Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Problemia Energetici, Russia

La Akademik Lomonosov parte da Murmansk verso Pevek.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-08-25.

2019-08-25__Akademik Lomonosov 001

La chiatta Admiral Lomonosov ospita una centrale atomica da 70 MW, progettata per poter lavorare a temperature molto rigide, quali quelle artiche. Fornirà energia elettrica alla zona estrattiva di Pevek.

Artico. 50% delle riserve minerarie.

Russia. Varato il rompighiaccio atomico Ural. Alla fine saranno 13 navi.

Russia. Akademik Lomonosov. Prima centrale atomica mobile e galleggiante.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Russia. La Akademik Lomonosov parte da Murmansk verso Pevek.

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L’immarcescibile Greenpeace dorme sonni agitati: è tormentata da tutti i più reconditi timori di immani disastri.

Nei fatti, però, ciò che più la rode, è che con questa centrale atomica, usata anche per desalinizzare l’acqua di mare, la Russia potrà aumentare in modo molto significativo la produzione del campo di Pevek che, data la sua ubicazione geografica, sarà in grado di risolvere molti problemi energetici della Cina.

Non solo, così operando la Russia si lega sempre più saldamente alla Cina, formando un blocco politico ed economico euroasiatico destinato a primeggiare nel mondo.

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Russia’s floating nuclear plant sets sail for the Arctic

A seaborne nuclear plant has started its journey across the Arctic Circle to supply power to a Siberian town. Russian activists warned the barge could become a “Chernobyl on ice.”

Russia launched the world’s first floating nuclear power plant on Friday for a weekslong journey through the Arctic Circle, despite warnings from environmental groups.

The vessel, Akademik Lomonosov, is a 140-meter (459-foot) float carrying two nuclear reactors capable of providing enough energy for a town of 100,000 people. It is to be towed 4,700 kilometers (2,920 miles) to the town of Pevek in north Siberia.

Once there, the vessel will replace the local, aging nuclear power plant and also supply power to regional oil platforms. Russian nuclear officials said that the Akademik Lomonosov will serve as a key infrastructure element in the Northeast Passage, the route connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific. The route has become more accessible due to climate change.

The platform can also be used to desalinate sea water and turn it into drinking water.

Fears of storm, collision

Russian environmentalists have repeatedly slammed the project, warning it could turn into “Chernobyl on ice” or a “nuclear Titanic.”

Greenpeace representative Rashud Alimov warned that there might be a collision between the platform and the tugs moving it along.

“Any nuclear power plant produces radioactive waste and can have an accident, but Akademik Lomonosov is additionally vulnerable to storms,” he told the AFP news agency.

The ship is loaded with nuclear fuel and would also store spent fuel abroad.

Alimov warned there was “no infrastructure for a nuclear cleanup” in Russia’s far north.

Russia hopes for sales abroad

Officials from Russia’s nuclear agency Rosatom hope to sell similar nuclear floats to foreign countries within the next ten years. Indonesia and Sudan are the most interested in such a purchase, a senior nuclear energy official told the Interfax news agency earlier this month.

The Akademik Lomonosov started development in 2006. It is expected to start supplying energy to Russia’s central system before the end of the year.

Meanwhile, Rosatom is already developing the next generation of floating power plants, which will be smaller and 30% more powerful.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia – Cina. Accordo per costruire reattori nucleari di nuova generazione.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-06-15.

Cina. Centrali atomiche. 001

La Cina è un paese da oltre un miliardo e trecento milioni di abitanti: nel breve volgere di trenta anni è passata da un paese misero ad essere la prima potenza economica mondiali, se misurata come pil ppa.

Di questi tempi ha varato un grandioso progetto per fare emergere dalla povertà nella fascia della classe media circa seicento milioni di persone. Si delinea quindi un mercato interno di dimensioni quasi eguali a quelle di tutto l’occidente considerato assieme.

Cina ed emersione dalla povertà rurale.

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A parte il carbone, la Cina non dispone di significative quantità di energetici estrattivi, ed infatti è il maggiore importatore mondiale di petrolio e gas naturale.

Dimenticate Russia, Arabia, Iran, Opec. È la Cina che fa i prezzi del petrolio.

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Per queste considerazioni la Cina ha come passo obbligato il dotarsi di una consistente quantità di centrali atomiche.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

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«China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer»

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«The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.»

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«Deal signed in Beijing to build four Rosatom-designed reactors. Nations set to build two VVER-1200s at Xudabao, two at Tianwan»

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«China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power»

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«The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries»

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«As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom»

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Questa notizia dovrebbe dare da pensare a molti.

Sul mercato mondiale l’occidente è rappresentato soltanto dalla Westinghouse Electric Co., la quale però sta vincendo sempre meno commissioni e virtualmente è impossibilitata a costruire reattori in patria. In una situazione del genere i suoi prodotti diventano presto obsoleti e poco competitivi.

Se è vero che la Korea del Sud riesce ancora a reggere sul mercato del nucleare, sarebbe altrettanto vero constatare come sia specializzata in reattori atomici di bassa – media potenza. Un’offerta che può soddisfare molte esigenze locoregionali, ma non certo le richieste energetiche della Cina.

A parte il fatto che i reattori della Rosatom siano allo stato dell’arte, in pratica sono gli unici acquistabili sul mercato e con solide garanzie della manutenzione.

La prima centrale nucleare in Egitto a firma russa

La politica nucleare di Putin tra Nordafrica e Medio Oriente

Nucleare: Intesa tra Russia e Sud Africa per la costruzione di nuovi reattori nucleari (9,6 GW)

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L’occidente ha abbandonato per motivazioni ideologiche un settore altamente strategico nelle mani dei russi e dei cinesi.

È stato dissipato un know-how di difficile e costosa acquisizione con una leggerezza difficilmente comprensibile.


Bloomberg. 2018-06-09. Russia Joins China’s Race for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors

– Deal signed in Beijing to build four Rosatom-designed reactors

– Nations set to build two VVER-1200s at Xudabao, two at Tianwan

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China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power.

A plan to build four Russian units was among four deals signed Friday during a ceremony in Beijing attended by presidents Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin. The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries. China will finance the reactor construction, Rosatom Chief Executive Officer Alexey Likhachev said after the ceremony.

China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer. The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.

The nation signaled in March it would end a multiyear freeze on new reactor construction this year, and a month later approved the fuel-loading of Westinghouse Electric Co.’s AP1000 in Zhejiang province’s Sanmen and French-designed EPR in Guangdong’s Taishan. That paves the way for startups within months, which would be the first successful operations globally for units of their kind.

Russian Reactors

As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom.

China already uses some of Russia’s older technology. Two VVER-1000 units at Tianwan started in 2007, and a third was connected to the grid in December, Rosatom said.

“Tianwan has been a testing ground for Russian nuclear technology,” said Snowy Yao, an analyst at China Securities International Finance Holding Co. “China looks willing to try out all the latest designs before endorsing a winner.”

The two countries also on Friday signed deals for the supply of equipment, fuel and services for the CFR-600 fast reactor pilot project developed by state-owned CNNC, as well as the supply of generator parts for China’s lunar exploration program.

China previously signed a contract with Westinghouse to build two units at Xudabao, according to a World Nuclear Association report in October 2016. They were among six AP1000 reactors planned for the site, it said. A Beijing-based Westinghouse spokesman declined to comment Friday.

Pubblicato in: Problemia Energetici

Nigeria. Nuove centrali nucleari.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-11-03.

Niger e Nigeria 001

La Nigeria è un paese con 191 milioni di abitanti disposti su 923,768 km2. Il pil ppa procapite è di poco superiore ai seimila dollari americani all’anno, ed il tasso di fertilità vale 5.5.

L’economia nigeriana è la ventiseiesima a livello mondiale, è produttrice di petrolio, che però rappresenta solo il 14.4% del pil. Se il comparto agricolo appare in regresso, quello estrattivo ed industriale evidenzia segni di crescita.

Nigeria quasi fuori dalla recessione. Pil +3.2%.

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Il problema energetico è pressante, sia per la diversificazione delle fonti sia per l’orografia.

In un paese sostanzialmente povero di infrastrutture questo problema è acuito in modo severo.

Infatti, indipendentemente dal tipo di alimentazione, numero e dislocazione delle centrali elettriche è fortemente condizionato dai problemi del trasferimento dell’energia prodotta dalla centrale al consumatore finale.

Energia. Il problema degli elettrodotti a lunga distanza. Le dissipazioni.

Gli elettrodotti presentano infatti una dissipazione anche molto severa, così che le centrali elettriche dovrebbero essere locate abbastanza vicine, per ridurre la distanza della trasmissione.

Ma per un paese non ancora intensamente industrializzato questo aspetto implica la costruzione di numerose centrali elettriche, ma di piccole – medie dimensioni, per evitare lo spreco della sovrapproduzione, collocate abbastanza ravvicinate.

Come si vede, è un equilibrio molto delicato, plurifattoriale, che può essere mantenuto e fatto crescere solo avendo una visione globale della intera problematica.

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«Russia and Nigeria signed agreements on construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant and a Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor on the territory of Federal Republic of Nigeria»

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«According to the latest information provided by Bloomberg, Nigeria is in talks with Russia’s Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $80 billion as Africa’s biggest economy seeks to add 1,200 megawatts of capacity by the end of the decade»

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«A further three nuclear plants are planned, taking total capacity to 4,800 megawatts by 2035, with each facility costing $20 billion»

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«The first Nigerian plant will be operational in 2025»

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Tutto il mondo in crescita economica sta indirizzandosi verso il nucleare.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Al momento, Cina, Russia e South Korea sono le principali esportatrici di impianti nucleari: i paesi occidentali si sono da tempo autoesclusi da questo mercato ed al momento attuale non avrebbero nemmeno il know-how sufficiente per entrare in una ragionevole concorrenza.

Scelta questa che travalica l’aspetto meramente tecnico.

Costruire una centrale atomica lega il paese a quello produttore dell’impianto per un lungo lasso di tempo. Diventa la espressione visibile di un accordo diplomatico e strategico sul lungo termine.

Sotto questo punto di vista, la rinuncia al nucleare dell’Occidente diventa elemento di peso ben maggiore di quello energetico puro. Un pesante scotto pagato ad una visione ideologica.

«Since 2004 Nigeria has a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University, and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2027 according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity. Nigeria hoped to begin construction in 2011 and start nuclear power production in 2017-2020. On 27 July 2007 Nigeria’s President Umaru Yar’Adua has urged the country to embrace nuclear power in order to meet its growing energy needs. Construction has not begun but plans have not been canceled by 2016.

More recently, in April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia’s state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State, in South-South Nigeria, and Kogi State, in the central northern part of the country. Both sites are planned to house two plants each.» [Fonte]

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Daily Trust. 2016-12-21. Nigeria, Russia sign nuclear power plants pact – Osaisai


Rosatom. 2017-10-31. Russia and Nigeria signed nuclear project development agreements

October 30, Abu-Dhabi – Russia and Nigeria signed agreements on construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant and a Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor on the territory of Federal Republic of Nigeria. The parties also signed a roadmap for cooperation in the field of peaceful usage of nuclear technologies.

On behalf of ROSATOM the documents were signed by Anton Moskvin, Vice president for Marketing and Business Development of Rusatom Overseas (a part of ROSATOM). The signer on behalf of Nigeria was Simon Pesco Mallam, Chairman of the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission.

The Signing Ceremony was attended by Director General of ROSATOM Mr. Alexey Likhachev and Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the international organizations in Vienna Ms. Vivian Nwunaku Rose Okeke. 

“The development of nuclear technologies will allow Nigeria to strengthen its position as one of the leading countries of the African continent. These are the projects of a large scale and strategic importance, that will determine the relationship between our two countries in the long term”, emphasized Anton Moskvin.

The feasibility studies for the Nuclear Power Plant project and the Research Center construction will include site screening, as well as the determination of key parameters of implementation, including; capacity, equipment lists, time frames and stages of implementation, as well as financing schemes.

For reference:

The two countries started their partnership in 2009 by executing an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful usage of nuclear technologies. Further on, intergovernmental agreements on cooperation in design, construction, operation and decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plant and the Nuclear Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor were signed.


Naij. 2017-10-31. Nigeria To Sign $80billion Nuclear Pact With Russia

According to the latest information provided by Bloomberg, Nigeria is in talks with Russia’s Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $80 billion as Africa’s biggest economy seeks to add 1,200 megawatts of capacity by the end of the decade. Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Franklin Erepamo Osaisai said that a joint coordination committee is in place and negotiations are ongoing for financing and contracting. Osaisai announced that Nigeria signed an agreement with Rosatom to cooperate on the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a facility in 2012. A further three nuclear plants are planned, taking total capacity to 4,800 megawatts by 2035, with each facility costing $20 billion. The first Nigerian plant will be operational in 2025. The source noted that peak electricity output of Africa’s biggest economy is about 3,800 megawatts, with a further 1,500 megawatts unavailable because of gas shortages. It added that South Africa, with a third of Nigeria’s population yet eight times more installed capacity, has also signed an agreement with Rosatom as the nation looks to add 9,600 megawatts of atomic power to its strained grid.


Bloomberg. 2017-10-31. Russia Signs Agreement With Nigeria for Nuclear Power Plant

– Study for plant and research center to include cost, capacity

– Rosatom seeking to build plants in other African nations

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Russia has signed agreements with Nigeria to build and operate a nuclear power plant in the oil-rich West African nation that has a deficit of reliable power and faces security challenges by Islamist militants in the far northeast.

Feasibility studies for the plant and a research center construction will include site screening, capacity, financing, and time frames of the projects, state-owned Russian nuclear company Rosatom said in an emailed statement. Representatives from the firm and the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission signed the deal.

The nations in 2009 signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful usage of nuclear technologies. Nigeria in 2015 was in talks with Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $20 billion, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission said at the time.

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, distributes an average of 4,500 megawatts of electricity. Half the output of the Egbin power plant, the nation’s biggest, is lost because of inadequate transmission infrastructure, its chief officer said last month.

Rosatom is seeking to build nuclear power plants in other countries on the continent including South Africa.