by 2025 with the new track.

It is possible that a law will be passed requiring certain goods to be transported by rail to ensure a massive transfer of freight away from the roads.

The new railway also faces a regional contest. Tanzania and Kenya compete to serve the transit trade of landlocked Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.

A 2013 World Bank study predicted that freight traffic on the entire East Africa Community rail network would grow to approximately 14.4 million tonnes per year by 2030.

The same study found that investment in a standard gauge railway appeared “only to be justified if the new infrastructure could attract additional rail freight in the order of 20-55 million tonnes per year”.

By that measure, the railway would need to win all of the freight currently trucked to and from Mombasa – and more. According to the Kenya Ports Authority, Mombasa port handled a total of just over 26 million tonnes of cargo in 2015.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Cina. Tre treni Tav su 100 in ritardo fanno scandalo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-06-08.

2017-0608__The Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway__001

The Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway under construction in Yangshuo, Guangxi in August 2013. This line traverses 270 caves and 510 valleys in the karst landscape of southwest China. Bridges and tunnels consist of 83% of this line’s total length of 857 km, including 92% in Guizhou Province. Travel time by train between Guizhou and Guangzhou was reduced from 20 hours to 4 hours.



Non sempre, ma spesso le immagini rendono l’idea molto meglio degli scritti, dei tabulati numerici.

China Super Fast Train Reveal – 500 kilometers per hour. [Video]

«High-speed rail (HSR) in China is the longest HSR system in the world extending to 29 of the country’s 33 provincial-level entities. The network consists of newly built passenger-dedicated lines (PDLs) and intercity lines along with upgraded mixed passenger and freight lines. According to the definition by Chinese government, high-speed rail service only refer to new PDLs at speed of more than 250km. The newly built PDLs currently account for 22,000 km (14,000 mi) of service routes, a length which takes two-third of the world’s high-speed rail tracks. The addition of PDLs and other high speed lines is ongoing with the network of PDLs alone set to reach 38,000 km (24,000 mi) in 2025.

High-speed rail service in China was introduced on April 18, 2007 and has become immensely popular with an annual ridership of over 1.44 billion in 2016, making the Chinese HSR network the most heavily used in the world. Notable lines include the world’s longest line, the 2,298 km (1,428 mi) Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and the Shanghai Maglev, the world’s first high-speed commercial magnetic levitation line and the only non-conventional track line of the network» [Fonte]

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2017-0608__Cina_Treni__002high-speed

In poco meno di trenta anni la Cina ha costruito la più ampia rete di treni ad alta velocità del mondo, 22,000 kilometri, che nel 2025 dovrebbe arrivare a 38,000 km, tutti percorribili a velocità medie di circa 250 km/h.

Dovrebbe essere inutile sottolineare quanto codesta rete possa giovare al sistema economico nella sua globalità.

E la tengono con estrema cura.

Il video dovrebbe essere maieutico.

Fa vedere linee e stazioni ferroviarie nuove di zecca e funzionali: tenute lustre come argenteria.

Se non si potesse andare a visitare la Cina, almeno questi filmati rendono l’idea.

Ma la cosa principale sarebbe sentire la lamentale perché tre treni su cento hanno un ritardo: pochi minuti primi.

Poi ci si domanda perché mai l’Europa sta tramontando.

Sarà interessante osservare la posizione cinese al prossimo G20.


Bbc. 2017-06-06. Inside China’s incredible high-speed rail network [Video]

See the view from the driver cabin of China’s super-fast trains, and take a tour of the control rooms running this massive operation.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Russia, Scienza & Tecnica

Craic. È nato il concorrente sino-russo a Boeing ed Airbus.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-06-03.

2017-05-24__Craic__001

La notizia era nell’aria, ed in parte era stata preannunciata.

Cina. C919 ed An-225. Si sviluppa l’industria aeronautica cinese.

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Russia e Cina hanno ambedue una consolidata esperienza nella progettazione e costruzione di aeromobili, soprattutto a scopi militari.

Negli ultimi decenni hanno sopperito alle esigenze del traffico aereo domestico ed internazionale acquisendo vettori sia dalla Boeing sia dalla Aerbus, e si potrebbe stimare che il rinnovo e l’ampliamento della flotta passeggeri e commerciale dovrebbe iniziare tra sette anni, circa.

Di questi giorni la notizia della fondazione della

«China-Russia Commercial Aircraft International Corporation Limited (CRAIC), a joint venture between Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC) and Russia’s United Aircraft Corp (UAC), in Shanghai, China May 22, 2017».

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«COMAC and UAC first announced the program in 2014. In November, they said they had set up a joint venture in Shanghai and unveiled a mock-up of the basic version of the jet that would have a range of up to 12,000 kilometers (7,500 miles) and seat 280 passengers»

Sembrerebbe essere del tutto ragionevole che i vettori che saranno prodotti dalla Craic sostituiranno quelli americani ed europei attualmente in uso.

Non solo.

«UAC and COMAC hold equal shares in their venture, whose jet they said would be 10-15 percent cheaper to run than planes from Boeing and Airbus»

Basso costo di esercizio, quindi, unitamente al prospettato verosimile basso, molto basso, costo di produzione: due fattori che potrebbero far diventare la Craic un temibile concorrente sia per Boeing sia per Airbus.

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Ricordiamo un episodio significativo, che sia russi sia cinesi si ricordano più che bene.

«Il prototipo dell’Il-96 volò la prima volta il 28 settembre 1988 con motori turbofan sovietici. Dall’inizio di produzione di serie sono stati costruiti 24 esemplari del Ilyushin Il-96. 13 esemplari del Ilyushin Il-96 sono attualmente in servizio nelle compagnie aeree russe (Aeroflot, Aerostars Airlines, Rossija Airlines), e 3 sono in servizio all’estero nella Cubana de Aviación.

Il 14 luglio 1993 il primo Ilyushin Il-96 dell’Aeroflot ha effettuato il volo di linea internazionale sulla rotta Mosca-SVO – New York-JFK.

L’aereo è stato riprogettato e nell’aprile 1993 decollò il primo e l’unico esemplare costruito di Ilyushin Il-96 con più avanzate turboventole statunitensi Pratt & Whitney PW2337 (lo stesso tipo di turboventole montati sugli aerei da trasporto tattico McDonnell Douglas C-17 Globemaster III) ed una nuova avionica computerizzata sotto la sigla Il-96M, ma questo prototipo non entrò in serie penalizzato dalla decisione del Congresso degli Stati Uniti d’America di non permettere la collaborazione della Pratt & Whitney con la Federazione Russa.

Il 16 maggio 1997 ha effettuato il primo volo l’Ilyushin Il-96-400T con più moderni motori russi Aviadvigatel PS-90. Dal 2009 questa versione entrò nella flotta cargo della moscovita Atlant-Soyuz Airlines e dopo nella flotta della russa Air Company Polet di Voronež.» [Fonte]

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Se è del tutto ragionevole che il Congresso degli Stati Uniti d’America di non abbia permesso la collaborazione della Pratt & Whitney con la Federazione Russa, specie poi per i motori PW2337, che avevano anche valenza militare, è altrettanto ragionevole il capire la volontà sino-russa di avere una loro propria produzione indipendente.

Non ci si stupirebbe però più di tanto che in futuro l’America rimpianga di non aver optato per una strategia collaborativa quando la concorrenza della Craig inizierà a far contrarre le vendite dei propri vettori.

Nota.

Alcuni malignassi inveterati hanno commentato sul significato di “craic” in gaelico….


Reuters. 2017-05-23. China, Russia set up wide-body jet firm in new challenge to Boeing, Airbus

China and Russia on Monday completed the formal registration of a joint venture to build a wide-body jet, kick-starting full-scale development of a program aimed at competing with market leaders Boeing Co (BA.N) and Airbus SE (AIR.PA).

State plane makers Commercial Aircraft Corp of China Ltd (COMAC) [CMAFC.UL] and Russia’s United Aircraft Corp (UAC) said at a ceremony in Shanghai the venture would aim to build a “competitive long range wide-body commercial aircraft”.

The announcement comes just weeks after COMAC successfully completed the maiden flight of its C919, China’s first home-grown narrow-body passenger jet.

COMAC President Jin Zhuanglong said the two firms had decided to hold the establishment ceremony after the C919’s flight.

“This program is aimed at fulfilling future market demand,” he told reporters. “Our two countries, our two firms … have created this joint venture to undertake responsibilities such as organization, research, management and implementation.”

The program will have a research center in Moscow and assembly line in Shanghai, he said, adding division of labor was still being discussed.

Guo Bozhi, general manager of COMAC’s wide-body department, said the venture would ask suppliers to bid for the contract to build the engine by year-end.

MAIDEN FLIGHT

COMAC and UAC first announced the program in 2014. In November, they said they had set up a joint venture in Shanghai and unveiled a mock-up of the basic version of the jet that would have a range of up to 12,000 kilometers (7,500 miles) and seat 280 passengers.

UAC President Yuri Slyusar said the firms looked to complete the maiden flight and first delivery during 2025-2028, and aimed to take 10 percent of a market dominated by the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350.

Previously, they targeted a maiden flight in 2022 and delivery in or after 2025.

UAC is also developing a version of Russian wide-body jet Ilyushin IL-96. Slyusar said the two programmes had different requirements, and that UAC would use experience with the IL-96 to aid development of the Chinese-Russian jet.

UAC and COMAC hold equal shares in their venture, whose jet they said would be 10-15 percent cheaper to run than planes from Boeing and Airbus.

Last July, Boeing forecast airlines worldwide would need 9,100 wide-body planes over 20 years through 2035, with a wave of replacement demand around 2021-2028.

Over the past decade, China has plowed billions of dollars into domestic jet development to raise its profile in global aviation and boost high-tech manufacturing.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Geopolitica Militare, Geopolitica Mondiale

Cina. C919 ed An-225. Si sviluppa l’industria aeronautica cinese.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-05-21.

c919-rollout-web

Dalla Cina sono arrivate due importanti novità circa la loro aeronautica: sono due notizie strategiche.

La prima novità consiste nel fatto che il 5 maggio ha fatto il suo volo inaugurale il C919, il primo aereo di linea di intera progettazione e costruzione cinese. Il C919 è un bireattore con autonomia di 5,500 kilometri, velocità di crociera 828 km/h, 168 passeggeri nella sua versione base. È stato progettato principalmente per soddisfare le necessità interne, ma nulla vieta il pensare anche al mercato globale.

Questo aereo segna l’ingresso della Cina nel ristretto novero dei produttori di aerei di linea. Se tutto dovesse andare come da programma, il C919 potrebbe conquistarsi dapprima il mercato cinese interno, quindi essere un temibile competitore sul mercato internazionale. Uno dei suoi punti di forza sarebbe il costo più che dimezzato rispetto agli aviogetti concorrenti, consumi nettamente inferiori alla norma attuale, riferita scarsa necessità di manutenzione.

È il primo grande aereo di linea, come detto, costruito in Cina: ma i programmi cinesi si articolano ampiamente nel tempo, fino a coprire l’intera gamma. È prevista anche una versione di tipo militare.

La seconda novità lascia sconcertati. La Cina ha rilevato i progetti relativi all’An-124 ed all’An-225. Sono aerei da trasporti di progettazione e costruzione russa. Il primo è un quadrimotore turboventola per il trasporto strategico che volando alla velocità di crociera di 850 km/h può trasportare 150 tonnellate per circa 5,000 kilometri. Il secondo è un esamotore turbofan che ad una velocità di crociera i 860 km/h può trasportare 250 tonnellate di materiali per 15,000 kilometri.

«In 2016, the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AICC), a Chinese state-owned aerospace and defense company, signed a cooperation agreement with Antonov for the An-225 program. If it goes through as planned, the skies could soon be flooded by a fleet of Chinese built An-225s.»

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«This aircraft, when modernised, could give China a heavy lift capability that surpasses any other nation in the world – perhaps even greater than that of the US military.

According to Zhang, the An-225 would be the centrepiece of a hyper ambitious plan to add 1,000 heavy lift aircraft over the next 10 years.

Heavy lift is not the only capability they’re after though.»

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I piani dei cinesi hanno sempre quel che di grandioso che solo la visione strategica di lungo termine conferisce all’operato umano.

Punto primo.

Forse è questo il cuore della notizia riportata, che propone un aspetto di fondo della concezione di governo dei popoli.

In Occidente, è stato lungamente dibattuto il bilanciamento tra la necessità di rinnovare la dirigenza governativa e la durata dell’incarico conferito dal suffragio elettorale. Se un incarico di breve durata consente un più rapido turnover al governo, un incarico più lungo corre il serio rischio di conferire troppo potere ai governanti. Il caso francese è da manuale: inizialmente la presidenza aveva durata settennale, rinnovabile. Quindi abbassarono la durata dell’incarico governativo a cinque anni.

Sta di fatto che anche un incarico settennale non consente di impostare piani strategici, l’arco temporale dei quali è ben oltre il decennio. Questo è un severo handicap dei sistemi elettorali occidentali.

Punto secondo.

Nessun governo di nuova nomina può esercitare agevolmente il proprio mandato senza un concomitante sistema di spoils system. Gli stati moderni sono altamente complessi e sarebbe ingenuo pensar che un nuovo eletto possa conoscerne l’intimo funzionamento se non dopo un certo quale lasso di tempo. Non solo: da molti punti di vista la vera struttura portante dello stato è il suo corpo burocratico. Ma sarebbe altrettanto ingenuo ritenere che il solo rinnovo a livello governativo senza un concomitante rinnovo dei burocrati possa consentire un corretto funzionamento.  Da queto punto di vista meramente funzionale, sarebbe utile che gli stati occidentali si dotassero di un efficiente sistema di spoils system,sulla falsariga di quello americano. Un apparato burocratico ostile e, sopratutto, nominato a vita, è il miglior antidoto possibile ad ogni iniziativa strategica: la burocrazia è per definizione un forza statica, non dinamica.

Punto terzo.

Il sistema politico e burocratico cinese ha sicuramente lati negativi e positivi: sicuramente è alieno all’attuale mentalità europea. Gode però della caratteristica di essere efficiente. Questo è un aspetto che un giorno o l’altro anche gli occidentali dovranno ben affrontare. Se sono importanti i principi fondamentali, altrettanto importante è costruire un sistema funzionante: un sistema inefficiente rinnega nei fatti i principi ai quali è improntato. In Cina virtualmente sono assenti le elezioni politiche: il vero agone politico è all’interno del partito comunista cinese, una sorta di scuola mandarnica adattata alla necessità dei tempi. Scuola durissima e severamente meritocratica, che nulla cede alla emotività mediatica.

Punto quarto.

L’aspetto militare non dovrebbe essere sottovalutato. La Cina non dispone al momento di aerei militari da trasporto progettati e costruiti in Cina. È evidente che i militari cinesi stiano cercando di risolvere questa grave mancanza, e la versione militare del C919 potrebbe già dare una ragionevole risposta per i problemi locoregionali. Tuttavia, sembrerebbe essere di maggiore interesse l’attenzione posta al progetto An-124 ed a quello An-225. Questi sono aerei da trasporto strategico, di progettazione e costruzione particolarmente complessa e costosa. Un solo esemplare arriva a costare oltre i cento milioni. Sembrerebbe essere irragionevole imbarcarsi in un simile progetto se non in vista di un allargamento dei propri interessi strategici militare a tutto il mondo. E questa sarebbe una mutazione di estremo interesse mondiale. Forse, all’interno di tutte le notizie sull’argomento, questa sembrerebbe essere la principale.

Punto Quinto.

L’intero Occidente è drammaticamente privo di progetti strategici: sembrerebbe essere diventato incapace di guardare il futuro per dominarlo. Nutre una filosofia di vita immanente, che sembrerebbe vivere solo l’attimo fuggente. Celebra i fasti di un welfare state insostenibile, attanagliato tra l’obbligo a mantenere gli impegni assunti e l’impossibilità di garantirne di equivalenti alle nuove generazioni. A ciò si aggiunga l’oneroso peso di debiti sovrani eccessivi e bilanci squilibrati vero il mantenimento del welfare state: gli stati occidentali hanno severe difficoltà a sostenere economicamente progetti strategici di largo respiro.

Ma senza progetti strategici proiettati nel futuro si inaridiscono anche quelli attuali arrivati a maturità. Questo citato è esempio da manuale. La Comac sottrarrà sicuramente mercato sia ad Airbus sia a Boeing, e molto verosimilmente potrebbe anche soppiantarle in un futuro nemmeno poi troppo lontano.

Significativo il titolo di Cinaforum:

Primo volo per il C919, decolla la sfida cinese a Boeing e Airbus.


Cnn. 2017-05-05. China’s 1st big passenger jet completes maiden flight

China’s first large jetliner has successfully completed its maiden flight, a key moment in the country’s push to challenge the U.S. and Europe as a global manufacturer.

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The C919, China’s first domestically designed and built large airliner, took off Friday afternoon from Shanghai Pudong International Airport into hazy skies with a five-person crew aboard. The jet landed one hour and 19 minutes later after a seemingly uneventful first trial.

With the flight, China joins the ranks of the few nations that have developed homegrown large airliners: the U.S., Russia, Brazil, Canada, the U.K., France and Germany.

Made by the Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (Comac), the 168-seat C919 is roughly the same size as Airbus’s A320 and Boeing’s 737-800, which are the most popular airliners in the world.

The C919’s maiden flight was watched by people around the globe, including at least 2 million on Chinese microblogging platform Weibo.

Comac also offered an unprecedented look inside the maiden flight of a new airliner. The company streamed live images from the jet’s cockpit looking over the shoulder of its test pilots as they performed gentle maneuvers off the coast. Neither Boeing nor Airbus has ever provided a live view of the cockpit on a first flight.

The Chinese jet’s first flight is the biggest and most visible milestone in its development. But it still has a long way to go before it’s carrying passengers and competing with its U.S. and European competitors.

The start of aerial testing kicks off months or years of grueling certification tests, and meeting safety standards might require design changes. Comac will also need to win the trust of airlines in China and elsewhere by proving the jet can operate efficiently and reliably on scheduled flights.

However, the milestone marks another key achievement for China on its ascent to challenging the west and cultivating its aerospace ambitions. The country is already an adept designer of military aircraft, but has sought to catch up to Boeing in the U.S. and Airbus in Europe in manufacturing civilian airliners.

So far it’s been slow-going. The country’s state-owned airlines first signed up to buy the jet in 2010, and it was originally supposed to enter service in 2016. The prototype wasn’t unveiled until November 2015, and the project has been beset by technical delays as China learns the ropes of airliner development.

Comac, a state-run enterprise, has partnered with western suppliers for nearly all the jet’s major systems to share technology and learn how to mass produce an airliner.

The C919’s main customers will be China’s domestic airlines. China Eastern Airlines will be the first carrier to operate the C919 when it completes testing and secures approval from China’s aviation regulator.

China is on track to surpass the U.S. by 2030 as the world’s largest commercial aviation market. Chinese airlines are buying hundreds of Boeing and Airbus jets to grow their fleets.

Boeing estimates that the country will need a trillion dollars worth of new airplanes over the next two decades, including more than 5,100 of the same size as the C919.


Bbc. 2017-05-05. The world’s biggest plane may have a new mission.

Tucked away in a small section of a Soviet era air base on the outskirts of Kiev is the flagship aircraft of the legendary Antonov design bureau. A one-off masterpiece of engineering designed and built during the 1980s in the waning days of the USSR.

The aircraft, designated the An-225, is the biggest to ever grace the Earth. It’s so large that the length of its cargo hold is longer than the Wright brothers’ first flight, from take-off to landing.

Now 30 years old, and recently upgraded to give it another 20 years’ service, the plane rarely takes to the skies anymore. Instead, it sits stagnant under an enormous steel arch. However, a crew of dedicated Antonov employees still periodically tend to the An-225. Its sporadic use has nothing to do with its age. It’s grounded because there is simply little demand for its highly specialised and relatively costly service. Although the plane, nicknamed ‘Mriya’ (‘Dream’) in Ukrainian, is in fine condition, there are very few jobs that call for something so large . And the jobs need to be urgent; if you want to use the An-225 it will cost around $30,000 (£23,220) an hour.

In 2016, it spent just three months traversing the globe on two lengthy deployments. The remainder of the time, it sat here at the Gostomel airport, once a top-secret flight testing airfield for Antonov.

Originally built as a transport for the Soviet Union’s Buran space shuttle, the An-225 was forced to find new purpose as a cargo carrier after the USSR collapsed, says Alexander Galunenko, the first man to fly the plane.

“When the USSR collapsed, the programme was shut down and the financing was closed as the need for this plane vanished,” says Galunenko. He first flew the An-225 on 21 December 1988, after over a decade’s service as a Soviet test pilot.

Galunenko fondly remembers the bewilderment of first taking the behemoth across the world to visit the United States.

“We were invited to an aviation show in Oklahoma and the media reported that the largest aircraft in the world was coming so that attracted a mass of people,” he says.All of these people just assumed that the largest aircraft in the world was made by the Boeing company. We had to tell them it was made by Antonov, and they asked, ‘Where is Antonov from?’ We said, ‘It’s a company in Kiev’, so they asked us, ‘And what is Kiev?’ Well we told them ‘Kiev is in Ukraine’, and of course they asked, ‘But what is Ukraine?’”

The navigator of the flight eventually pulled out his maps and began to point out Ukraine to the many curious visitors. “He took a marker and circled Kiev to show them where it is,” laughs Galunenko. “We got to show our plane and give the Americans a geography lesson too.”

The plane is effectively an extension of its little brother, the An-124 ‘Ruslan’ – an aircraft rarely regarded as “little”, seeing as it’s the largest military transport in the world.

From a room adorned with scale models of every aircraft the company has built in its 71-year history, the lead engineer of the An-225 project, Nikolay Kalashnikov, tells BBC Future that he spent his entire professional life working for Antonov. But it was building the Mriya that was the pinnacle of his career.

“Today it’s hard to tell, but back then it was so impressive. It was just so difficult to imagine that such a big machine can fly,” says Kalashnikov.

Although the An-124 Ruslan was already an impressively sized cargo carrier at that time, Kalashnikov and his team set about modifying the structure to increase its maximum takeoff weight. They added two engines, rows of landing gear, extended the fuselage and redesigned the tail in order to meet the most important requirement, which was to ensure that the Buran space-shuttle and the Energia booster rocket could slide off the plane midflight and take off into space.

“It was possible to carry everything, the shuttle and all the elements of the rocket on the back of the aircraft,” says energetic CEO of Antonov Airlines, Mikhail Kharchenko, from his office at the Gostomel airport. “The idea hasn’t gone away. The United States is now working on an air-start programme.

At that time, the USSR’s space missions were run from what is now southern Kazakhstan, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. So the AN-225’s mission was to bring the booster rockets from Moscow and ferry the Buran itself to Baikonaur. They calculated that the AN-225 programme would be cheaper than building a freeway across two rivers and through the Urals just to move these parts, says Kalashnikov.

Kharchenko believes that the Mriya still has huge potential, despite its age, and it’s not just for its enormous cargo capacity. He thinks there’s still the chance to develop the An-225 into a proper in-air launch platform.

“Approximately 90% of the energy of the launch vehicle is spent getting up to an altitude of 10km (6.5 miles) ,” says the CEO. “If we take some spacecraft and put it on the Mriya’s back and fly it up to a height of 10km, then we can launch it into space from there. From the point of view of cost, the economic benefit is huge if you launch from a height of 10km.”

He admits it’s still going to take a little bit of refinement, but Kharchenko believes this is the best direction for his company’s flagship aircraft. And he’s not the only one.

In 2016, the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AICC), a Chinese state-owned aerospace and defense company, signed a cooperation agreement with Antonov for the An-225 program. If it goes through as planned, the skies could soon be flooded by a fleet of Chinese built An-225s.

“The initial idea and early stage research of the An-225 started in 2009,” the president of AICC, Zhang Youshengtells BBC Future. “The official contact with Antonov began in 2011, and then from 2013 to 2016 was the acceleration phase of this project.”

The Chinese company isn’t interested in purchasing the existing airworthy An-225. They have spent the past several years studying the feasibility of modernising the only other An-225, an unfinished airframe that has sat inside a hangar at Antonov’s giant corporate campus in downtown Kyiv for the past 30 years. This aircraft, when modernised, could give China a heavy lift capability that surpasses any other nation in the world – perhaps even greater than that of the US military.

According to Zhang, the An-225 would be the centrepiece of a hyper ambitious plan to add 1,000 heavy lift aircraft over the next 10 years.

Heavy lift is not the only capability they’re after though.

“The An-225 can be equipped with spacecraft to high altitude, and can launch commercial satellites at any height below 12,000m,” Zhang tells the BBC. “Its launch time is flexible, accurate, and can quickly send the satellite into intended orbit, which greatly reduces launch costs.”

The Chinese are aiming to make their way into the lucrative satellite launch industry, which doubled revenue from 2006 to 2015, according to figures provided by AICC.

The purchase agreement for the existing An-225 airframe is similar to China’s acquisition of an aircraft carrier hull from Ukraine nearly 20 years ago. That hull, originally commissioned by the Soviet Union, was rebuilt and modernised over two decades until it was declared ‘combat ready’ by China’s military in November 2016.

If the plan goes forward, the Mriya will have found new life flying the skies for China’s AICC, but Ukraine will have lost of a small but symbolic part of its aerospace industry. The men who built the plane have mixed feelings about the prospect of losing the programme to the Chinese.

“The Chinese want to buy from us this plane and there’s no harm in it, but of course no one wants to sell the aircraft,” says Kalashnikov. “The Mriya is not separable from Ukraine, it’s like our child, and it’s something our children, and our grandchildren can always be proud of.”

Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio, Senza categoria

Belt and Road Forum. L’alternativa a Davos ed al G20.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-05-16.

2017-05-14__Obor__170514164356-xi-jinping-vladimir-putin-belt-and-road-forum-0514-exlarge-169

Se ne è accorta persino la Cnn, ed è tutto dire.

Non è la Cina che deve integrarsi con l’Occidente, bensì questo con la Cina.

Non a caso Bloomberg ha pubblicato un allarmaato ed allarmante editoriale su questo argomento:

One Belt, One Road, One Man

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Cosa è il progetto One Belt, One Road (Obor)?

«La Nuova via della seta è un’iniziativa strategica della Cina per il miglioramento dei collegamenti e della cooperazione tra paesi nell’Eurasia. Comprende le direttrici terrestri della “zona economica della via della seta” e la “via della seta marittima del XXI secolo” (in cinese: 丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路S, Sīchóu zhī lù jīngjìdài hé èrshíyī shìjì hǎishàng sīchóu zhī lùP), ed è conosciuta anche come “iniziativa della zona e della via” o “una zona, una via” e col corrispondente acronimo inglese OBOR (one belt, one road).

Partendo dallo sviluppo delle infrastrutture di trasporto e logistica, la strategia mira a promuovere il ruolo della Cina nelle relazioni globali, favorendo i flussi di investimenti internazionali e gli sbocchi commerciali per le produzioni cinesi. L’iniziativa di un piano organico per i collegamenti terrestri (la cintura) è stata annunciata pubblicamente dal presidente cinese Xi Jinping a settembre del 2013, e la via marittima ad ottobre dello stesso anno, contestualmente alla proposta di costituire la Banca asiatica d’investimento per le infrastrutture (AIIB), dotata di un capitale di 100 miliardi di dollari USA, di cui la Cina stessa sarebbe il principale socio, con un impegno pari a 29,8 miliardi e gli altri paesi asiatici (tra cui l’India e la Russia) e dell’Oceania avrebbero altri 45 miliardi (l’Italia si è impegnata a sottoscrivere una quota di 2,5 miliardi).

La Via della Seta Terrestre attraversa tutta l’Asia Centrale e arriva dalla Cina fino alla Spagna: con le infrastrutture esistenti sono già stati simbolicamente inaugurati i collegamenti merci diretti fino a Berlino e Madrid, ma è allo studio anche la possibilità di una linea passeggeri ad alta velocità. La Via Marittima costeggia tutta l’Asia Orientale e Meridionale, arrivando fino al Mar Mediterraneo attraverso il canale di Suez. La AIIB è un veicolo per catalizzare gli investimenti necessari al miglioramento delle infrastrutture ferroviarie e portuali, complessivamente stimati in 1800 miliardi di dollari in dieci anni. Nel quadro dell’iniziativa della Nuova via della seta la Cina sta promuovendo anche investimenti diretti, anche in ambiti anche non direttamente collegati alla logistica. A questo scopo, nel novembre 2014 ha creato anche un Fondo per la Via della Seta, dotandolo di 40 miliardi di dollari USA.» [Fonte]

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Cosa è la Banca asiatica d’investimento per le infrastrutture (Aiib)?

«La Banca Asiatica d’Investimento per le infrastrutture (AIIB), fondata a Pechino nell’ottobre 2014, è un’istituzione finanziaria internazionale proposta dalla Repubblica Popolare Cinese. Si contrappone al Fondo Monetario Internazionale, alla Banca Mondiale e all’Asian Development Bank, queste ultime, secondo molti osservatori, sarebbero sotto il controllo del capitale e delle scelte strategiche dei paesi sviluppati come gli Stati Uniti d’America. Scopo della Banca è fornire e sviluppare progetti di infrastrutture nella regione Asia-Pacifico attraverso la promozione dello sviluppo economico-sociale della regione e contribuendo alla crescita mondiale.

I paesi fondatori dell’AIIB sono 57. Secondo la Cina, sono considerati fondatori gli stati che aderiscono alla banca entro il 31-03-2015, dopo tale data, ogni ulteriore adesione comporta per lo stato che aderirà all’AIIB lo status di semplice “componente”» [Fonte]

* * *

Lingue ufficiali dell’Obor e dell’Aiib sono il cinese ed il russo. Talora, per pura cortesia orientale, è fornita una traduzione simultanea in inglese, ma non è la norma e non è considerata essere fonte ufficiale. Questo problema costituisce un severo ostacolo per gli osservatori occidentali.

L’Aiib è un contraltare molto efficiente dell’Imf, ad attuale direzione francese, ed alla Wb, ad attuale direzione americana. Gli occidentali non hanno mai lasciato spazio alle realtà emergenti, e solo lo scorso anno lo yuan è stato ammesso come valuta di riferimento per i diritti speciali di prelievo.

*

Una caratteristica specifica dell’Obor e dell’Aiib è che tutti gli stati sono trattati su base paritetica sulla base di criteri di mero scambio economico, senza ingerenza alcuna nella gestione interna. Questo approccio le rende totalmente differenti dalle analoghe strutture occidentali che, almeno durante la Amministrazione Obama, vincolavano la concessione di fondi ed il finanziamento di progetti alla condivisione della Weltanschauung liberal. Ostacolo questo non da poco.

*

Obor ed Aiib sono finalizzate alla realizzazione di infrastrutture strategiche.

Cina ed Africa. Una politica di rapporti internazionali paritetici.

Tillerson in Cina incontra Xi. Un gentlemen’s agreement.

Cina. Durissima risposta al report Usa sui ‘diritti umani’.

Cina. Finanzia in Guinea-Bissau la ristrutturazione dello stadio.

Usa e Cina. Economie e trend a confronto.

Cina ed America Latina. Fine della Dottrina Monroe.

Cina – Pakistan. Inaugurata la strada Gwadar – Kashgar.

Usa. Perù ripudia il TPP. Vuole un trattato con Russia e Cina.

Cina. Una diplomazia alla conquista del mondo.

Cina. Consolida il suo impero in Africa.

Cina e Myanmar. Un possibile sbocco sull’Oceano Indiano.

La Cina rifiuta l’accredito al G20 ai giornalisti del Deutsche Welle.

China Development Bank ed accordo strategico Cina – Venezuela.

Cina. La diplomazia ferroviaria.

*

«Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged $124 billion on Sunday for his new Silk Road plan to forge a path of peace, inclusiveness and free trade, and called for the abandonment of old models based on rivalry and diplomatic power games.»

*

«Xi used a summit on the initiative, attended by leaders and top officials from around the world, to bolster China’s global leadership ambitions as U.S. President Donald Trump promotes “America First” and questions existing global free trade deals.»

*

«”We should build an open platform of cooperation and uphold and grow an open world economy,” Xi told the opening of the two-day gathering in Beijing.»

*

«China has touted what it formally calls the Belt and Road initiative as a new way to boost global development since Xi unveiled the plan in 2013, aiming to expand links between Asia, Africa, Europe and beyond underpinned by billions of dollars in infrastructure investment.»

* * *

In sintesi: questo è uno sforzo finanziario che l’Occidente non potrebbe al momento permettersi e dal quale è rimasto tagliato fuori. Le infrastrutture patrocinate rendono agevoli gli scambi commerciali e concorrono in modo potente a fare emergere economie e sistemi economici al momento ancora in via di sviluppo o di emersione.

E di questo sono in molti ad essere riconoscenti alla Cina: è un modo efficiente per procurarsi degli amici.


Cnn. 2017-05-14. China’s new world order: Xi, Putin and others meet for Belt and Road Forum

Belt and Road Forum, Beijing (CNN)China’s leaders are ringing in what they hope is a new world order at a major international conference in Beijing Sunday.

The Belt and Road Forum is China’s answer to Davos or the G20, centered around the colossal One Belt, One Road (OBOR) trade initiative, which takes its inspiration from the ancient Silk Road trading route.

Speaking at the opening ceremony, Chinese President Xi Jinping emphasized OBOR’s international credentials in the face of criticism that the project will be dominated by Beijing.

“What we hope to create is a big family of harmonious co-existence,” Xi said, adding that all countries were welcome to take part in the project.

Xi also announced China will contribute an additional $14.5 billion to the Silk Road Fund, which provides support for OBOR projects, and $8.7 billion in assistance to developing countries.

Addressing the forum after Xi, Russian President Vladimir Putin appeared to take aim at the US, which is not involved in the OBOR initiative.

“Protectionism is becoming the new normal,” Putin warned, adding that the “ideas of openness and free trade are increasingly often being rejected (even) by those who until very recently expounded them.”

OBOR, which has been in the works for four years, spans more than 68 countries and up to 40% of global GDP. It is China’s push to put it in a position of world leadership as the US under President Donald Trump takes a more protectionist approach and gives up the mantle of globalization.

Sunday’s forum is being held near Beijing’s Olympic Park — the site of the 2008 games — as the city enjoys the type of splendid weather China’s leaders have shown themselves adept at creating on demand when needed for political events. Roads around the venue have been closed down amid a heavy security operation.

Political push

In attendance Sunday were Chinese President Xi Jinping — whose personal project the OBOR initiative is — Russian President Vladimir Putin, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte, alongside a host of other world leaders and top ranking officials.

Joining them was a small delegation from North Korea, despite recent strained ties between Beijing and Pyongyang over the latter’s nuclear program.

Early Sunday, North Korea launched a ballistic missile, emphasizing how high tensions in the region are at the moment and stealing focus from the OBOR forum in what could be seen as a deliberate insult to Xi.

The leaders of the US and most European economies were notably absent Sunday. While the US sent Matt Pottinger, special assistant to the President, no cabinet or elected officials were in attendance.

In a communique announcing a new trade deal with China Thursday, the US said it “recognizes the importance of China’s One Belt and One Road initiative,” but Washington is largely uninvolved in OBOR or connected projects like the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

Speaking to CNN Saturday, AIIB President Jin Liqun was positive that the US could still play a role in China’s projects, saying that “regardless of the membership of the US … we can work together.”

“The door is open, any member is welcome to join,” he added.

While OBOR has been hailed within China as something that can benefit the whole world and lift millions out of poverty, further afield its reception has been more mixed.

Jörg Wuttke, outgoing president of the EU Chamber of Commerce in China, warned last week that the initiative has increasingly “been hijacked by Chinese companies, which have used it as an excuse to evade capital controls, smuggling money out of the country by disguising it as international investments and partnerships.”

He and other critics have pointed to restrictions on and obstacles to foreign firms doing business in China as evident of the hypocrisy behind Beijing’s grand unifying vision.

Even neighboring India has been skeptical. The country’s finance and defense minister Arun Jaitley told reporters this month Delhi has “serious reservations” about the project, particularly regarding China-funded development in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.

US pulls back

While many countries may have gone into OBOR with a “more rosy tinted view of what China’s intent was,” the scales are increasingly falling from their eyes, said Christopher Balding, a professor of economics at Peking University.

Of particular concern for many is what happens if Chinese-funded projects fail. In the past, this has meant Chinese firms or banks “essentially taking over,” Balding said, giving them complete control over very strategic projects in foreign countries. Some have also warned of projects becoming expensive white elephants with little payoff for backers or locals.

Jin said such warnings are “necessary,” adding that in the past “there were white elephants, there were mistakes.”

“It’s very important that the resources put into (OBOR) projects must be producing tangible results for the people” of the countries they are in, he told CNN.

Max Baucus, a former US ambassador to China, said OBOR has “if not frightened, then at least concerned, a lot of countries along the way.”

Prior to Donald Trump’s election as US President, it could be expected that Washington’s Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) — a free-trade alliance of 12 Asian and Pacific economies — would act as something of a counterbalance to rising Chinese power.

Trump however, pulled the US out of the deal a day after taking office. While it still includes Australia and Japan, both major economies, without Washington’s backing the TPP will be far smaller if it manages to nevertheless go ahead.

The US has also reduced activity in the hotly contested South China Sea, in what has been seen as another concession to China by the new US president who hopes for a solution in North Korea.

Baucus said the country’s withdrawal from the region risked creating “a vacuum.”

“(TPP was) an economic complement to military planning in the South China Sea,” he said, while OBOR puts China “in the driving seat.”


Reuters. 2017-05-14. China pledges $124 billion for new Silk Road as champion of globalization

Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged $124 billion on Sunday for his new Silk Road plan to forge a path of peace, inclusiveness and free trade, and called for the abandonment of old models based on rivalry and diplomatic power games.

Xi used a summit on the initiative, attended by leaders and top officials from around the world, to bolster China’s global leadership ambitions as U.S. President Donald Trump promotes “America First” and questions existing global free trade deals.

“We should build an open platform of cooperation and uphold and grow an open world economy,” Xi told the opening of the two-day gathering in Beijing.

China has touted what it formally calls the Belt and Road initiative as a new way to boost global development since Xi unveiled the plan in 2013, aiming to expand links between Asia, Africa, Europe and beyond underpinned by billions of dollars in infrastructure investment.

Xi said the world must create conditions that promote open development and encourage the building of systems of “fair, reasonable and transparent global trade and investment rules”.

Hours before the summit opened, North Korea launched another ballistic missile, further testing the patience of China, its chief ally. The United States had complained to China on Friday over the inclusion of a North Korean delegation at the event.

MASSIVE FUNDING BOOST

Xi pledged a major funding boost to the new Silk Road, including an extra 100 billion yuan ($14.50 billion) into the existing Silk Road Fund, 380 billion yuan in loans from two policy banks and 60 billion yuan in aid to developing countries and international bodies in countries along the new trade routes.

In addition, Xi said China would encourage financial institutions to expand their overseas yuan fund businesses to the tune of 300 billion yuan.

Xi did not give a time frame for the new loans, aid and funding pledged on Sunday.

Leaders from 29 countries attended the forum, as well as the heads of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

Britain’s finance minister told the summit his country was a “natural partner” in the new Silk Road, while the prime minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, a close Chinese ally, praised China’s “vision and ingenuity”.

“Such a broad sweep and scale of interlocking economic partnerships and investments is unprecedented in history,” Sharif said.

White House adviser Matt Pottinger said the United States welcomed efforts by China to promote infrastructure connectivity as part of its Belt and Road initiative, and U.S. companies could offer top value services.

India refused to send an official delegation to Beijing, reflecting displeasure with China for developing a $57 billion trade corridor through Pakistan that also crosses the disputed territory of Kashmir.

“No country can accept a project that ignores its core concerns on sovereignty and territorial integrity,” said Indian foreign ministry spokesman Gopal Baglay, adding that there were concerns about host countries taking on “unsustainable debt.”

China plans to import $2 trillion of products from countries participating in its Belt and Road initiative over the next five years, Commerce Minister Zhong Shan said.

UNEASE OVER SUMMIT

But some Western diplomats have expressed unease about both the summit and the plan as a whole, seeing it as an attempt to promote Chinese influence globally. They are also concerned about transparency and access for foreign firms to the scheme.

Australian Trade Minister Steven Ciobo said Canberra was receptive to exploring commercial opportunities China’s new Silk Road presented, but any decisions would remain incumbent on national interest.

“China is willing to share its development experience with all countries,” Xi said. “We will not interfere in other countries’ internal affairs. We will not export our system of society and development model, and even more will not impose our views on others.”

“In advancing the Belt and Road, we will not re-tread the old path of games between foes. Instead we will create a new model of cooperation and mutual benefit,” Xi said.

North Korea, which considers China its sole major diplomatic ally and economic benefactor, raised eyebrows when it decided to send a delegation to the summit.

The North Korean delegation largely kept a low profile at the summit, and there was no evidence that its presence had affected participation despite U.S. misgivings.

FINANCIAL INCLUSIVENESS

Xi said the new Silk Road would be open to all, including Africa and the Americas, which are not situated on the traditional Silk Road.

“No matter if they are from Asia and Europe, or Africa or the Americas, they are all cooperative partners in building the Belt and Road.”

The idea of cooperation and inclusiveness extends to funding projects and investments along the new trade routes, which are being developed both on land and at sea.

“We need joint effort among Belt and Road countries to boost financing cooperation,” Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of China’s central bank, said.

To sustain the projects, Belt and Road nations should allow companies to play a key role, as government resources are limited, Zhou said.

The active use of local currencies will also help to mobilize local savings, lower remittance and exchange costs, and safeguard financial stability, he said.

At the forum, finance ministries from 27 countries, including China, approved a set of principles that will guide project financing along the new Silk Road.

Germany, which was not among the countries that approved the financing guidelines, said its firms were willing to support the Belt and Road initiative, but more transparency was needed.

Some of China’s close allies and partners were at the forum, including Russian President Vladimir Putin, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen and Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

There were also several European leaders attending, including the prime ministers of Spain, Italy, Greece and Hungary.

Chinese state-run media has spared no effort in its coverage of the summit, including broadcasting an awkwardly-named English-language music video “The Belt and Road is How” sung by children from countries on the new Silk Road.