Pubblicato in: Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia, Penisola Gydan. Arctic LNG-2: un progetto da 21 miliardi Usd.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-09-13.

Gydan & Yamal 001

Siamo chiari. Qualche politico italiano avrà ben dovuto andare in Russia a trattare la questione.

Che poi lo si voglia bastonare perché Saipen ha tolto una gran bella fetta di lucro alla Total, società francese, è cosa capibilissima: i francesi sono suscettibili, così come gli altri partner dell’Unione Europea. E nemmeno i giapponesi sono rimasti troppo soddisfatti: anche la Mitsubishi è fuori dall’Lng-2.

Gydan & Yamal 002

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Financial Times. Saipem secures Arctic LNG 2 project contract

Italian oil and gas services group seals joint venture in the west of Siberia.

Saipem reached a deal on Friday to participate in a joint engineering venture for a liquefied natural gas project in the west of Siberia. The contract awarded by Russian gas producer Novatek and a subsidiary assigns the Italian oil and gas services company a €2.2bn share in a joint venture with France’s Technip and Russia’s NIPIgaspererabotka to construct three LNG trains — facilities to liquefy and purify the gas — as part of the Arctic LNG 2 project. Each train will have the capacity to process approximately 6.6m tonnes of natural gas per year. The deal is the latest in a string of agreements secured by the company for construction services on gas projects, winning in June a record $6bn contract for an Anadarko LNG project in Mozambique. After some difficult years for services companies since the oil price plummeted in 2014, Saipem reported positive results for the first half of this year with a net profit of €14m, compared with losses of €323m in the same period a year earlier. The company has put a strategic focus on growth driven by gas, positioning itself for the energy transition to low carbon sources, with the latest deal meaning non-oil business accounts for nearly 70 per cent of its €22.5bn backlog. Stefano Cao, Saipem’s chief executive, said that the project “reaffirms Saipem’s strategic choice to consolidate its leadership across the entire natural gas value chain”. Saipem has emerged stronger from its restructuring by focusing on contracting on projects that make the company money and technical solutions — for example, helping the Zohr offshore field in Egypt go from discovery to first gas in the short timeframe of just over two years. The agreement with Novatek, building on the deal reached in December 2018 for Saipem to construct gravity based structures for the LNG plant, will be paid on a lump sum and reimbursement basis and the first train is expected to come online by 2023. Some analysts say that there are concerns, however, that the project could be hit with sanctions, as the US continues to ramp up punitive measures against Russia. The Yamal LNG project, Russia’s first foray into developing its Arctic resources for shipping overseas, was targeted with US sanctions in 2014. A day earlier Japanese trading house Mitsubishi announced it would not invest in the Arctic LNG 2 project.

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Energy Global News. Novatek strengthens presence in the Gydan Peninsula.

PAO Novatek announced that Arctic LNG 1, a wholly owned subsidiary, won the auction for geological survey, exploration and production license for the subsoil area including the Soletsko-Khanaveyskoye field located on the Gydan peninsula in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region. The license area has estimated hydrocarbon resources of 2,183 billion cubic meters of gas and 212 million tons of liquids, or 16 billion barrels of oil equivalent according to the Russian resource classification system. The license term is 27 years and the auction resulted in one-time payment for the subsoil use in the amount of RR 2,586 million.

The new license area borders Novatek’s Trekhbugorniy and Gydanskiy license areas on the Gydan peninsula, and allows to create the resource base for the next LNG project similar to Arctic LNG 2, with liquefaction trains to be located at the Utrenniy terminal.

The Gydan Peninsula is a geographical feature of the Siberian coast in the Kara Sea. It takes its name from the river Gyda that flows on the peninsula. It is roughly 400 km long and 360 km wide. This wide peninsula lies between the estuaries of the Ob and Yenisei Rivers. The southwestern corner of the peninsula is limited by the Taz Estuary. The climate in the whole area of the peninsula is arctic and harsh.

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Reuters. 2019-09-05. Russia ups LNG race with green light on $21 billion Arctic LNG-2 project

The $21 billion Arctic liquefied natural gas (LNG)-2 project led by Russian private gas producer Novatek won a green light on Thursday, the latest in a raft of new projects aimed at meeting a likely doubling of LNG demand over the next 15 years.

Arctic LNG-2 is expected to launch in 2023 and will aim to export 80 percent of its LNG to Asia, Novatek Chief Executive Leonid Mikhelson, Russia’s richest businessman according to Forbes magazine, said after the project’s partners signed a final investment decision (FID) at an economic forum.

At nearly 20 million tonnes per annum (mmpta) of LNG it would be largest single project to reach FID, according to Wood Mackenzie, and take total LNG volumes sanctioned this year to about 63 mtpa, beating the previous record of 45 mmtpa in 2005.

Arctic LNG 2 will be the third LNG project for Novatek, which hopes to match Qatar in production of the super-chilled fuel.

“Novatek is clearly driving home their ambitions to be a global LNG power house,” said Chong Zhi Xin, associate director of gas, power and energy at IHS Markit.

“It adds another 12 million tonnes to their portfolio on an equity basis. They are emerging as one of the largest LNG suppliers in the market.”

The project’s equity partners include French energy producer Total, China’s National Petroleum Corp [CNPET.UL], CNOOC and the Japan Arctic LNG consortium, made up of Mitsui & Co and state-owned JOGMEC, formally known as Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp.

“This is an important project for Russia and follows our strategy to create capacities for LNG production,” Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak said, adding that investments in the project had been set at $21 billion.

Japanese Industry Minister Hiroshige Seko said the project is one of the largest in the history of Japanese-Russian relations.

“It will unite Japan and Russia even more, as well as Europe and Asia. The Japanese government will provide all necessary assistance for the realization of this project,” he said.

The Arctic LNG 2 project will include construction of three LNG trains with a capacity of 6.6 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG each and at least 1.6 mtpa of gas condensate, according to Novatek’s website.

Located on the Gydan peninsula in Russia, the project is expected to export its first LNG by 2023 with the second and third train to start up by 2024 and 2026, Total said in a statement.

It will help Russia reach its goal of producing 120 to 130 million tonnes of LNG a year in the coming years and raise its share in the global LNG market to up to 20 percent.

It follows FIDs announced from Canada, the United States and Mozambique over the past year and plans to target Asian demand driven by major economies shifting towards greener fuel to combat pollution.

The project will benefit from extremely low cost gas, helping it compete against LNG from the United States and Canada, said Wood Mackenzie analyst Nicholas Browne.

LNG from the project will also be delivered to international markets by a fleet of ice-class LNG carriers that will be able to use the shorter Northern Sea Route and the trans-shipment terminal in Kamchatka for cargoes destined for Asia and the trans-shipment terminal close to Murmansk for cargoes destined for Europe, Total said.

“Arctic LNG 2 adds to our growing portfolio of competitive LNG developments based on giant low cost resources primarily intended for the fast growing Asian markets,” Total’s chief executive Patrick Pouyanné said in the statement.

The increase in supply from Russia and more intense competition may push down LNG prices and help move Asia towards a more gas-based economy, said IHS Markit’s Chong.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia. Programma di quintuplicare il LNG entro il 2035.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-07-12.

Kremlino 002

Il problema sarebbe molto semplice, e ci aiuta a comprenderlo a fondo lo International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook (October – 2017).

«Le proiezioni al 2023 danno la Cina ad un pil ppa di 37,067 (20.54%) miliardi di Usd, gli Stati Uniti di 24,537 (14.01%), e l’India di 16,785 (9.10%) Usd.

Seguono Giappone con 6,358 (3.67%),  Germania 5,171 (32%), Regno Unito 3,5986 (2.06%), Francia 3,5447 (2.04%), Italia 2,755 (1.60%). Russia 4.933 (2.84%) e Brasile 4,168 (2.33%).

I paesi del G7 produrranno 46,293 (27.59%) mld Usd del pil mondiale, mentre i paesi del Brics renderanno conto di 59,331 mld Usd (35.36%).»

I paesi europei grandi consumatori di energia, Germania, Regno Unito, Francia ed Italia rappresenteranno nel 2023 appena il 9% del pil ppa mondiale: saranno pur sempre un mercato da non trascurarsi, ma sicuramente non determinante. I paesi asiatici si stanno sviluppando al ritmo di almeno il 6% all’anno e per svilupparsi hanno un grande bisogno di prodotti energetici, tra i quali il petrolio ed il gas naturale liquefatto, Lng in inglese e gnl in italiano.

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Russia. Varato il Belgorod, Project 09852.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

Cina, Groenlandia e ‘Polar Silk Road’.

Dimenticate Russia, Arabia, Iran, Opec. È la Cina che fa i prezzi del petrolio.

Cina. Arabia Saudita accetta i petro-yuan

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Putin avvia lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye.

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La Russia, quale grande produttrice di petrolio e gas naturale, valuta con la massima attenzione codesti dati proiettati nel futuro.

Pochi settori, infatti, quali l’energetico, si articolano su tempi lunghi. Tra la scoperta di un giacimento di rilevanza ed il suo pieno sfruttamento estrattivo intercorrono in media almeno cinque anni, ed altrettanti sono poi necessari per ammortizzare gli investimenti effettuati.

Mentre tra dieci anni i paesi orientali saranno in pieno sviluppo economico, l’Europa sarà economicamente quasi trascurabile, anche perché la crisi demografica la sta falcidiando: i paesi spopolati non son certo buoni acquirenti.

«La Russia intende quintuplicare la propria produzione di gas naturale liquefatto (gnl) entro il 2035, con l’obiettivo di rispondere all’incremento della domanda nella regione asiatica, e di aggiudicarsi circa il 20 per cento del mercato globale»

«Mosca si aspetta che in futuro circa il 70 per cento del gnl russo venga destinato all’Asia-Pacifico tramite la rotta commerciale nell’Oceano Artico»

«Ad oggi la Russia produce circa 28 milioni di tonnellate di gnl annue, cui contribuiscono anche l’output del progetto Sakhalin-2»

«la Russia si aspetta un significativo aumento delle esportazioni di gas naturale liquefatto verso paesi come Giappone, Cina, India, Corea del Sud e Vietnam»

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Il problema energetico sta quindi spostando gli equilibri eurasiatici verso un continuo rafforzamento della collaborazione politica e tecnica tra Russia e Cina.


Agenzia Nova. 2019-06-14. Energia: Russia pronta a quintuplicare output gnl per rifornire paesi asiatici

La Russia intende quintuplicare la propria produzione di gas naturale liquefatto (gnl) entro il 2035, con l’obiettivo di rispondere all’incremento della domanda nella regione asiatica, e di aggiudicarsi circa il 20 per cento del mercato globale. Lo ha dichiarato al quotidiano “Nikkei” il ministro dell’Energia russo, Alexander Novak, secondo cui Mosca si aspetta che in futuro circa il 70 per cento del gnl russo venga destinato all’Asia-Pacifico tramite la rotta commerciale nell’Oceano Artico. Novak ha spiegato che la Russia intende rafforzare la cooperazione con il Giappone sui fronti del finanziamento e della tecnologia per il gnl e i settori collegati. Il premier giapponese Shinzo Abe e il presidente russo, Vladimir Putin, dovrebbero discutere la cooperazione economica tra i rispettivi paesi a margine del G-20 di Osaka, il prossimo 29 giugno; il ministro Novak potrebbe unirsi alla delegazione che accompagnerà il presidente russo in Giappone.
Ad oggi la Russia produce circa 28 milioni di tonnellate di gnl annue, cui contribuiscono anche l’output del progetto Sakhalin-2 – cui partecipano i colossi commerciali giapponesi Mitsui & Co e Mitsubishi Corp – e il progetto Yamanl Lng, nell’Artide russo. Novak ha spiegato che l’obiettivo di Mosca è di aumentare la produzione, che ad oggi soddisfa circa il 6 per cento della domanda globale, sino a 120 0 140 milioni di tonnellate entro il 2035. Qatar e Australia si sono aggiudicati entrambi una quota del 20 per cento del mercato del gnl globale nel 2018; l’obiettivo della Russia è di rivaleggiare con quei due paesi e con gli Stati Uniti, attingendo alle opportunità dei mercati emergenti nell’Asia-Pacifico; la Russia si aspetta un significativo aumento delle esportazioni di gas naturale liquefatto verso paesi come Giappone, Cina, India, Corea del Sud e Vietnam

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Materie Prime, Putin, Russia

Russia. Varato il rompighiaccio atomico Ural. Alla fine saranno 13 navi.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-06-20.

Yamal 001

«Russia launched a nuclear-powered icebreaker on Saturday, part of an ambitious program to renew and expand its fleet of the vessels in order to improve its ability to tap the Arctic’s commercial potential.»

«Designed to be crewed by 75 people, the Ural will be able to slice through ice up to around 3 meters thick.»

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«The Arctic holds oil and gas reserves equivalent to 412 billion barrels of oil, about 22 percent of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas»

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«The Ural together with its sisters are central to our strategic project of opening the NSR to all-year activThe Ural together with its sisters are central to our strategic project of opening the NSR to all-year activityity»

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«The Ural together with its sisters are central to our strategic project of opening the NSR to all-year activity»

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La Russia di Mr Putin ha da tempo lanciato una lunga serie di programmi volti a sfruttare le risorse energetiche rinvenibili nelle zone artiche, che detengono grosso modo il 22% delle riserve di petrolio e gas mondiali.

Due i grandi problemi da risolvere, e, si direbbe, risolti.

Il primo inerisce le difficoltà di allestire gli impianti estrattivi in condizioni climatiche particolarmente avverse.

Il secondo verte invece sulla trasportabilità del minerale estratto, essendo impossibile al momento attuale la costruzione di oleodotti o di gasdotti.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Dall’Artico la sfida russa al gas Usa: Yamal Lng ultimato in tempi record

Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Putin avvia lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye.

Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

Cina, Groenlandia e ‘Polar Silk Road’.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

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La centrale atomica montata su di una chiatta trasportabile e la flotta dei 13 rompighiaccio pesanti, sette dei quali a propulsione atomica ed in grado di sfondare strati di tre metri di ghiaccio, dovrebbero essere in grado di mantenere la rotta artica agibile sia di estate sua di inverno.

La Russia si avvia a diventare la maggior produttrice di petroli e gas naturale del mondo. Poi, avere limitrofa la Cina in espansione economica sempre più rapida, garantisce un immenso mercato, per di più servibile con rotte militarmente sicure.


Reuters. 2019-05-26. Russia, eyeing Arctic future, launches nuclear icebreaker

ST PETERSBURG, Russia (Reuters) – Russia launched a nuclear-powered icebreaker on Saturday, part of an ambitious program to renew and expand its fleet of the vessels in order to improve its ability to tap the Arctic’s commercial potential.

The ship, dubbed the Ural and which was floated out from a dockyard in St Petersburg, is one of a trio that when completed will be the largest and most powerful icebreakers in the world.

Russia is building new infrastructure and overhauling its ports as, amid warmer climate cycles, it readies for more traffic via what it calls the Northern Sea Route (NSR) which it envisages being navigable year-round.

The Ural is due to be handed over to Russia’s state-owned nuclear energy corporation Rosatom in 2022 after the two other icebreakers in the same series, Arktika (Arctic) and Sibir (Siberia), enter service.

“The Ural together with its sisters are central to our strategic project of opening the NSR to all-year activity,” Alexey Likhachev, Rosatom’s chief executive, was quoted saying.

President Vladimir Putin said in April Russia was stepping up construction of icebreakers with the aim of significantly boosting freight traffic along its Arctic coast.

The drive is part of a push to strengthen Moscow’s hand in the High North as it vies for dominance with traditional rivals Canada, the United States and Norway, as well as newcomer China.

By 2035, Putin said Russia’s Arctic fleet would operate at least 13 heavy-duty icebreakers, nine of which would be powered by nuclear reactors.

The Arctic holds oil and gas reserves equivalent to 412 billion barrels of oil, about 22 percent of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas, the U.S. Geological Survey estimates.

Moscow hopes the route which runs from Murmansk to the Bering Strait near Alaska could take off as it cuts sea transport times from Asia to Europe.

Designed to be crewed by 75 people, the Ural will be able to slice through ice up to around 3 meters thick.

Pubblicato in: Economia e Produzione Industriale, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Putin avvia lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-23.

2019-03-22__akademik-lomonosov-__001

Di Mr Putin si può dire di tutto tranne che sia un ignavo: si direbbe che abbia sette vite come i gatti.

Appena lo scorso anno aveva inaugurato lo stabilimento estrattivo dei campi gas di Yamal, sopra il circolo polare artico, ed adesso inaugura il cantiere per lo sfruttamento del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye, grosso modo un centinaio di kilometri più a nord.

Si stima che da questo campo si potranno ottenere almeno 32 miliardi di metri cubi di gas all’anno.

Di notabile, tutte le tecnologie e tutte le apparecchiature sono di progettazione e costruzione russa, che ha acquisito un invidiabile know-how nei lavori di trivellazione a temperature che di inverno si aggirano sui -50°C.

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Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

«Putin, officially opening the plant in the harsh climate of northern Siberia last week»

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«Building the $27 billion Yamal liquefied natural gas project meant shipping more than 5 million tons of materials to construct a forest of concrete and steel 600 kilometers north of the Arctic circle, where temperatures can drop to -50 degrees Celsius and the sun disappears for two months straight»

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Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

«For Novatek, the successful launch of the project means questions are now turning to the future. On Tuesday, it outlined plans for some $60 billion of investments together with partners in a second LNG plant, a trans-shipment terminal in the far east and new domestic gas supplies»

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Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

«I tesori minerari racchiusi nell’Artico sono ben protetti dai ghiacci, ma quanto mai appetibili: assomma quasi la metà delle scorte di idrocarburi mondiali.»

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Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

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Gazprom begins full-scale development of Yamal’s Kharasaveyskoye field

In the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area, Russian gas monopoly Gazprom launched the full-scale development of the giant Kharasaveyskoye field at a ceremony on 20 March. Gazprom CEO Alexey Miller and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area Governor Dmitry Artyukhov attended the event while Russian President Vladimir Putin addressed the event participants in his opening speech via a conference call.

The Kharasaveyskoye field is the second most important field after the Bovanenkovskoye field in Gazprom’s Yamal gas production centre. The Yamal centre plays an essential part in the Russian gas industry of the 21st century.

Gas production at the Kharasaveyskoye field is going to start in 2023. The estimated volume of gas production from the Cenomanian-Aptian deposits is 32 billion cubic metres per year. After this, Gazprom is going to proceed with developing the deeper-lying Neocomian-Jurassic deposits. While mostly lying onshore, the field also partly spreads into the waters of the Kara Sea. Wells for the offshore part of the field is going to be drilled from onshore.

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Gas, in Russia avviati i lavori del mega campo Kharasaveyskoye

Avviati i lavori nel campo Kharasaveyskoye: dovrebbe produrre gas fino  al 2131

Russia  protagonista (ancora una volta) del settore gas. Gazprom ha avviato i lavori per produrre gas dal campo Kharasaveyskoye, che si trova a nord del campo Bovanenkovskoye nella penisola di Yamal.

Ieri si è tenuta la cerimonia di inaugurazione dei lavori, nell’Area Autonoma di Yamal-Nenets. All’evento hanno parteciparono Alexey Miller, presidente del comitato di gestione di Gazprom, Dmitrij Artyukov, governatore dell’Area e capo delle suddivisioni e delle  sussidiarie di Gazprom.

ENTRO IL 2023 AVVIO DI PRODUZIONE

I lavori di riempimento delle piazzole per le strade e gli impianti di produzione dovrebbero essere conclusi entro il 2019. A giugno 2020, la Società intende avviare la perforazione di pozzi e la produzione di gas dovrebbe partire nel 2023, dai giacimenti Cenomanian-Aptian, il cui volume stimato di produzione ammonta a 32 miliardi di metri cubi all’anno.

Successivamente, la Compagnia procederà a sviluppare i giacimenti Neocomiano-Giurassico.

IL PROGETTO

I lavori sono stati avviati ieri e, per il pre-sviluppo, saranno coinvolti circa 5.500 ingegneri, costruttori e 1.764 veicoli. La società prevede di costruire 236 pozzi per la produzione di gas, un’unità di trattamento del gas completa e una stazione di compressione del booster, oltre a un’infrastruttura di trasporto e di alimentazione.

Per trasportare il gas prodotto sul campo, sarà costruito un gasdotto di 106 chilometri che collega i campi Kharasaveyskoye e Bovanenkovskoye, attraverso cui il gas verrà immesso nel sistema di approvvigionamento di gas unificato della Russia.

SOLO APPARECCHIATURE DOMESTICHE

“Oggi, stiamo iniziando lo sviluppo su vasta scala del campo Kharasaveyskoye. Abbiamo scelto soluzioni progettuali e ingegneristiche il più possibile simili a quelle che sono state applicate con successo per il campo di Bovanenkovo. Ciò significa che possiamo semplificare i nostri costi di investimento e operativi. La produzione di gas sul campo sarà effettuata utilizzando esclusivamente apparecchiature realizzate in Russia”, ha affermato Alexey Miller.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia. Un gigantesco rompighiaccio per Lng. – Bloomberg.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-10-17.

Yamal 001

I giacimenti di gas naturale nella zona di Yamal sono tra i più vasti del mondo, ma il loro sfruttamento è condizionato dalla situazione climatica al limite della vivibilità.

Russi e cinesi stanno facendo ogni possibile sforzo sia nel perfezionare le tecniche estrattive, sia nel trovare soluzioni idonee al trasporto a destinazione di quanto estratto.

La Russia ha intanto costruito una prima centrale atomica a bassa potenza galleggiante

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Questa enorme chiatta permette di disporre delle grandi quantità di energia necessarie alle trivellazioni, estrazioni e costruzione degli impianti estrattivi.  Poi, durante la notte artica si può lavorare soltanto con luce artificiale, e le maestranze hanno bisogno di un efficiente sistema di riscaldamento.

Resta il grande problema del trasporto a destinazione del gas. La costruzione di un gasdotto sarebbe al momento tecnicamente impossibile. La Russia ha optato per la liquefazione del gas estratto, per cui serve sicuramente l’impianto idoneo, ma altrettanto sicuramente delle navi Lng in grado di navigare nell’Artico anche in situazioni climatiche avverse: dei rompighiaccio.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

Cina, Groenlandia e ‘Polar Silk Road’.

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«The 1,000-foot-long vessels for hauling liquefied natural gas can cut through ice up to 7 feet thick.»

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«Until factories open on the moon or Mars, there’s no less hospitable an industrial workplace than Yamal LNG, a $27 billion liquid natural gas plant that lies in Russian territory 375 miles north of the Arctic Circle. In the winter, when there’s zero sun for more than two months, temperatures reach -13F on land and -58F in the blinding fog out at sea. But there’s a lot of fossil fuel in this wasteland—44 trillion cubic feet, the equivalent of about 8 billion barrels of oil. »

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«The tankers are the widest gas carriers ever built, at about 164 feet. Fully loaded, each carries the same volume as about 1 million barrels of oil. Together, the 15 will be able to carry 16.5 million tons of liquefied natural gas a year—enough to supply half of South Korea’s annual consumption, and close to the eventual output of Yamal LNG. They’ll travel west to Europe in the winter and east to Asia in the summer, moving through ice that’s up to 7 feet thick»

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Lo sfruttamento su larga scala dei giacimenti artici è iniziato.

Paesi ex-emergenti quali Cina ed India sono affamati di energetici. Nel volgere di una decina di anni dovrebbero decuplicare le propri richieste sul mercato.

Dimenticate Russia, Arabia, Iran, Opec. È la Cina che fa i prezzi del petrolio.

Cina. Arabia Saudita accetta i petro-yuan

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

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Si prospettano diversi decenni di grandi tensioni per l’accaparramento dei giacimenti ed il relativo trasporto dell’estratto.


Bloomberg. 2018-07-10. Russia Is Building $320 Million Icebreakers to Carve New Arctic Routes

The 1,000-foot-long vessels for hauling liquefied natural gas can cut through ice up to 7 feet thick.

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Until factories open on the moon or Mars, there’s no less hospitable an industrial workplace than Yamal LNG, a $27 billion liquid natural gas plant that lies in Russian territory 375 miles north of the Arctic Circle. In the winter, when there’s zero sun for more than two months, temperatures reach -13F on land and -58F in the blinding fog out at sea. But there’s a lot of fossil fuel in this wasteland—44 trillion cubic feet, the equivalent of about 8 billion barrels of oil. So Yamal LNG, controlled by Russian natural gas producer Novatek, has brought together partners to spend an unprecedented sum on a new kind of transportation that will be here much faster than self-driving cars or a casual afternoon spaceflight.

Conventional tankers still can’t handle the ice in the Arctic’s Kara Sea—even though it’s slowly but surely melting because of global warming. It would be extremely costly and time-consuming to provide smaller icebreaking ships as escorts for the tankers. That’s why an international collaboration of ship designers, engineers, builders, and owners is creating a minimum of fifteen 1,000-foot-long, $320 million tankers to break the ice themselves. “The vessel has to be able to perform her tasks in extremely harsh conditions,” says Mika Hovilainen, an icebreaker specialist at Aker Arctic Technology Inc., the Helsinki company that designed the ships. “Systems have to work properly in a very wide range of temperatures.”

The tankers are the widest gas carriers ever built, at about 164 feet. Fully loaded, each carries the same volume as about 1 million barrels of oil. Together, the 15 will be able to carry 16.5 million tons of liquefied natural gas a year—enough to supply half of South Korea’s annual consumption, and close to the eventual output of Yamal LNG. They’ll travel west to Europe in the winter and east to Asia in the summer, moving through ice that’s up to 7 feet thick.

Icebreakers don’t break ice like a barbecue host crushing up a bag from the local convenience store. The ships’ hulls are designed to bend the edge of the ice sheet downward, snapping the sheet with pressure distributed across its surface. In 7-foot-thick ice, the tanker’s stern, which is the end of the ship designed to break heavy ice, faces forward. The first tanker, which began operating in December, can move at 7.2 knots (8.3 mph) stern-forward in thick ice. It was the first vessel to sail the Northern Sea Route from Siberia to the Bering Strait, setting a time to beat of 6½ days.

The ship is part of a much bigger game. “This is perhaps the largest step forward in our developing of the Arctic,” Russian President Vladimir Putin said in December at the opening of the Yamal LNG facility. Citing the 18th century poet Mikhail Lomonosov’s prediction that Russia would expand through Siberia, Putin said, “Now we can safely say that Russia will expand through the Arctic this and next century. This is where the largest mineral reserves are located. This is the site of a future transport artery that I am sure will be very good and efficient: the Northern Sea Route.”

Along the routes the carriers will be traveling, the wildly varying ice conditions and depths require a hull that’s both durable and designed specifically to sweep broken ice out of the way. Aker’s engineers meticulously tested their design through simulations and then scale models in a 250-foot-long, 26-foot-deep test basin, crashing model ships into dummy ice to see which parts of the hull needed more or less reinforcement. They also took care not to overarmor the tankers, so as not to slow them down unnecessarily on open water.

Bending ice into submission requires enormous power. The tankers are propelled by three 15-megawatt, natural gas-powered generators—any one of the vessels could power as many as 35,000 U.S. homes. To avoid working the generators too hard, the ships’ massive thrusters, produced by Swedish-Swiss engineering giant ABB Ltd., decouple the engines from the propellers. That is to say, the propellers can spin faster or slower without making the engine “roar up and down,” says Peter Terwiesch, president of ABB’s industrial automation division. Separating the engine and the propeller workload improves fuel efficiency by 20 percent, according to ABB. As a bonus, “you get much better maneuverability,” Terwiesch says. Turning a supertanker has never been easier.

Although LNG tankers have been around for half a century, ferrying fuel from the arid Middle East, there’d been no need for ice-rated models until the past decade, when Norway’s Snohvit and Russia’s Sakhalin-2 projects pioneered gas production in colder climes. Yamal LNG’s port, Sabetta, was designed and built in tandem with the ships that would serve it.

The other trend making the massive icebreakers feasible is humanity’s prodigious climate-warming pollution. The Russian half of the Arctic is becoming passable much more quickly than the U.S.-Canadian side. The carriers chartered to Yamal LNG are supposed to have a life span of 40 years, so they’ll likely still be at sea in the 2040s, when climate scientists project that the Arctic will be ice-free in the summer. “Further development of the Arctic and its resources is inevitable,” says Keith Haines, a meteorology professor at the University of Reading who studies Arctic shipping. “The commitment is there.”

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Yamal. Gli Usa hanno perso, la Russia ha vinto e raddoppia. – Bloomberg

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-12-22.

2017-12-14__Yamal_2__001

Quando una nazione ha un Governo che governa, che sa governare, e che indirizza ma non interferisce nei processi produttivi, ottiene i risultati che sta ottenendo la Russia.

Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

È un Bloomberg stupefatto ed incredulo che constata il fallimento delle sanzioni americane ed il trionfo della Russia. Ma è ancor più stupefatto che Mr Putin ingigantisca il progetto.

In realtà, constata quanto oramai l’Occidente sia ininfluente sul sistema economico mondiale, che può serenamente vivere anche senza di esso.

«Putin, officially opening the plant in the harsh climate of northern Siberia last week»

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«Building the $27 billion Yamal liquefied natural gas project meant shipping more than 5 million tons of materials to construct a forest of concrete and steel 600 kilometers north of the Arctic circle, where temperatures can drop to -50 degrees celsius and the sun disappears for two months straight»

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«Yet those challenges weren’t as tough as the U.S. sanctions imposed in 2014, forcing a complete refinancing just as construction was about to start.»

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«Three years later, the first shipment of Yamal LNG’s gas represents a gargantuan effort from the Russian establishment to demonstrate that one of President Vladimir Putin’s flagship projects would not be derailed by sanctions»

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«The launch of the project in the face of sanctions has helped spur Moscow’s political pivot to China, which provided much of the financing»

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«The first cargo is on board a tanker headed for a port near London, helping the U.K. to cope with cold winter weather»

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«For Novatek, it’s a triumph over adversity»

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«Novatek’s achievement was not just one of political willpower and financial engineering. It was also technical»

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«It’s the only project I can think of in the last decade that actually is on time and on budget»

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Sono undici secoli che i russi danno il meglio di sé stessi quando sono immersi in severe difficoltà: non sono un popolo da pigliarsi sottogamba. Quando poi si elicita il loro senso nazionale diventano più pericolosi e tenaci delle tigri ferite.

Ma il meglio è la frase finale: in cauda venenum.

«For Novatek, the successful launch of the project means questions are now turning to the future. On Tuesday, it outlined plans for some $60 billion of investments together with partners in a second LNG plant, a trans-shipment terminal in the far east and new domestic gas supplies»

Già.

Fatto il primo impianto artico da 27 miliardi, adesso sta finendo di progettarne un secondo per un investimento da sessanta miliardi, che servirà l’Asia orientale e la Cina.

Si prenda atto che Europa ed America non servono più né come finanziatori, né come provider di tecniche e strumentazioni, e che oramai non sono nemmeno più un mercato cui vendere.


Bloomberg. 2017-12-14. Russia Wins in Arctic After U.S. Fails to Kill Giant Gas Project

– Sanctions created ‘deadlock’ for Yamal LNG, says Total

– Novatek plans new projects to challenge Qatar for scale

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Building the $27 billion Yamal liquefied natural gas project meant shipping more than 5 million tons of materials to construct a forest of concrete and steel 600 kilometers north of the Arctic circle, where temperatures can drop to -50 degrees celsius and the sun disappears for two months straight.

Yet those challenges weren’t as tough as the U.S. sanctions imposed in 2014, forcing a complete refinancing just as construction was about to start. Jacques de Boisseson, head of the Moscow office of French energy giant Total SA, which has a 20 percent stake in Yamal LNG, said there were “various moments” when he thought the project may never happen.

“We were too much advanced to stop. We were in a deadlock: we had to go ahead and we didn’t know how,” de Boisseson said.

Three years later, the first shipment of Yamal LNG’s gas represents a gargantuan effort from the Russian establishment to demonstrate that one of President Vladimir Putin’s flagship projects would not be derailed by sanctions. The launch of the project in the face of sanctions has helped spur Moscow’s political pivot to China, which provided much of the financing. Novatek PJSC, which controls Yamal LNG, is already talking about its next LNG project.

London Bound

The first cargo is on board a tanker headed for a port near London, helping the U.K. to cope with cold winter weather and an unplanned shutdown of a clutch of its own North Sea fields. That the gas will end up in a European country that’s backed sanctions against Russia may please many in Moscow.

“We had a dream,” Mark Gyetvay, deputy chief executive officer of Novatek, said on Tuesday. “Now we have realized that dream.”

For Yamal LNG, the timing of the U.S. sanctions against Russian shareholders in the project in 2014 couldn’t have been worse. It was just embarking on one of Russia’s largest-ever international financing packages, and planning to attract significant investment from western banks. In a further obstacle, the sanctions prevented Novatek’s Gyetvay from working on the financing deal as he is a U.S. citizen.

“For Novatek, it’s a triumph over adversity,” said James Henderson, director of natural gas at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. “Russians have got it running and that is a bit of a triumph for them that underlines again that sanctions struggle to be effective.”

Tortured Talks

Yamal’s partners hoped that non-U.S. banks and companies would step into the breach and provide the necessary financial support. But talks dragged on through 2014 and 2015 without a deal, as few were willing to risk the wrath of the U.S. government by helping to fund the project, and a tumble in oil prices changed the economic calculus.

China was the only hope remaining besides Russia’s state banks. But those negotiations were just as tortuous. Novatek several times made predictions about when a deal would be signed, only to see the self-imposed deadlines pass without a result.

“Quite frankly, we are beginning to lose our patience with the excessive comments and a myopic focus on the single point,” Gyetvay told analysts in October 2015, conceding that the process had been “painstakingly slow.”

Russia was forced to backstop the project, providing 150 billion rubles ($2.5 billion) of funding from the National Welfare Fund, a rainy-day reserve built up to stabilize retirement provisions, in a high-stakes show of support.

Finally in April 2016, two Chinese state banks agreed to provide $12 billion to the project in euros and rubles.

“There was a period of uncertainty,” Gyetvay said on Tuesday. “And then when China came in that ended.”

‘Pretty Impressive’

Novatek’s achievement was not just one of political willpower and financial engineering. It was also technical.

Putin, officially opening the plant in the harsh climate of northern Siberia last week, told an audience including Gazprom PJSC chief Alexey Miller that several people had come to him with a list of reasons why it couldn’t work. “This is certainly a complex project, and we have good people here in this room, good professionals, who warned me at the beginning of this journey: ‘Do not do this’,” he said.

Gazprom had previously considered building an LNG plant in the same region but concluded it was too challenging. Other big LNG projects around the world have suffered large budget over-runs.

“It’s the only project I can think of in the last decade that actually is on time and on budget,” said Henderson at the Oxford Institute. “It’s pretty impressive.”

That wasn’t all the result of the engineering prowess of Novatek and partners Total and CNPC. The project was helped by a tumble in the ruble in late 2014 – cutting the cost of Russia-sourced equipment and labour at a key moment in the construction.

What’s more, it received large amounts of Russian government support, not only in the form of financing. Yamal LNG also enjoys generous tax breaks, and the state has helped to build some of the necessary infrastructure.

For Novatek, the successful launch of the project means questions are now turning to the future. On Tuesday, it outlined plans for some $60 billion of investments together with partners in a second LNG plant, a trans-shipment terminal in the far east and new domestic gas supplies.

“Today is a great moment for Novatek,” Gyetvay said. “Our new strategy transforms Novatek into a global gas power.”

Pubblicato in: Problemia Energetici, Russia, Unione Europea

Russia. Yamal. Francia e Germania con il muso nella greppia delle sanzioni.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-12-14.

Yamal 001

«Investments in Yamal LNG were put at risk after Novatek came under Western sanctions over Moscow’s role in the Ukraine crisis»


Putin opens Russia’s $27bn Arctic LNG plant

«Russia has opened a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in the country’s northern region of Yamal. The first tanker with LNG was launched on Friday by Russian President Vladimir Putin.

The ice-breaking tanker is named after the former CEO of Total Christophe de Margerie who died in a plane crash in Russia. The tanker can carry up to 173,000 cubic meters of LNG. Russia plans to build 15 tankers as big as the ‘Christophe de Margerie‘.

“Russia must accelerate work on development capacity to produce liquefied natural gas,” Putin said at the ceremony.

The controlling stake in the enterprise belongs to Russian energy major Novatek. Twenty percent each is owned by Total, and China’s CNPC, and the remaining 9.9 percent belongs to the China-based Silk Road Fund.

Costing $27 billion, the plant will have three production lines and a total capacity of 16.5 million tons of LNG per year.

Almost 96 percent of the Yamal LNG plant’s production has already been contracted. The main customers will be the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Novatek reported.

Shareholders of the Novatek project – Total and CNPC – will purchase LNG on a long-term basis.

The ceremony was also attended by a member of Saudi Aramco’s board of directors. The kingdom is considering taking part in Novatek’s new project, Arctic LNG 2, according to Russian Energy Minister Aleksandr Novak.»

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«Costing $27 billion, the plant will have three production lines and a total capacity of 16.5 million tons of LNG per year.»

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«Almost 96 percent of the Yamal LNG plant’s production has already been contracted. The main customers will be the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Novatek reported»

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«Shareholders of the Novatek project – Total and CNPC – will purchase LNG on a long-term basis»

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«The ceremony was also attended by a member of Saudi Aramco’s board of directors. The kingdom is considering taking part in Novatek’s new project, Arctic LNG 2»

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Leggiamo con grande attenzione:

«Almost 96 percent of the Yamal LNG plant’s production has already been contracted. The main customers will be the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Novatek reported»

L’Occidente non è nemmeno più un mercato cui esportare.

Ufficialmente, la Russia dovrebbe trovarsi sotto le sanzioni decretate contro di lei dall’Occidente, Germania e Francia in testa.

Nessun paese dell’Unione Europea dovrebbe commerciare materiali strategici con la Russia, e la Germania di Frau Merkel è stata vigile gendarme che i paesi afferenti l’Unione ben se ne guardassero dall’infrangere ciò che la Germania aveva deciso. Pene severe, severissime sanzioni.

Ma si sa che nella Fattoria degli Animali tutti gli animali erano eguali, ma i maiali erano più eguali degli altri.

Francia e Germania, ma anche l’Arabia Saudita, sono coinvolte fino al collo nell’operazione Yamal, costata 27 miliardi di dollari, che per ironia del destino servirà quasi esclusivamente il mercato asiatico cinese, loro concorrente.

Se Treccani definisce l’ipocrisia come

«Simulazione di virtù, di devozione religiosa, e in genere di buoni sentimenti, di buone qualità e disposizioni, per guadagnarsi la simpatia o i favori di una o più persone, ingannandole»

Francia e Germania sono ottimi esempi viventi di ipocrisia.

Se nessuno si scandalizza che esse curino devotamente i propri affarucci, ci si scandalizza invece di tutta quella gente più o meno in buona fede che crede, o fa finta di credere, che siano gente onesta.

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Sarebbe menzognero non parlare del diavolo quando le sue corna sono perfettamente visibili.

Siemens to Supply Turbines for Yamal LNG Power Plant

«German industrial conglomerate Siemens on Thursday announced a contract to supply turbines for a power plant that will feed one of Russia’s most ambitious natural-gas projects, Yamal LNG.

Siemens said it was selling six gas-fired power-generating turbines to Tekhnopromexport, a subsidiary of state corporation Rustec, which is building the power plant. A Siemens spokesman declined to name the price of the turbine contract.

Adil Toubia, chief of the oil & gas division at Siemens’ energy branch, said in a statement that Russia leads the world in buying this type of turbines.

Each of the turbines has the capacity to produce 47 megawatts of electricity.

The Yamal LNG project in the northern Yamal peninsula foresees construction of a plant to produce 16.5 million metric tons of liquefied natural gas, which is gas-cooled to the degree that makes it fluid and fit for transportation by tankers. It is expected that the plant will start operation in 2018.

Novatek leads the project while France’s Total and China’s CNPC are partners with 20-percent stakes.

Yamal LNG began tendering items with long lead times after a November decision by its shareholders.

Rustec announced at the end of last month that Tekhnopromexport won the power plant construction tender.

South Korea’s Daewoo received a contract to build 16 tankers to transport LNG from the plant, Yamal LNG said earlier this month.

One other winner of these tenders was a partnership between JCG, a Japanese engineering company, and Technip, a French oil field services company. It secured a contract in April to provide cost estimates and engineering services for the LNG plant.»

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«Yamal LNG is a liquefied natural gas plant nearing operational capacity, in 2017, and located in Sabetta at the north-east corner of the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. The project is expected to cost US$27 billion.

The planned LNG plant will ultimately have three trains with total capacity of 16.5 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas per year. First train will be operational by the end of 2017 and the full capacity will be achieved by 2021.

The plant will be designed and commissioned by consortium of Technip and JGC Corporation, and Chiyoda. In addition to the LNG plant, the project includes construction of a seaport and airport as also a power plant. The power plant will be built by Technopromexport and its turbines will be supplied by Siemens. The power plant will have capacity of 282 MW and it would be operational by 2018. Construction of the port facilities to start in September 2013.

The LNG plant will be supplied mainly from the Yuzhno-Tambeyskoye gas field. The main export market for LNG would be China. LNG would be shipped to Asian markets through the Northeast Passage. Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering is contracted to build up to sixteen Arc7 double acting ice-class gas tankers for the project. Tankers will be chartered and operated by Sovcomflot.

The project is developed by JSC Yamal LNG. Novatek owns 50.1% stake in the company while Total S.A. and CNPC own 20% each with China’s Silk Road Fund has signed agreement to purchase 9.9% stake. General director of the company was Gleb Luxemburg and from September 2014 Evgeny Kot has been appointed the CEO of Yamal LNG. Also alternative project named Yamal LNG was proposed by Gazprom. In November 2008, Gazprom announced that it prepares a list of potential partners for the LNG plant of the Yamal project. Although the list was not disclosed, Gazprom indicated that ExxonMobil and ConocoPhillips were included on the list. Also Royal Dutch Shell, Repsol YPF and Petro-Canada were mentioned as potential partners.

Yamal LNG has commissioned 15 LNG icebreaker/tanker ships to export its gas. Each icebreaker/tanker is designed to operate year-round from the Yamal peninsula and to break ice up to 2.5 meters thick. The ships are leased by Yamal LNG from four companies: Sovcomflot, one ship; MOL, three ships; Dynagas, five ships; and Teekay, six ships.» [Fonte]

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«The Yamal–Europe natural gas pipeline is a 4,196 kilometres (2,607 mi) long pipeline connecting natural gas fields in Western Siberia and in the future on the Yamal peninsula, Russia, with Germany.

Planning for the Yamal–Europe pipeline started in 1992. Intergovernmental agreements between Russia, Belarus and Poland were signed in 1993. ….

The pipeline starts at the Torzhok gas hub in Russia and is fed by the Northern Tyumen Regions (SRTO) – Torzhok gas pipeline. Its length includes around 402 kilometres (250 mi) in Russia, 575 kilometres (357 mi) in Belarus and 683 kilometres (424 mi) in Poland. The German gas system is connected to the Yamal–Europe pipeline through the JAGAL pipeline.

Notwithstanding its name, the pipeline is initially supplied by gas fields in the Nadym Pur Taz District of the Tyumen Oblast and not from Yamal peninsula. It would be supplied from the Bovanenkovo field of Yamal peninsula after construction of the 1,100 kilometres (700 mi) long Bovanenkovo-Ukhta pipeline, a part of the Yamal project. ….

The capacity of the pipeline is 33 billion cubic metres (1.2 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas per annum. The diameter of the pipeline is 1,420 millimetres (56 in). The pressure in the pipeline is provided by 14 compressor stations ….

The Russian section of the pipeline is owned and operated by Gazprom. The Belarusian section is owned by Gazprom and operated by Gazprom Transgaz Belaru. The Polish section is owned and operated by EuRoPol Gaz S.A., a joint venture of the Polish PGNiG, Russian Gazprom (both 48% of shares) and Polish Gas-Trading S.A. (4% of shares).» [Fonte]


Reuters. 2017-12-08. Russia offers to sell gas to Saudi Arabia from Yamal LNG

SABETTA, Russia (Reuters) – President Vladimir Putin said on Friday that Russia was ready to sell gas to Saudi Arabia after he launched the first loading of liquefied natural gas (LNG) at the Novatek-led Yamal LNG project in the Arctic.

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Russia is the world’s biggest gas producer, but most of its exports are via pipeline rather than LNG, a super-cooled fuel that can be transported by ship. It is the world’s seventh biggest LNG exporter.

“Buy our gas and you’ll save oil,” Putin told Saudi Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih, who also attended the launch ceremony in Arctic tundra, according to a report by Interfax news agency.

“If we continue to work the way we do, we will turn from rivals into partners. All benefit from joint work,” he said.

Saudi Arabia, the biggest producer in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, and Russia worked together on a deal between OPEC and other producers on cutting oil output until the end of 2018 to curb a global crude supply glut..

Putin and Saudi Arabia’s King Salman, who visited Moscow in October, had agreed on joint investment deals worth several billion dollars, a boost to the Russian economy that has been battered by low oil prices and Western sanctions.

Leonid Mikhelson, ranked Russia’s richest businessman and head of Novatek which has a 50.1 percent stake in Yamal LNG, said on Friday he discussed gas projects with Saudi officials but did not give details.

Yamal LNG, which is 20 percent owned by France’s Total, aims to help Russia double its share of the global LNG market from about 4 percent now by 2020. Qatar is the biggest LNG exporter, with a 30 percent market share.

The first phase of the $27 billion project was completed in December. Other phases are due to onstream in 2018 and 2019.

The project will eventually have four processing units, known as trains, with total capacity of 17.5 million tonnes a year. Three trains will have capacity of 5.5 million tonnes each and one will have capacity of 1 million tonnes.

“I am confident the second and the third parts of the project will be commissioned ahead of schedule,” Putin said at the ceremony to load the first shipment on to an ice class tanker.

Yamal LNG aims to ship three gas cargoes by the end of 2017 and will start selling fuel under long-term contracts after April 2018, Mikhelson told reporters.

Investments in Yamal LNG were put at risk after Novatek came under Western sanctions over Moscow’s role in the Ukraine crisis. But it found other financing sources.

Chinese banks lent more than $12 billion, while Russia provided 150 billion roubles ($2.5 billion) from a rainy day fund and 3.6 billion euros ($4.2 billion) from state-controlled Russian lenders Sberbank and Gazprombank.

More than 95 percent of output from Yamal LNG for the next 20 years or so has been sold, mostly to the Asia-Pacific region.

Until Yamal LNG was built, Russia had one LNG plant, known as Sakhalin-2, controlled by Gazprom. Shell holds a 20 percent stake in the project on the Pacific island of Sakhalin. It produces almost 11 million tonnes a year.

Gazprom has a monopoly on Russian gas exports by pipeline, but Novatek secured the right to ship LNG abroad.

Novatek is planning another project, known as Arctic LNG, on the Gydan peninsula. Mikhelson previously said Russia might produce more than 70 million tonnes of LNG per year from its remote Arctic regions.

Alongside Novatek and Total, other shareholders in Yamal LNG are China’s CNPC with 20 percent and the Chinese Silk Road Fund with 9.9 percent.

($1 = 59.2725 roubles)

($1 = 0.8503 euros)