Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Germania. Agosto21. Wholesale price +12.3% su agosto20. Inflazione che cresce.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-18.

2021-09-14__ Germania Prezzi Ingrosso 001

«Wholesale price is the sum or amount of money for which products or services are offered for sale to business buyers who are purchasing in larger volumes. Purchasing at wholesale describes the sale of goods in quantity for resale.»

* * * * * * *

L’indice dei prezzi all’ingrosso (Wholesale Price Index, WPI) misura il cambiamento nel prezzo dei beni venduti da grossisti a grossisti.

Quanto più alto risulta questo dato, tanto maggiore sarà il suo impatto sull’inflazione. Si noti come questo macrodato sia in costante crescita.

* * * * * * *


Destatis ha rilasciato il Report Wholesale prices in August 2021: +12.3% on August 2020

                         Pressrelease #427 from 13 September 2021.

                         Wholesale selling prices, August 2021

+0.5% on the previous month

+12.3% on the same month a year earlier

* * *

Wiesbaden – In August 2021 the selling prices in wholesale trade rose by 12.3% compared with August 2020. This was the highest monthly annual rate of change since October 1974 after the first oil crisis (+13.2% compared with October 1973). In July 2021 and in June 2021 the annual rates of change had been +11.3% and +10.7%, respectively.
From July 2021 to August 2021 the index rose by 0.5%.

Pubblicato in: Demografia, Devoluzione socialismo

Germania. Strozzata dalla crisi demografica non sa più a quale santo votarsi.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-01.

2021-08-28__ Germania Piramide 001

Destatis riporta questo grafico per la demografia tedesca a tutto i 2021.

La piramide demografica in una situazione di equilibrio dovrebbe presentare una punta aguzza in alto ed una larga base in basso. La Germania soffre da decenni di una severa denatalità tra le femmine autoctone.

Contrariamente a quanto prescrive l’ideologia liberal, non è solo una questione economica.

È un problema di Weltanschauung.

Bombardate da una pressante campagna mediatica, le femmine tedesche autoctone hanno in uggia i vincoli matrimoniali, hanno assorbito concetto di matrimonio visto come contratto e non come istituzione, e, soprattutto, la formazione di un nucleo familiare stabile, ove la femmina prolifica.

Germania. Demografia. Tasso di fertilità crollato a 1.54. – Destatis.

Germania. Demografia. Il dramma degli insegnanti in via di pensionamento.

Germania. Adesso i vecchiacci iniziano a pagare in prima persona.

Germania. La demografia stritola Germania e Große Koalition.

Germania. Mancano 1.6 milioni di lavoratori esperti, Meister.

Germania. Il 17% degli studenti è affetto da patologie psichiatriche.

Germania al capolinea. – Handelsblatt

Germania. Gigante dai piedi di argilla. – Handelsblatt

Germania. Mancano ora 35,000 insegnanti, nel 2025 ne mancheranno 105,000.

Germania. Demografia. Accademia Tecnica. Mancano dieci milioni di lavoratori.

Germania. Mancano 1.6 milioni di lavoratori esperti, Meister. – Handelsblatt.

Germania. Incidenza economica del calo demografico. – Bloomberg. 

* * * * * * *

Adesso la Germania deve fare i conti con le scelte passate.

«Europe’s largest economy has an aging population and low birth rates, and the federal labor agency says Germany must attract at least 400,000 skilled immigrants annually to keep up with demand»

«Germany faces massive labor shortages unless it begins recruiting skilled immigrants to replace those retiring from the country’s aging workforce»

«demographic changes mean Germany will have roughly 150,000 fewer working age residents this year alone»

«From nursing care and climate technicians to logisticians and academics, there will be a shortage of skilled workers everywhere»

«We need 400,000 immigrants per year, significantly more than in recent years»

«This is not about asylum but targeted immigration to fill gaps in the labor market»

«the only way to master the situation will be to significantly increase immigration»

«applications for recognition of foreign professional qualifications fell 3% last year, to 42,000»

«We must finally become better in the global competition to attract talent — and to do so, we need a modern, points-based immigration system like Canada and New Zealand have long had»

* * * * * * *

L’idea che le femmine tedesche riprendano a fare figli non sfiora minimamente la mente. Ma questo sarebbe l’unico metodo noto per por fine ad una contrazione demografica.

Poi, cosa non certo da poco, la Germania avrebbe bisogno di lavoratori esperti, ma nemmeno i paesi dell’ex est europeo potrebbero renderne disponibili numeri di tal fatta. Semplicemente non ci sono, e sognare che ci siano non porta lontano.

Germania e tedeschi razionalizzeranno nei fatti che stanno transitando ad essere una mera realtà geografica.

Senza popolazione, una nazione altro non sarebbe.

*


Germany’s workforce in desperate need of skilled immigrants, warns labor agency

Europe’s largest economy has an aging population and low birth rates, and the federal labor agency says Germany must attract at least 400,000 skilled immigrants annually to keep up with demand.

Germany faces massive labor shortages unless it begins recruiting skilled immigrants to replace those retiring from the country’s aging workforce, Federal Labor Agency Chairman Detlef Scheele told the daily Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) newspaper Tuesday.

Scheele said demographic changes mean Germany will have roughly 150,000 fewer working age residents this year alone, and warned, “It will be much more dramatic over the coming years.”

“The fact is: Germany is running out of workers,” he said.

“We need 400,000 immigrants per year, significantly more than in recent years,” said Scheele. “From nursing care and climate technicians to logisticians and academics, there will be a shortage of skilled workers everywhere.”

Cognizant of immigration issues in light of Germany’s upcoming federal elections in late September, Social Democrat Scheele told the SZ: “This is not about asylum but targeted immigration to fill gaps in the labor market.”

                         How can Germany fix the problem of labor shortages?

Last year, the number of foreign nationals living in Germany — a country of 83 million — rose by 204,000, the smallest increase in a decade. The problem has been exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic, which drastically reduced the number of immigrants entering the labor force.

Scheele said that beyond training low-skilled workers, retraining those whose professions have disappeared, or forcing people to work longer, the only way to master the situation will be to significantly increase immigration.

According to Germany’s Federal Statistical Office, applications for recognition of foreign professional qualifications fell 3% last year, to 42,000.

Although the federal government reformed that process in March 2020, Johannes Vogel, labor policy spokesman for the neoliberal FDP’s parliamentary caucus, criticized the current governing coalition of center-right CDU/CSU and social democratic SPD, saying their “paltry Skilled Immigration Act” has not come close to doing what it promised.

“We must finally become better in the global competition to attract talent — and to do so, we need a modern, points-based immigration system like Canada and New Zealand have long had.”

                         Anti-immigrant attitudes won’t work.

The Federation of German Trade Unions (DGB) has also called on lawmakers to create faster and more reliable nationwide standards that will allow those immigrants with the legal status of “Dulding,” or tolerated, as well as those in the country on humanitarian grounds, to enter the workforce and attain longterm employment perspectives.  

The anti-immigrant, far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD) labeled the Labor Agency chairman’s calls an “incomprehensible demand,” accusing him of serving what it said were the interests of companies using immigration to drive down wages for German laborers.

Asked about political resistance to the idea of increasing the number of immigrants in Germany, Scheele told the SZ, “You can stand up and say, ‘We don’t want foreigners,’ but that doesn’t work.”

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Devoluzione socialismo

Germania. Luglio21. Prezzi delle importazioni +15.0% su luglio20.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-08-28.

Destatis__001

Destatis ha rilasciato il Report Import prices in July 2021: +15.0% on July 2020

                         Import prices, July 2021

+2.2% on the previous month

+15.0% on the same month a year earlier

                         Export prices, July 2021

+1.2% on the previous month

+6.3% on the same month a year earlier

* * * * * * *

Wiesbaden – As reported by the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), the index of import prices increased by 15.0% in July 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year. This has been the highest year-on-year-change since September 1981 (+17.4%). In June 2021 and in May 2021 the annual rates of change were +12.9% and +11.8%, respectively. From June 2021 to July 2021 the index rose by 2.2%.

                         High price increase mainly caused by energy price development

In July 2021 energy imports were 89.6% more expensive than in July 2020. This high rate of annual change derives from the very low prices in July 2020. The largest influence on the year-on-year rate of energy price increase in July 2021 had natural gas with a plus of 170.5% and crude oil with a plus of 68.9%.

The index of import prices, excluding crude oil and mineral oil products, increased by 12.2% in July 2021 compared with July 2020 and in comparison with June 2021 it rose by 2.0%.

The index of export prices increased by 6.3% in July 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year. This has been the highest year-on-year-change since January 1982 (+6.6%). In June 2021 and in May 2021 the annual rates of change were +5.0% and +4.2%, respectively. From June 2021 to July 2021 the index rose by 1.2%.

* * * * * * *

«import prices increased by 15.0% in July 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year»

«In July 2021 energy imports were 89.6% more expensive than in July 2020»

«The index of import prices, excluding crude oil and mineral oil products, increased by 12.2% in July 2021 compared with July 2020»

* * * * * * *

Un aumento dell’89.6% sull’imports energetico costituisce un enorme aggravio sui prezzi della produzione industriale.

Infatti il Core Producer Price Index, PPI, rilasciato il 20 agosto, era 10.4%.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Germania. Luglio21. PPI, Producer prices of industrial products, +10.4% su Luglio20.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-08-22.

2021-08-21__ Germania PPI 001

«+10.4% on the same month a year earlier»

«In July 2021, the index of producer prices for industrial products increased by 10.4% compared with July 2020»

«this was the highest increase compared to the corresponding month of the preceding year since January 1975 (+10.5%), when prices rose strongly during the first oil crisis»

«Prices of intermediate goods increased by 15.6% compared to July 2020»

«Compared to July 2020 intermediate goods’ prices increased especially regarding sawn timber (+110.7%) and metallic secondary raw materials (+100.2%) as well as reinforcing steel in bars (+81.5%)»

«Metal prices were up 32.2% compared to July 2020. Prices of metallic steel and ferro-alloys increased by 52.3%, prices of non-ferrous metals were up 23.2%»

«problems in the supply of raw materials and sharp increases of import prices for iron ore (+97.4% from June 2020 to June 2021)»

«Energy prices as a whole increased by 20.4% compared to July 2020»

«National CO2-pricing that has been introduced in January 2021 on several energy products also had a great impact on the price increase of energy»

«For example prices of natural gas sold to industrial consumers with an annual consumption of 116 300 MWh increased by 45.0% disregarding CO2-pricing, including CO2-pricing they rose by 56.5%»

«Prices of crude vegetable oils were up 37.4%, butter prices rose by 18.5%.»

* * * * * * *

Da tempo Destatis ha smesso di indicare nel Covid-19 la causa dell’inflazione attuale.

Sono i costi delle materie prime, ossia una inflazione importata, a generare questa crescita dei prezzi alla produzione dei prodotti industriali. A ciò si aggiungano gli effetti di una tassazione severa sui prodotti energetici, in omaggio alla teoria del clima.

Ma il sistema economico tedesco non può reggere a lungo dei rincari del 100.2% per le materie prime secondarie metalliche, dell’81.5% per l’acciaio in barre per cemento armato, del 97.4% per il minerale di ferro, né ad aumenti del 45% per l’energia.

* * * * * * *


Destatis ha rilasciato il Report Producer prices in July 2021: +10.4% on July 2020

                         Producer prices of industrial products (domestic market), July 2021

+1.9% on the previous month

+10.4% on the same month a year earlier

* * *

Wiesbaden – In July 2021, the index of producer prices for industrial products increased by 10.4% compared with July 2020. As reported by the Federal Statistical Office this was the highest increase compared to the corresponding month of the preceding year since January 1975 (+10.5%), when prices rose strongly during the first oil crisis. Compared with the preceding month June 2021 the overall index rose by 1.9% in July 2021.

Mainly responsible for the increase of producer prices compared to July 2020 were the prices of intermediate products and of energy.

                         Significant price increase on intermediate goods, especially regarding metals, secondary raw materials and wood

Prices of intermediate goods increased by 15.6% compared to July 2020. Compared to June 2021 these prices were up 2.3 %. Compared to July 2020 intermediate goods’ prices increased especially regarding sawn timber (+110.7%) and metallic secondary raw materials (+100.2%) as well as reinforcing steel in bars (+81.5%). Metal prices were up 32.2% compared to July 2020. Prices of metallic steel and ferro-alloys increased by 52.3%, prices of non-ferrous metals were up 23.2%. “The main reasons for the rise in steel and wood prices are likely to be increasing demand in Germany and abroad, problems in the supply of raw materials and sharp increases of import prices for iron ore (+97.4% from June 2020 to June 2021)”, states Gerda Gladis-Dörr, head of section Producer prices, Foreign trade prices and Wholesale prices. Also prices for basic chemicals showed a strong plus compared to July 2020 (+19.0%). Only few prices of intermediate goods fell compared to July 2020, two of them being electronic integrated circuits (-9.5%) and wood in chips and particles (-20.6%).

                         Strong increase in prices for all energy sources

Energy prices as a whole increased by 20.4% compared to July 2020 and by 4.1 compared to June 2021. According to Gerda Gladis-Dörr the price increase from July 2020 to July 2021 is mainly caused by a base effect resulting from the sharp drop in prices in spring 2020 in the course of the pandemic. National CO2-pricing that has been introduced in January 2021 on several energy products also had a great impact on the price increase of energy. For example prices of natural gas sold to industrial consumers with an annual consumption of 116 300 MWh increased by 45.0% disregarding CO2-pricing, including CO2-pricing they rose by 56.5%.

The overall index disregarding energy was 7.4% up on July 2020.

Prices of durable consumer goods increased by 2.2% compared to July 2020 (+0.6% compared to June 2021), capital goods, such as machines and vehicles, by 1.8% (+0.5% compared to June 2021).

                         Increasing prices for oils and fat led to growth in prices of non-durable consumer goods

Prices of non-durable consumer goods increased by 1.8% compared to July 2020 and remained unchanged compared to June 2021. From July 2020 to July 2021 food prices increased by 2.3%. Prices of crude vegetable oils were up 37.4%, butter prices rose by 18.5%. By contrast, pork prices still were down 2.2%.  Prices of ice cream fell by 3.5% compared to July 2020.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo

Germania. Luglio21. Selling prices in wholesale trade, WPI, +11.3% su Luglio20.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-08-14.

2021-08-14__ Germania. WPI 001

                         In sintesi.

– +11.3% on the same month a year earlier

– This was the highest monthly annual rate of change since October 1974 after the first oil crisis (+13.2% compared with October 1973).

* * * * * * *

«Wholesale trade is an economic indicator that measures the value in U.S. dollars of all merchant wholesalers’ sales and inventories. Wholesale trade is one component of business sales and inventories. Only those firms that sell to governments, institutions, and other businesses are considered part of wholesale trade.

– Wholesale-trade data gives investors a closer look at the consumer economy, as wholesalers’ sales and inventory numbers can be a leading indicator of consumer trends.

– By looking at the ratio of sales to inventories, investors can see whether or not production may grow or slow in the future.

– Only those firms that sell to governments, institutions, and other businesses are considered part of wholesale trade

* * *

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the wholesale trade sector includes the sale of merchandise that is outputted from manufacturing, agriculture, mining, publishing, and some other information industries»

* * * * * * *


Destatis. Wholesale prices in July 2021: +11.3% on July 2020

Wholesale selling prices, July 2021

+1.1% on the previous month

+11.3% on the same month a year earlier

Wiesbaden – In July 2021 the selling prices in wholesale trade rose by 11.3% compared with July 2020. This was the highest monthly annual rate of change since October 1974 after the first oil crisis (+13.2% compared with October 1973). In June 2021 and in May 2021 the annual rates of change had been +10.7% and +9.7%, respectively.
From June 2021 to July 2021 the index rose by 1.1%.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Germania. Giugno21. Prezzi alla Importazione +12.9% anno su anno. – Merkeldämmerung.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-07-31.

2021-07-28__ Germania - Indice dei prezzi all'Importazione (Annuale) 001

In sintesi.

– Import prices +12.9% on the same month a year earlier

– In June 2021 energy imports were 88.5% more expensive than in June 2020

– natural gas with a plus of 150.0%

– crude oil with a plus of 81.8%

– The index of export prices increased by 5.0% in June 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year

* * * * * * *

Queste cifre non ammettono repliche.

Un aumento del +12.9% dei costi dei beni importati si ripercuote immediatamente sui prezzi al consumo.

Ma l’aumento del 150% del gas naturale e dell’81.8% del greggio sono causa efficiente dell’aumento dei costi di produzione e, quindi, della inflazione.

Questa è la eredità che la Merkel lascia alla Germania.

*


Destatis. Import prices in June 2021: +12.9% on June 2020

Pressrelease #360 from 28 July 2021

Import prices, June 2021

+1.6% on the previous month

+12.9% on the same month a year earlier

Export prices, June 2021

+0.8% on the previous month

+5.0% on the same month a year earlier

* * *


WIESBADEN – As reported by the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), the index of import prices increased by 12.9% in June 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year. This has been the highest year-on-year-change since October 1981 (+13.6%). In May 2021 and in April 2021 the annual rates of change were +11.8% and +10.3%, respectively. From May 2021 to June 2021 the index rose by 1.6%.

                         High price increase mainly caused by the energy price development

In June 2021 energy imports were 88.5% more expensive than in June 2020. This high rate of annual change derives from the very low prices in June 2020. The largest influence on the year-on-year rate of energy price increase in June 2021 had natural gas with a plus of 150.0% and crude oil with a plus of 81.8%.

The index of import prices, excluding crude oil and mineral oil products, increased by 9.8% in June 2021 compared with June 2020 and in comparison with May 2021 it rose by 1.3%.

The index of export prices increased by 5.0% in June 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year. This has been the highest year-on-year-change since April 1982 (+5.6%). In May 2021 and in April 2021 the annual rates of change were +4.2% and +3.3%, respectively. From May 2021 to June 2021 the index rose by 0.8%.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo

Germania. Aprile21. Prezzi dell’Import +10.3%, energetici +101.3%, elettricità +209.6%, aprile21su aprile20. – Destatis.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-05-30.

2021-05-29__ Germania - Indice dei prezzi all'Importazione (Annuale) 001

In sintesi.

– Import prices +10.3% on the same month a year earlier

– In March 2021 and in February 2021 the annual rates of change were +6.9% and +1.4%, respectively

– Energy imports were 101.3% more expensive in April 2021 than in April 2020

– the price of electricity increased significantly by 209.6%

– Export prices +3.3% on the same month a year earlier

* * * * * * *

Ad un aumento dei prezzi di importazione e della energia corrisponde un congruo aumento dei costi di produzione. E così facendo, la stagflazione si dispiega.

*


Destatis. Import prices in April 2021: +10.3% on April 2020

Pressrelease #253 from 28 May 2021

                         Import prices, April 2021

+1.4% on the previous month

+10.3% on the same month a year earlier

                         Export prices, April 2021

+0.8% on the previous month

+3.3% on the same month a year earlier

*

WIESBADEN – As reported by the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), the index of import prices increased by 10.3% in April 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year. This has been the highest year-on-year-change since December 2010 (+10.3%). In March 2021 and in February 2021 the annual rates of change were +6.9% and +1.4%, respectively. From March 2021 to April 2021 the index rose by 1.4%.

                         High price increase mainly caused by the energy price development

Energy imports were 101.3% more expensive in April 2021 than in April 2020. This high rate of annual change derives from the very low prices in April 2020. This increase is due to the extremely low price level of the comparative month (base effect). In April 2020, demand had reached its lowest point, caused by the corona crisis, with a strong surplus of supply at the same time. The largest influence on the year-on-year rate of energy price increase had crude oil with a plus of 198.0%, mineral oil products with a plus of 76.6 % and natural gas with a plus of 57.6 %. In addition, the price of electricity increased significantly by 209.6%.

The index of import prices, excluding crude oil and mineral oil products, increased by 6.0% in April 2021 compared with April 2020 and in comparison with March 2021 it rose by 1.5%.

The index of export prices increased by 3.3% in April 2021 compared with the corresponding month of the preceding year. This has been the highest year-on-year-change since May 2011 (+3.4%). In March 2021 and in February 2021 the annual rates of change were +2.2% and +0.7%, respectively. From March 2021 to April 2021 the index rose by 0.8%.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Germania. Febbraio 21. Produzione Industriale -6.4% anno su anno. – Destatis.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-04-11.

Ghigno 004

In sintesi.

– Production in industry -6.4% on the same month a year earlier (price and calendar adjusted)

*

Solo per comparazione, la Produzione Industriale cinese nello stesso periodo è aumentata del +35.1%, quella della Malaysia del +1.5%, Singapore +16.4%, Polonia +2.7%, Turkia +11.4%.

*


Destatis. Production in February 2021: -1.6% on the previous month. Production still 6% below pre-crisis level.

Pressrelease #176 from 9 April 2021

Production in industry
February 2021 (provisional):
-1.6% on the previous month (price, seasonally and calendar adjusted)
-6.4% on the same month a year earlier (price and calendar adjusted)

January 2021 (revised):
-2.0% on the previous month (price, seasonally and calendar adjusted)
-4.0% on the same month a year earlier (price and calendar adjusted)

WIESBADEN – In February 2021, production in industry was down by 1.6% on the previous month on a price, seasonally and calendar adjusted basis according to provisional data of the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis).

Compared with February 2020, which was the month before restrictions were imposed due to the corona pandemic in Germany, real production decreased by a calendar adjusted 6.4% in February 2021.

In February 2021, production in industry excluding energy and construction was down by 1.8%. Within industry, the production of capital goods showed a decrease of 3.2% and the production of intermediate goods of 1.0%. The production of consumer goods increased by 0.2%. Outside industry, energy production was down by 1.0% in February 2021 and the production in construction decreased by 1.3%.

In January 2021, the corrected figure on the production in industry showed a decrease of 2.0% (provisional: -2.5%) from December 2020.

The rates of change refer to the production index for industry (2015 = 100). Seasonal and calendar adjustment was made using the X-13 JDemetra+ method.

Basic data and long time series on the production index in industry are also available in the table “Index of production in manufacturing” (42153-0001) in the GENESIS-Online database

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Germania. 2020. Produzione Industriale -10.8% anno 2020 su anno 2019.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-02-24.

Destatis__001

Alla fine, finalmente si iniziano a pubblicare i macrodati economici riportati anno su anno precedente.

Destatis ci informa

«that production in industry excluding energy and construction was down by 10.8% in price and calendar adjusted terms in 2020 compared with 2019»

Solo per comparazione, Ungheria +5.8%, Slovacchia +6.8%, Brasile +8.2%, Cina +7.3%, Singapore +14.3%, Turkia +9.0%.

Il problema non è il coronavirus, bensì il governo.

*


Destatis. Industrial production down by more than 10% in 2020. Automotive industry and mechanical engineering especially affected.

Press release No. 076 of 22 February 2021

WIESBADEN – Production in the German industry declined by slightly more than one tenth in 2020 year on year. Based on provisional data, the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis) reports that production in industry excluding energy and construction was down by 10.8% in price and calendar adjusted terms in 2020 compared with 2019. In the course of the year, industrial production saw a significant year-on-year decline during the first phase of restrictions imposed due to the corona crisis in April and May 2020 (-29.7% and -23.4%, respectively). In December 2020, however, industrial production was only 1.5% lower than in the same month a year earlier. The turnover of mining and manufacturing enterprises in 2020 was down by 10.1% on a price and calendar adjusted basis compared with the previous year. While domestic turnover declined by 8.3%, non-domestic turnover decreased by 11.9%.