Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo, Stati Uniti

USA. 2021Q2. Pil +6.5%.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-07-31.

2021-07-30__ Usa PCE 001

Si notino due elementi.

– Il pil è aumentato di una percentuale quasi eguale a quella del PCE, ossia il 6.4%. L’aumento del Pil è virtualmente eguale alla inflazione stimata con il PCE,

– Il valore del Pil è artatamente gonfiato, contabilizzando come prodotti da lavoro i sussidi assistenziali.

* * *

«Disposable personal income decreased $1.42 trillion, or 26.1 percent»

«Real disposable personal income decreased 30.6 percent»

«personal saving as a percentage of disposable personal income—was 10.9 percent in the second quarter, compared with 20.8 percent in the first quarter»

Questi macro dati sembrerebbero essere ben poco entusiasmanti.

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Bureau of Economic Analysis. Gross Domestic Product, Second Quarter 2021 (Advance Estimate) and Annual Update

                         Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 6.5 percent in the second quarter of 2021 (table 1), according to the “advance” estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the first quarter, real GDP increased 6.3 percent (revised).

The GDP estimate released today is based on source data that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency (see “Source Data for the Advance Estimate” on page 3). The “second” estimate for the second quarter, based on more complete data, will be released on August 26, 2021.

The increase in real GDP in the second quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, exports, and state and local government spending that were partly offset by decreases in private inventory investment, residential fixed investment, and federal government spending. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased (table 2).

The increase in PCE reflected increases in services (led by food services and accommodations) and goods (led by “other” nondurable goods, notably pharmaceutical products). The increase in nonresidential fixed investment reflected increases in equipment (led by transportation equipment) and intellectual property products (led by research and development). The increase in exports reflected an increase in goods (led by nonautomotive capital goods) and services (led by travel). The decrease in private inventory investment was led by a decrease in retail trade inventories. The decrease in federal government spending primarily reflected a decrease in nondefense spending on intermediate goods and services In the second quarter, nondefense services decreased as the processing and administration of Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loan applications by banks on behalf of the federal government declined.

Current‑dollar GDP increased 13.0 percent at an annual rate, or $684.4 billion, in the second quarter to a level of $22.72 trillion. In the first quarter, current-dollar GDP increased 10.9 percent, or $560.6 billion (revised, tables 1 and 3). More information on the source data that underlie the estimates is available in the Key Source Data and      Assumptions file on BEA’s website.

                         The price index for gross domestic purchases increased 5.7 percent in the second quarter, compared with an increase of 3.9 percent (revised) in the first quarter (table 4). The PCE price index increased 6.4 percent, compared with an increase of 3.8 percent (revised). Excluding food and energy prices, the PCE price index increased 6.1 percent, compared with an increase of 2.7 percent (revised).

                         Personal Income

                         Current-dollar personal income decreased $1.32 trillion in the second quarter, or 22.0 percent, in contrast to an increase of $2.33 trillion (revised), or 56.8 percent, in the first quarter. The decrease  primarily reflected a decrease in government social benefits related to pandemic relief programs, notably the decrease in direct economic impact payments to households established by the Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act and the American Rescue Plan Act (table 8). Additional information on factors impacting personal income can be found in Effects of Selected Federal Pandemic Response Programs on Personal Income.

                         Disposable personal income decreased $1.42 trillion, or 26.1 percent, in the second quarter, in contrast to an increase of $2.27 trillion, or 63.7 percent (revised), in the first quarter. Real disposable personal income decreased 30.6 percent, in contrast to an increase of 57.6 percent.

                         Personal outlays increased $680.8 billion, after increasing $538.8 billion. The increase in outlays was led by an increase in PCE for services.

                         Personal saving was $1.97 trillion in the second quarter, compared with $4.07 trillion (revised) in the first quarter.  The personal saving rate—personal saving as a percentage of disposable personal income—was 10.9 percent in the second quarter, compared with 20.8 percent in the first quarter.

                         Source Data for the Advance Estimate

Information on the key source data and assumptions used in the advance estimate is provided in a Technical Note that is posted with the news release on BEA’s website. A detailed Key Source Data and Assumptions file is also posted for each release. For information on updates to GDP, see the “Additional Information” section that follows.

                         Annual Update of the National Economic Accounts

Today’s release also reflects the Annual Update of the National Income and Product Accounts; the updated Industry Economic Accounts will be released on September 30, 2021, along with the third estimate of GDP for the second quarter of 2021. The timespan of the update is the first quarter of 1999 through the first quarter of 2021 and resulted in revisions to GDP, GDI, and their major components. The reference year remains 2012. More information on the 2021 Annual Update is included in the May Survey of Current Business article, GDP and the Economy.
For the period of economic expansion from the second quarter of 2009 through the fourth quarter of 2019, real GDP increased at an annual rate of 2.3 percent, the same as previously published. For the period of economic contraction from the fourth quarter of 2019 through the second quarter of 2020, real GDP decreased at an annual rate of 19.2 percent, also the same as previously published. For the period of economic expansion from the second quarter of 2020 through the first quarter of 2021, real GDP increased at an annual rate of 14.1 percent, an upward revision of 0.1 percentage point from the previously published estimate.

With today’s release, most NIPA tables are available through BEA’s Interactive Data application on the BEA website (www.bea.gov). See Information on Updates to the National Economic Accounts for the complete table release schedule and a summary of results through 2020, which includes a discussion of methodology changes. A table showing the major current‑dollar revisions and their sources for each component of GDP, national income, and personal income is also provided. The August 2021 Survey of Current Business will contain an article describing the update in more detail.

Updates for the First Quarter of 2021

For the first quarter of 2021, real GDP is estimated to have increased 6.3 percent (table 1), 0.1 percentage point less than previously published. The revision primarily reflected downward revisions to federal government spending, state and local government spending, and exports that were partly offset by an upward revision to nonresidential fixed investment.

Real GDI is now estimated to have increased 6.3 percent in the first quarter (table 1); in the previously published estimates, first-quarter GDI was estimated to have increased 7.6 percent. The leading contributor to the downward revision was compensation, based primarily on new first-quarter wage and salary estimates from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

The price index for gross domestic purchases is now estimated to have increased 3.9 percent in the first quarter, 0.1 percentage point lower than previously published (table 4). The PCE price index increased 3.8 percent, 0.1 percentage point higher than previously published. Excluding food and energy prices, the PCE price index increased 2.7 percent, 0.2 percentage point higher than previously published.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo, Stati Uniti

USA. FED System. Documento dei Governatori sulla politica monetaria.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-07-15.

FED 001

La Federal Reserve ha rilasciato il documento sottoscritto dal Board dei Governatori sulla politica monetaria.

È un documento molto esteso e particolareggiato, di cui riporteremo solo il sommario, pur raccomandandone la lettura del testo completo.

«monetary policy continues to deliver powerful support to the economy until the recovery is complete»

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«Carenze di materie prime e “difficoltà nelle assunzioni” stanno frenando la ripresa economica statunitense dalla pandemia da coronavirus e hanno causato un picco “transitorio” di inflazione.

Lo ha detto la Federal Reserve nel rapporto semestrale al Congresso Usa sullo stato dell’economia.

“Il progresso delle vaccinazioni ha portato alla riapertura dell’economia e a una forte crescita economica” si legge. “Tuttavia, le carenze di materie prime e le difficoltà nelle assunzioni hanno frenato l’attività in vari settori”.

Il rapporto sarà oggetto di audizioni al Congresso la prossima settimana, tra cui la testimonianza del presidente della Fed Jerome Powell sull’outlook per economia, inflazione e transizione della politica monetaria in un contesto di affievolirsi della pandemia.

Il rapporto pubblicato dalla Fed analizza in gran parte la situazione economica pregressa, ma documenta la visione della banca centrale di una ripresa che resta ben instradata mentre imprese e famiglie si orientano all’interno di una complessa riapertura economica.» [Reuters]

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Carenza ed alto costo delle materie prime sono problematiche che esulano le competenze della Fed, ma che dovrebbero stare ben più a cuore nel gestire la politica estera. Accattivarsi le amicizie dei paesi estrattori e produttori delle materie prime contrasta con la politica di imposizione della Weltanschauung liberal e delle relative sanzioni comminate.

Correttamente, a nostro modesto avviso, la Fed assume la piena occupazione come parametro cardine della ripresa economica, che le manovre finanziarie devono cercare di assecondare.

Certo, fa specie che vi siano tuttora 14,209,007 disoccupati sotto sussidio federale ed il sistema abbia “difficoltà nelle assunzioni”.

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Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Monetary Policy Report. July 9, 2021

Summary.

Over the first half of 2021, progress on vaccinations has led to a reopening of the economy and strong economic growth, supported by accommodative monetary and fiscal policy. However, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have continued to weigh on the U.S. economy, and employment has remained well below pre-pandemic levels. Furthermore, shortages of material inputs and difficulties in hiring have held down activity in a number of industries. In part because of these bottlenecks and other largely transitory factors, PCE (personal consumption expenditures) prices rose 3.9 percent over the 12 months ending in May.

Over the first half of the year, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) held its policy rate near zero and continued to purchase Treasury securities and agency mortgage-backed securities to support the economic recovery. These measures, along with the Committee’s guidance on interest rates and the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet, will help ensure that monetary policy continues to deliver powerful support to the economy until the recovery is complete.

Recent Economic and Financial Developments

The labor market. The labor market continued to recover over the first six months of 2021. Job gains averaged 540,000 per month, and the unemployment rate moved down from 6.7 percent in December to 5.9 percent in June. Although labor market improvement has been rapid, the unemployment rate remained elevated in June, and labor force participation has not moved up from the low rates that have prevailed for much of the past year. A surge in labor demand that has outpaced the recovery in labor supply has resulted in a jump in job vacancies and a step-up in wage gains in recent months.

Inflation. Consumer price inflation, as measured by the 12-month change in the PCE price index, moved up from 1.2 percent at the end of last year to 3.9 percent in May. The 12-month measure of inflation that excludes food and energy items (so-called core inflation) was 3.4 percent in May, up from 1.4 percent at the end of last year. Some of the strength in recent 12-month inflation readings reflects the comparison of current prices with prices that sank at the onset of the pandemic as households curtailed spending—a transitory result of “base effects.” More lasting but likely still temporary upward pressure on inflation has come from prices for goods experiencing supply chain bottlenecks, such as motor vehicles and appliances. In addition, prices for some services, such as airfares and lodging, have moved up sharply in recent months toward more normal levels as demand has recovered. Both survey-based and market-based measures of longer-term inflation expectations have risen since the end of last year, largely reversing the downward drift in those measures in recent years, and are in a range that is broadly consistent with the FOMC’s longer-run inflation objective.

Economic activity. In the first quarter, real gross domestic product (GDP) increased 6.4 percent, propelled by a surge in household consumption and a solid increase in business investment but restrained by a substantial drawdown in inventories as firms contended with production bottlenecks. Data for the second quarter suggest a further robust increase in demand. Against a backdrop of elevated household savings, accommodative financial conditions, ongoing fiscal support, and the reopening of the economy, the strength in household spending has persisted, reflecting continued strong spending on durable goods and solid progress toward more normal levels of spending on services.

Financial conditions. Since mid-February, equity prices and yields on nominal Treasury securities at longer maturities increased, as the rapid deployment of highly effective COVID-19 vaccines in the United States and the support provided by fiscal policy boosted optimism regarding the economic outlook. Despite having increased since February, mortgage rates for households remain near historical lows. Overall financing conditions for businesses and households eased further since February, as market-based lending conditions remained accommodative and bank-lending conditions eased markedly. Large firms, as well as those households that have solid credit ratings, continued to experience ample access to financing. However, financing conditions remained tight for small businesses and households with low credit scores.

Financial stability. While some financial vulnerabilities have increased since the previous Monetary Policy Report, the institutions at the core of the financial system remain resilient. Asset valuations have generally risen across risky asset classes with improving fundamentals as well as increased investor risk appetite, including in equity and corporate bond markets. Vulnerabilities from both business and household debt have continued to decline in the first quarter of 2021, reflecting a slower pace of business borrowing, an improvement in business earnings, and government programs that have supported business and household incomes. Even so, business-sector debt outstanding remains high relative to income, and some businesses and households are still under considerable strain. In the financial sector, leverage at banks and broker-dealers remains low, while available measures of leverage at hedge funds increased into early 2021 and are high. Issuance volumes of collateralized loan obligations and asset-backed securities recovered strongly through the first quarter of 2021, while issuance of non-agency commercial mortgage-backed securities was weak in that quarter. Funding risks at domestic banks continued to be low in the first quarter, but structural vulnerabilities persist at some types of money market funds and bank-loan and bond mutual funds. (See the box “Developments Related to Financial Stability” in Part 1.)

International developments. Foreign GDP growth moderated at the start of the year, as some countries tightened public health restrictions to contain renewed COVID-19 outbreaks. Compared with last spring, many foreign economies exhibited greater resilience to public-health-related restrictions, and their governments have continued to provide fiscal support. Recent indicators suggest a pickup in activity in advanced foreign economies this spring following an increase in vaccination rates and an easing of restrictions. However, conditions in emerging market economies are more mixed, in part dependent on their success in containing outbreaks and the availability of vaccines. Inflation has been rising in many economies, as the price declines seen last spring reversed and commodity prices ramped up. Monetary and fiscal policies continue to be supportive, but some foreign central banks are adopting or signaling less-accommodative policy stances.

Foreign financial conditions generally improved or held steady. Equity prices and longer-term sovereign yields increased across advanced foreign economies, boosted by their ongoing reopening. Equity markets in emerging market economies were mixed, and flows into dedicated emerging market funds slowed. After trending lower since the spring of 2020, the foreign exchange value of the dollar has changed little on net since the start of the year.

Monetary Policy

Interest rate policy. To continue to support the economic recovery, the FOMC has kept the target range for the federal funds rate near zero and has maintained the monthly pace of its asset purchases. The Committee expects it will be appropriate to maintain the current target range for the federal funds rate until labor market conditions have reached levels consistent with its assessments of maximum employment and inflation has risen to 2 percent and is on track to moderately exceed that rate for some time.

Balance sheet policy. With the federal funds rate near zero, the Federal Reserve has also continued to undertake asset purchases, increasing its holdings of Treasury securities by $80 billion per month and its holdings of agency mortgage-backed securities by $40 billion per month. These purchases help foster smooth market functioning and accommodative financial conditions, thereby supporting the flow of credit to households and businesses. The Committee expects these purchases to continue at least at this pace until substantial further progress has been made toward its maximum-employment and price-stability goals. In coming meetings, the Committee will continue to assess the economy’s progress toward these goals since the Committee adopted its asset purchase guidance last December.

In assessing the appropriate stance of monetary policy, the Committee will continue to monitor the implications of incoming information for the economic outlook. The Committee is prepared to adjust the stance of monetary policy as appropriate if risks emerge that could impede the attainment of the Committee’s goals.

Special Topics

The uneven recovery in labor force participation. The labor force participation rate (LFPR) has improved very little since early in the recovery and remains well below pre-pandemic levels. Relative to its February 2020 level, the LFPR remains especially low for individuals without a college education, for individuals aged 55 and older, and for Hispanics and Latinos. Factors likely contributing both to the incomplete recovery of the LFPR and to differences across groups include a surge in retirements, increased caregiving responsibilities, and individuals’ fear of contracting COVID-19; expansions to the availability, duration, and level of unemployment insurance benefits may also have supported individuals who withdrew from the labor force. Many of these factors should have a diminishing effect on participation in the coming months as public health conditions continue to improve and as expanded unemployment insurance expires. (See the box “The Uneven Recovery in Labor Force Participation” in Part 1.)

Recent inflation developments. Consumer price inflation has increased notably this spring as a surge in demand has run up against production bottlenecks and hiring difficulties. As these extraordinary circumstances pass, supply and demand should move closer to balance, and inflation is widely expected to move down. (See the box “Recent Inflation Developments” in Part 1.)

Supply chain bottlenecks in U.S. manufacturing and trade. Supply chain bottlenecks have hampered U.S. manufacturers’ ability to procure the inputs needed to meet the surge in demand that followed widespread factory shutdowns during the first half of last year. Additionally, a massive influx of goods has exceeded the capacity of U.S. ports, extending manufacturers’ wait times for imported parts. The stress on supply chains is reflected in historically high order backlogs and historically low customer inventories; these stresses, together with strong demand, have led to increased price pressures. When these bottlenecks will resolve is uncertain, as they reflect the global supply chain as well as industry-specific factors, but for some goods, such as lumber, the previous sharp increases in prices have begun to reverse. (See the box “Supply Chain Bottlenecks in U.S. Manufacturing and Trade” in Part 1.)

Inflation expectations. To avoid sustained periods of unusually low or high inflation, a fundamental aspect of the FOMC’s monetary policy framework is for longer-term inflation expectations to be well anchored at the Committee’s 2 percent longer-run inflation objective. Even though the pace of price increases has jumped in the first half of this year, recent readings on various measures of inflation expectations indicate that inflation is expected to return to levels broadly consistent with the FOMC’s 2 percent longer-run inflation objective after a period of temporarily higher inflation. That said, upside risks to the inflation outlook in the near term have increased. (See the box “Assessing the Recent Rise in Inflation Expectations” in Part 1.)

Monetary policy rules. Simple monetary policy rules, which relate a policy interest rate to a small number of other economic variables, can provide useful guidance to policymakers. Many of the rules have prescribed strongly negative values of the federal funds rate since the start of the pandemic-driven recession. Because of the effective lower bound for the federal funds rate, the Federal Reserve’s other monetary policy tools—namely, forward guidance and asset purchases—have been critical for providing the necessary support to the economy through this challenging period. (See the box “Monetary Policy Rules, the Effective Lower Bound, and the Economic Recovery” in Part 2.)

The Federal Reserve’s balance sheet. Since January, the growth in reserves, the drawdown of the Treasury General Account, and the surge in usage of the overnight reverse repurchase agreement (ON RRP) facility have significantly affected the composition of the Federal Reserve’s liabilities. Against a backdrop of low short-term market interest rates and ample liquidity, the use of the ON RRP facility has increased substantially since April and has reached a recent high of nearly $1 trillion, compared with usage near zero in February. Factors contributing to this increase included the decline in Treasury bill supply, downward pressure on money market rates, and the recent technical adjustment to the Federal Reserve’s administered rates. (See the box “Developments in the Federal Reserve’s Balance Sheet and Money Markets” in Part 2.)

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo, Stati Uniti

USA. 2021Q1. Pil ufficiale +6.4%. Detratte sovvenzioni ed inflazione circa zero. – BEA.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-06-25.

2021-06-25__ usa Pil 001

Si faccia la massima attenzione!

«Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 6.4 percent in the first quarter of 2021, reflecting the continued economic recovery, reopening of establishments, and continued government response related to the COVID-19 pandemic»

«The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending»

«The increase in PCE reflected increases in durable goods (led by motor vehicles and parts), nondurable goods (led by food and beverages), and services (led by food services and accommodations). …. The increase in federal government spending primarily reflected an increase in payments made to banks for processing and administering the Paycheck Protection Program loan applications»

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Cosa sta succedendo?

Il Bureau of Economic Analysis, ossia l’ente governativo che calcola e rilascia il pil ed il pec americano include nel pil tutte le sovvenzioni erogate dallo stato federale, dai singoli stati e dai governi locali. Una cifra immane generata ricorrendo al debito coperto dalla Fed con denaro fiat, che è stata trattata alla stregua di ricchezza generata dalla produzione nazionale, ossia dal lavoro.

Detratte dal calcolo le sovvenzioni assistenziali, il pil sarebbe circa eguale al 4%.

Ma il Pce, personal consumption expenditures, ossia l’indice di inflazione prediletto dalla Fed, è schizzato in questo trimestre proprio al 4%. In altri termini, l’inflazione si fagocita il valore degli aumenti del pil. Si da con una mano e si toglie con l’altra.

Ciò non desta sorprese.

Nel suo Report Personal Income and Outlays, April 2021 il Bureau of Economic Analysis  stesso riportava che il Disposable personal income era -14.6%. Una diminuzione delle entrate dei cittadini del -14.6% sembrerebbe essere non compatibile con un aumento del prodotto interno lordo.

Si noti anche come, sempre il Bureau of Economic Analysis aveva stimato il PCI al 5%:

Consumer prices increase 5.0 percent for the year ended May 2021

«The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers increased 5.0 percent from May 2020 to May 2021. Prices for food advanced 2.2 percent, while prices for energy increased 28.5 percent»

Ma con un aumento del 28.5% dell’energia, come fa l’inflazione ad essere solo il 4%?

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Bureau of Economic Analysis. Gross Domestic Product (Third Estimate), GDP by Industry, and Corporate Profits (Revised), 1st Quarter 2021.

«Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 6.4 percent in the first quarter of 2021, reflecting the continued economic recovery, reopening of establishments, and continued government response related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase was the same rate as the “second” estimate released in May. In the first quarter, government assistance payments, such as direct economic impact payments, expanded unemployment benefits, and Paycheck Protection Program loans were distributed to households and businesses through the Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act and the American Rescue Plan Act. In the fourth quarter of 2020, real GDP increased 4.3 percent.»

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Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 6.4 percent in the first quarter of 2021 (table 1), according to the “third” estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the fourth quarter, real GDP increased 4.3 percent.

The “third” estimate of GDP released today is based on more complete source data than were available for the “second” estimate issued last month. In the second estimate, the increase in real GDP was also 6.4 percent. Upward revisions to nonresidential fixed investment, private inventory investment, and exports were offset by an upward revision to imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP (see “Updates to GDP”).

→→ The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending that were partly offset by decreases in private inventory investment and exports. Imports increased. ←←

The increase in PCE reflected increases in durable goods (led by motor vehicles and parts), nondurable goods (led by food and beverages), and services (led by food services and accommodations). The increase in nonresidential fixed investment reflected increases in equipment (led by information processing equipment) and intellectual property products (led by software). The increase in federal government spending primarily reflected an increase in payments made to banks for processing and administering the Paycheck Protection Program loan applications as well as purchases of COVID-19 vaccines for distribution to the public. The decrease in private inventory investment primarily reflected a decrease in retail trade inventories (mainly by motor vehicles and parts dealers).

Current dollar GDP increased 11.0 percent at an annual rate, or $566.8 billion, in the first quarter to a level of $22.06 trillion. In the fourth quarter, GDP increased 6.3 percent, or $324.4 billion (table 1 and table 3). More information on the source data that underlie the estimates is available in the Key Source Data and Assumptions file on BEA’s website.

The price index for gross domestic purchases increased 4.0 percent in the first quarter, compared with an increase of 1.7 percent in the fourth quarter (table 4). The PCE price index increased 3.7 percent, compared with an increase of 1.5 percent. Excluding food and energy prices, the PCE price index increased 2.5 percent, compared with an increase of 1.3 percent.

Gross Domestic Income and Corporate Profits

Real gross domestic income (GDI) increased 7.6 percent in the first quarter, compared with an increase of 19.4 percent in the fourth quarter. The average of real GDP and real GDI, a supplemental measure of U.S. economic activity that equally weights GDP and GDI, increased 7.0 percent in the first quarter, compared with an increase of 11.6 percent in the fourth quarter (table 1).

Profits from current production (corporate profits with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments) increased $55.2 billion in the first quarter, in contrast to a decrease of $31.4 billion in the fourth quarter (table 10).

Profits of domestic financial corporations decreased $6.4 billion in the first quarter, in contrast to an increase of $17.5 billion in the fourth quarter. Profits of domestic nonfinancial corporations increased $72.1 billion, in contrast to a decrease of $48.2 billion. Rest-of-the-world profits decreased $10.6 billion, compared with a decrease of $0.7 billion. In the first quarter, receipts increased $34.2 billion, and payments increased $44.8 billion.

Updates to GDP

In the third estimate, the change in first-quarter real GDP was the same as in the second estimate. Upward revisions to nonresidential fixed investment, private inventory investment, exports, and PCE were offset by an upward revision to imports. For more information, see the Technical Note. For information on updates to GDP, see the “Additional Information” section that follows.

Real GDP by Industry

Today’s release includes estimates of GDP by industry, or value added—a measure of an industry’s contribution to GDP. In the first quarter, private goods-producing industries increased 5.4 percent, private services-producing industries increased 7.7 percent, and government increased 0.2 percent (table 12). Overall, 17 of 22 industry groups contributed to the first-quarter increase in real GDP.

The increase in private goods-producing industries primarily reflected an increase in durable goods manufacturing (led by computer and electronic products, fabricated metal products, and machinery). The increase was partly offset by decreases in nondurable goods manufacturing (led by petroleum and coal products) and agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting (led by farms).

The increase in private services-producing industries primarily reflected increases in professional, scientific, and technical services; information (led by data processing, internet publishing, and other information services); administrative and waste management services (led by administrative and support services); real estate and rental and leasing; and retail trade. These increases were partly offset by decreases in other services (which includes activities of political organizations); healthcare and social assistance (led by ambulatory health care services); and utilities.

The increase in government reflected increases in federal as well as state and local.

Gross Output by Industry

Real gross output—principally a measure of an industry’s sales or receipts, which includes sales to final users in the economy (GDP) and sales to other industries (intermediate inputs)—increased 8.9 percent in the first quarter (table 16). Private goods-producing industries decreased 1.7 percent, private services-producing industries increased 13.4 percent, and government increased 6.0 percent. Overall, 17 of 22 industry groups contributed to the increase in real gross output, led by retail trade, finance and insurance, and information. A decrease in nondurable goods manufacturing was the most notable offset to these increases.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo

Tempi di Inflazione. Spiegazione e link di alcuni termini più usati.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-06-01.

2021-06-01__ Inflazione 001

Attenzione!!

«Given the strong economic fluctuations in recent quarters, evolutions from Q4 2019 may be considered as reflecting the activity better than quarterly fluctuations.» [Insee]

«The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending that were partly offset by decreases in private inventory investment and exports. Imports increased» [U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, BEA]

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In questo glossario riportiamo solo le voci più frequentemente utilizzate.

Per ogni voce, compare il link all’ufficio governativo che la emana.

Qualora disponibili, si usino i rapporti sul Q4 2019, ossia sull’ultimo trimestre prima della recessione indotta dalla pandemia.

Si tenga infine sempre presente che i Pil rilasciati dagli stati occidentali sono ‘gonfiati’ perché assumono come ricchezza generata quella proveniente dai sussidi federali, statali e locali, mentre invece essi sono generati dal ricorso al debito. È un maquillage subdolo ma altamente efficace.

Simile ragionamento per gli indici di spesa dei consumatori.

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Borsa Italiana. Cos’è l’inflazione? Significato, cause e calcolo dei tassi di inflazione

                         Inflazione: definizione e significato

L’inflazione, in economia, indica una crescita generalizzata e continuativa dei prezzi nel tempo. È un indicatore fondamentale perché il livello dei prezzi condiziona il potere di acquisto delle famiglie, l’andamento generale dell’economia, l’orientamento delle politiche monetarie delle banche centrali.

                         Come si calcola l’inflazione

Per calcolare l’inflazione è necessario costruire un indice dei prezzi al consumo e nella maggior parte dei paesi la misurazione di questo indice è attribuita all’Istituto nazionale di statistica. In Italia se ne occupa dunque l’Istat che, sulla base dei prezzi di un insieme, denominato paniere, di beni e servizi, rappresentativo dei consumi delle famiglie, calcola il suo indice dei prezzi al consumo. Nel paniere dei prezzi al consumo dell’Istat sono presenti per esempio, con diversi pesi relativi, i prezzi dei prodotti di abbigliamento e delle calzature, dei prodotti alimentari, dei servizi sanitari, dei trasporti, dell’elettricità, dell’acqua e così via.

                         Gli indici dei prezzi al consumo dell’Istat

In particolare, l’Istat elabora tre indici principali dei prezzi al consumo:

– L’indice dei prezzi al consumo Nazionale per l’Intera Collettività (Nic) che misura la variazione nel tempo dei prezzi di beni e servizi acquistati sul mercato per i consumi finali individuali;

– L’indice dei prezzi al consumo per le Famiglie di Operai e Impiegati (Foi): calcola la variazione nel tempo dei prezzi al dettaglio, dei beni e servizi correntemente acquistati dalle famiglie di lavoratori dipendenti;

– L’Indice armonizzato dei prezzi al consumo (Ipca, in inglese l’acronimo è HICP ossia Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices) sviluppato per assicurare una misura dell’inflazione comparabile a livello europeo. A differenza degli indici Nic e Foi, l’indice IPCA si riferisce al prezzo effettivamente pagato dal consumatore ed esclude alcune voci presenti nel paniere degli altri due indici tenendo conto anche delle riduzioni temporanee di prezzo (come saldi, sconti e promozioni).

                         Inflazione, tassi di interesse e politica monetaria

È importante evidenziare che l’indice armonizzato europeo IPCA (o HICP) è di grande rilevanza perché utilizzato come indicatore di verifica della convergenza delle economie dei paesi membri della UE (Unione Europea), al fine della permanenza o dell’ingresso nell’Unione Monetaria. L’indice IPCA è inoltre utilizzato come riferimento dalla Banca Centrale Europea (Bce) per l’attuazione della politica monetaria europea. Come noto l’obiettivo principale della Bce è proprio quello di mantenere nell’Eurozona la stabilità dei prezzi.

La stabilità dei prezzi è infatti considerata una delle condizioni basilari per l’innalzamento del livello dell’attività economica e dell’occupazione. Un’inflazione in rapida crescita (“galoppante”) può infatti erodere il potere d’acquisto delle famiglie, di fatto impoverendole. Al contrario una deflazione, ossia un’inflazione negativa con prezzi in calo, può bloccare l’economia in quanto – per semplificare – i prezzi di vendita delle imprese non coprono i costi di produzione e le mandano in crisi. In ogni caso livelli troppo elevati o troppo bassi di inflazione spaventano gli investitori e danneggiano la fiducia, influendo negativamente sull’attività economica.

Per questi motivi le banche centrali fissano degli obiettivi di inflazione ai quali ancorano la propria politica monetaria ossia gli interventi convenzionali sui tassi d’interesse principali o non convenzionali, come il quantitative easing.
L’obiettivo della Bce è quello di portare su un livello prossimo ma inferiore al 2%, anche se negli ultimi anni è stato promosso un “approccio simmetrico” per cui il target può essere raggiunto sia dal basso che dall’alto (in altre parole non c’è un tetto al 2%, ma eventuali deviazioni dei prezzi possono avvenire in un senso o nell’altro). Questo livello dei prezzi è ritenuto dalla maggior parte delle banche centrali del mondo ottimale al fine di garantire i diversi attori del contesto economico.

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Borsa Italiana. Consumer price index (CPI)

                         L’indice dei prezzi al consumo.

Il Consumer price index (CPI), dall’inglese indice dei prezzi al consumo, è un indice che viene calcolato per mezzo di una media ponderata dei prezzi relativi ad un paniere (insieme) di beni e servizi in un determinato periodo di tempo.

Tale paniere è rappresentativo delle abitudini di spesa del consumatore (urbano) americano medio.

Il CPI è importante in quanto, misurando le variazioni dei prezzi, segnala l’aumento dell’inflazione.

Proprio per questo il CPI viene utilizzato dal Governo federale Usa per decidere quali politiche economiche mettere in atto per prevenire l’inflazione, per calcolare il Pil, che tiene conto della variazione dei prezzi, e per decidere quali programmi governativi adottare in materia di welfare e assistenza.

                         Caratteristiche.

Il Consumer price index viene elaborato dal Dipartimento del Lavoro statunitense (Bureau of Labor Statistics) il quale raccoglie le informazioni dei prezzi al dettaglio di 23 mila imprese che servono 14.500 famiglie.
Il paniere è rappresentativo dell’87% della popolazione statunitense.

Per costruire il CPI servono due tipologie di dati: i prezzi e i pesi.

I prezzi sono raccolti su un campione di beni e servizi mentre i pesi rappresentano delle stime relative alla quota delle differenti tipologie di spesa come percentuale del totale delle spese coperte dall’indice.

Il CPI include le imposte sulle vendite ma non quelle sul reddito.

Sebbene molto rappresentativo la copertura del CPI ovviamente è limitata in quanto, ad esempio, non include i prezzi di investimenti in azioni e obbligazioni nonostante alcune tipologie di investimenti possano rientrare attraverso i prodotti assicurativi.
E’ esclusa inoltre la spesa dei consumatori americani all’estero e quella dei consumatori stranieri in America. Non vengono considerate nell’indice inoltre alcune categorie sociali come i gruppi eccezionalmente ricchi o quelli molto al di sotto della soglia di povertà.

Può essere anche esclusa larga parte della popolazione rurale in quanto l’indice è maggiormente rappresentativo delle abitudini di consumo delle famiglie urbane.

L’indice che solitamente è pubblicato il quindicesimo giorno del mese successivo a quello di riferimento riporta due misure quella cosiddetta Core CPI (ex food and Energy) che non tiene in considerazione dei beni alimentari e i costi energetici, a causa della loro eccessiva volatilità, e il dato non-core CPI comprendente tutto il paniere di beni e servizi.

Il dato “Core” è il più importante tra i due in quanto sulla base di esso la Fed prende le proprie decisioni sui tassi.

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U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Consumer Price Index

«The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services. Indexes are available for the U.S. and various geographic areas. Average price data for select utility, automotive fuel, and food items are also available»

Usualmente è pubblicato il decimo giorno di ogni mese e si riferisce a quello pregresso. Con la variazione su base mensile, è riportata anche quella anno su anno. Per esempio:

«In April, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers rose 0.8 percent on a seasonally adjusted basis; rising 4.2 percent over the last 12 months»

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U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Producer Price Indexes

«The Producer Price Index (PPI) program measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers for their output. The prices included in the PPI are from the first commercial transaction for many products and some services»

Usualmente è pubblicato il quindicesimo giorno di ogni mese e si riferisce a quello pregresso. Con la variazione su base mensile, è riportata anche quella anno su anno. Per esempio:

«The Producer Price Index for final demand increased 0.6 percent in April, as prices for both final demand services and final demand goods also rose 0.6 percent. The final demand index advanced 6.2 percent for the 12 months ended in April»

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U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Consumer spending, or personal consumption expenditures (PCE).

«Consumer spending, or personal consumption expenditures (PCE), is the value of the goods and services purchased by, or on the behalf of, U.S. residents. At the national level, BEA publishes annual, quarterly, and monthly estimates of consumer spending.

The PCE price index, released each month in the Personal Income and Outlays report, reflects changes in the prices of goods and services purchased by consumers in the United States. Quarterly and annual data are included in the GDP release.»

Usualmente è pubblicato il venticinquesimo giorno di ogni mese e si riferisce a quello pregresso. Con la variazione su base mensile, è riportata anche quella anno su anno.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Stati Uniti

Buffett Indicator. 20 maggio. Vale 227%. In realtà è molto di più.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-05-24.

2021-05-24__ Buffett Indicator 001

Attenzione!!!!

Il valore del pil americano è drogato, come ammette onestamente il Bureau of Economic Analysis nel suo Report Gross Domestic Product, First Quarter 2021 (Advance Estimate)

«The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending that were partly offset by decreases in private inventory investment and exports. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased»

In parole miserrime, i fondi fiat elargiti dalla Federazione e dagli Stati sono stati contabilizzati come se fossero stati prodotti dal sistema economico.

Codesto maquillage consente di poter esibire un pil decisamente più robusto di quello reale e di poterlo manipolare a piacere.

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Theory & Data

The Buffett Indicator is the ratio of total US stock market valuation to GDP. Named after Warren Buffett, who called the ratio “the best single measure of where valuations stand at any given moment”. (Buffett later walked back those comments, hesitating to endorse any single measure as either comprehensive or consistent over time, but this ratio remains credited to his name). To calculate the ratio, we need to get data for both metrics: Total Market Value and GDP.

                         Total Market Value.

The most common measurement of the aggregate value of the US stock market is the Wilshire 5000. This is available directly from Wilshire (links to all data sources below), with monthly data starting in 1971, and daily measures beginning in 1980. The Wilshire index was created such that a 1-point increase in the index corresponds to a $1 billion increase in US market cap. Since inception that 1:1 ratio has drifted, and per Wilshire, as of Dec 2013 a 1-point increase in the index corresponded to a $1.15 billion dollar increase. We adjust the data back to inception (and projected going forward) on a straight-line basis to compensate for this drift. For example, the Sep 2020 Wilshire Index of 35,807 corresponds to a total real market cap value of $42.27T USD.

For data prior to 1970 (where Wilshire data is not available) we use the Z.1 Financial Account – Nonfinancial corporate business; corporate equities; liability, Level, published by the Federal Reserve, which provides a quarterly estimate of total market value back to 1945. In order to integrate the datasets, we index the Z.1 data to match up to the 1970 Wilshire starting point.

Combined, these data make our Composite US Stock Market Value data series, shown below. Our estimate of current composite US stock market value is $51.3T.

                         GDP.

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) represents the total production of the US economy. This is measured quarterly by the US Government’s Bureau of Economic Analysis. The GDP is a static measurement of prior economic activity – it does not forecast the future or include any expectation or valuation of future economic activity or economic growth. The GDP is calculated and published quarterly, several months in arrears, such that by the time the data is published it is several months old. In order to provide updated data for the most recent quarter we use the most recent GDPNow estimate published by the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. The GDP data is all nominal and not inflation adjusted. Our estimate of current (annualized) GDP is $22.6T. A historical chart of GDP is shown below.

                         The Ratio of the Two.

Given that the stock market represents primarily expectations of future economic activity, and the GDP is a measure of most recent economic activity, the ratio of these two data series represents expected future growth relative to current performance. This is similar in nature to how we think about the PE ratio of a particular stock. It stands to reason that this ratio would remain relatively stable over time, and increase slowly over time as technology allows for the same labor and capital to be used ever more efficiently.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Stati Uniti

Harris-Biden Administration. Brucia sulla graticola degli eventi che non sa dominare.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-05-20.

Casa Bianca

La Harris-Biden Administration è sulla graticola, al momento incapace di gestire una serie di problemi politici ed economici laceranti.

– «Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 6.4 percent in the first quarter of 2021 …. The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending». [Bureau of Economic Analysis]

Si faccia attenzione come questo incremento sia nei fatti sostenuto da “personal consumption expenditures …. federal government spending …. state and local government spending”. In realtà, l’incremento non è stato generato dal sistema ecomomico produttivo.

Non solo. Il Gdp è sicuramente un importante macrodato, ma altrettanto sicuramente non è l’unico da dover essere monitorato. Occupazione ed inflazione sono ben più importanti.

Usa. Indice dei Prezzi al Consumo +4.2% anno su anno. Fed in tilt.

La settimana scorsa l’inflazione è schizzata al 4.2%, logica conseguenza della massiccia iniezione di liquidità nel sistema. Ma se perdurasse nel tempo, obbligherebbe la Fed ad aumentare i tassi, facendo crollare tutto i sistema basato su tassi quasi eguali allo zero.

Harris-Biden Administration. Aprile21. Il fallimento dei posti di lavoro. Diseguaglianze.

Nel mese di aprile, come peraltro in quelli precedenti, l’economia americana ha aggiunto la misera quota di 266,000 nuovi posti di lavoro, ed i dati preliminari che stanno affluendo suggerirebbero che il mese di maggio non sia poi molto meglio. La Harris-Biden Administration dimostra la sua incapacità a generare nuovi posti di lavoro:  è nei triboli.

Tensions Among Democrats Grow Over Israel as the Left Defends Palestinians.

US legislator AOC calls Israel an ‘apartheid state’.

La forte ala liberal confluita nel partito democratico sta duramente contestando l’ambiguo comportamento della Harris-Biden Administration nei confronti del conflitto in corso tra palestinesi ed Israele.

Alexandria Ocasio Cortez ha portato il discorso ai limiti di una spaccatura del partito democratico.

In realtà, la Kamala Harris non sa che pesci prendere. Giace imbelle come una medusa spiaggiata.

USA. 124 generali ed ammiragli diffidano la Harris-Biden Administration.

Per la prima volta nella storia americana, 124 tra generali ed ammiragli hanno rilasciato una lettera aperta alla Harris-Biden Administration, che, inter alias, bollano di “patologie mentali” e di voler sottomettere gli Stati Uniti alla loro dittatura. Una lettera quanto mai pesante, segno del profondo travaglio che attanaglia le Forze Armate. Anche su questo problema non da poco la Harris-Biden Administration si è ritirata nel riserbo di chi non sa cosa dire e cosa fare.

* * * * * * *

Avere una Amministrazione portatrice di “patologie mentali“, lo dicono i generali, non è certo motivo di consolazione, né in America né nel mondo.

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Job fears, price spikes mean heartburn for Biden White House as economy revs up.

                         High unemployment. Rising prices. Gas lines.

They’re a bad memory for Americans old enough to remember the 1970s – but they’re also likely causing a few sleepless nights in the White House, as the United States’ economic recovery from the unprecedented coronavirus recession hits some bumps.

The jolts are dampening consumer confidence, ramping up inflation fears, and helping Republicans build their case against President Joe Biden and his ambitious plans to revamp the U.S. economy with trillions in new spending.

As the 1970s show, high joblessness and rising prices the United States saw in April can be a potent political force.

Republicans crafted a “misery index” out of the two factors to attack then-president Jimmy Carter. After hitting 75% approval ratings early in his presidency, the Democrat was trounced in a 1980 landslide.

Support for Biden remains strong and U.S. equity markets remain near record highs.

The White House says there’s bound to be surprises as the United States emerges from an unprecedented pandemic.

“We must keep in mind that an economy will not heal instantaneously,” Cecilia Rouse, the chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers told reporters Friday. “It takes several weeks for people to get full immunity from vaccinations, and even more time for those left jobless from the pandemic to find and start a suitable job.”

Rouse, speaking to reporters at the White House, said a mismatch between supply and demand due to the pandemic and the economic snap-back had pushed inflation higher but that the mismatch should prove temporary.

“I fully expect that will work itself out in the coming months,” she said.

The Federal Reserve also is betting heavily inflation will cool on its own, even as hiring picks up steam over the summer, Americans start to travel again, and the Fed keeps its massive crisis levels of support intact.

The White House wouldn’t offer a timeline for when the economy will smooth out. But it doesn’t expect a repeat of April’s weak jobs report, and recent data show applicants for unemployment benefits fell to a 14-month low.

“The trend lines continue to be positive,” a senior White House official told Reuters on Wednesday. The White House also believes the Fed can handle what comes up, he said.

“We haven’t seen anything that is suggested that the Fed doesn’t have an ample toolkit to manage any of the risks that might present themselves.”

                         ROUGH WATERS AHEAD

Still, there’s more turmoil in months to come.

Republicans, divided by former President Donald Trump’s false claims that the 2020 election was stolen from him, have seized the moment to knock the foundation of Biden’s economic plans – raising taxes on the wealthy and companies.

“You won’t find any Republicans who are gonna go raise taxes. I think that’s the worst thing you can do in this economy,” House Republican leader Kevin McCarthy told reporters outside the White House, citing inflation fears and gas prices.

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the powerful corporate lobby group, is pushing for repeal of special unemployment payments that were a cornerstone of Biden’s campaign, and over a dozen state governors have decided to roll them back early.

With 7.5 million more people either unemployed or out of the job market altogether compared to before the pandemic, even a month or two more of weaker-than-expected job growth and rising prices would up the pressure on Biden and the Fed.

“If we get one more April that is concerning,” said Gregory Daco, chief U.S. economist at Oxford Economics.

Some early data suggest that May’s jobs report could be weak as well.

If workers don’t take jobs for whatever reason – continued fear of disease, lack of childcare, and higher-than-usual unemployment benefits have been cited – it would indicate “a significant supply constraint,” Daco said. Then, he said, “the question is how do you get people back? And that is a different question than pumping stimulus into the economy.”

The Biden administration, workers, labor advocates and some economists have argued firms should raise wages if they’re having trouble hiring, and some, including McDonald’s Corp (MCD.N) have followed suit.

Federal Reserve officials concede things could be tricky.

“The question of how to unclog the labor market is going to be a critical one,” and could limit overall economic growth this year if it takes too long, said Richmond Federal Reserve president Thomas Barkin.

                         UNEXPECTED BOTTLENECKS

While “unsticking” the labor market is one challenge, stamping out price flare-ups as Americans return to schools and offices and go on vacation once again is another.

Consumer sentiment in early May tumbled as people worried about rising prices. Inflation expectations for the year ahead and over the next five years rose to their highest in more than a decade.

“You have a logistical challenge of shutting down an economy and bringing it back up and we are not built for that,” Barkin said.

The Colonial Pipeline shutdown that led to gas lines in some southern states had nothing to do with the pandemic, and was lifted Wednesday. But it could take “some time” before it returns to normal, Biden said Thursday.

A semiconductor shortage that started before Biden took office continues to drive up car prices, as pandemic-shy Americans look for alternatives to public transportation.

Home builders point to surging lumber prices they say threaten the critical housing market and the broader economy. Prices for materials used in construction jumped 19.7% from April 2020 to last month, the largest increase in the 35-year history of the series, according to Ken Simonson, the chief economist for the Associated General Contractors of America.

The White House declined to elaborate on specific remedies it might pursue to help the supply side of the economy, but pointed to steps to bring fuel to market after the Colonial Pipeline shutdown.

                         ‘WHIP INFLATION NOW’

Carter and his predecessor Republican Gerald Ford found inflation impossible to beat, but faced more endemic problems in the 1970s.

A Ford push to encourage Americans to save more and spend less, ‘Whip Inflation Now’ or WIN, was an abject failure.

Gas lines then were the result of entrenched geopolitics, not a one-off hack. Inflation was much higher and fed by a country-wide psychology that prices and wages should just keep going up – an important difference that Fed officials are adamant they will not allow to recur.

The country actually added an average of 215,000 jobs monthly during the Carter years. Yet unemployment was rising because so many new workers were joining the labor force, thanks to demographic trends and more women working outside the home for the first time.

Biden faces a very different problem – a job market in the wake of a deadly pandemic that has left workers constrained, nervous, or living off savings and unemployment benefits for now. But that doesn’t mean his job is any easier.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Stati Uniti

Usa. 2021Q1. Pil +6.4%, Consumi Personali +10.7%, annualizzato. – BEA.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-05-02.

2021-04-30__ Usa Pil 001

2021-04-30__ Usa Pil 002

Il Bureau of Economic Analysis ha rilasciato il Report Gross Domestic Product, First Quarter 2021 (Advance Estimate)

«Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased at an annual rate of 6.4 percent in the first quarter of 2021, reflecting the continued economic recovery, reopening of establishments, and continued government response related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the first quarter, government assistance payments, such as direct economic impact payments, expanded unemployment benefits, and Paycheck Protection Program loans, were distributed to households and businesses through the Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act and the American Rescue Plan Act. In the fourth quarter of 2020, real GDP increased 4.3 percent.»

«The GDP estimate released today is based on source data that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency (see “Source Data for the Advance Estimate” on page 3). The “second” estimate for the first quarter, based on more complete data, will be released on May 27, 2021.

The increase in real GDP in the first quarter reflected increases in personal consumption expenditures (PCE), nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, residential fixed investment, and state and local government spending that were partly offset by decreases in private inventory investment and exports. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased (table 2).

The increase in PCE reflected increases in durable goods (led by motor vehicles and parts), nondurable goods (led by food and beverages) and services (led by food services and accommodations). The increase in nonresidential fixed investment reflected increases in equipment (led by information processing equipment) and intellectual property products (led by software). The increase in federal government spending primarily reflected an increase in payments made to banks for processing and administering the Paycheck Protection Program loan applications as well as purchases of COVID-19 vaccines for distribution to the public. The decrease in private inventory investment primarily reflected a decrease in retail trade inventories.»

«Current-dollar personal income increased $2.40 trillion in the first quarter, or 59.0 percent, compared with a decrease of $351.4 billion, or 6.9 percent, in the fourth quarter. The increase primarily reflected government social benefits related to pandemic relief programs, notably direct economic impact payments to households established by the Coronavirus Response and Relief Supplemental Appropriations Act and the American Rescue Plan Act (table 8).»

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Definitions

Gross domestic product (GDP), or value added, is the value of the goods and services produced by the nation’s economy less the value of the goods and services used up in production. GDP is also equal to the sum of personal consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports of goods and services, and government consumption expenditures and gross investment.

Gross domestic income (GDI) is the sum of incomes earned and costs incurred in the production of GDP. In national economic accounting, GDP and GDI are conceptually equal. In practice, GDP and GDI differ because they are constructed using largely independent source data.

Gross output is the value of the goods and services produced by the nation’s economy. It is principally measured using industry sales or receipts, including sales to final users (GDP) and sales to other industries (intermediate inputs).