Pubblicato in: Cina, Stati Uniti

Cina. Il sostegno americano all’indipendenza di Taiwan potrebbe scatenare una guerra.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-02-01.

Cina 017

Alla esasperata ricerca di nemici, veri o presunti tali, per polarizzare l’opinione pubblica distogliendola da un disperata situazione economica,  Joe Biden ha costretto Russia e Cina a porre dei confini non valicabili, se non a costo di una guerra.

La Cina è estremamente chiara.  

Il sostegno all’indipendenza di Taiwan potrebbe scatenare un conflitto militare degli Stati Uniti con la Cina, che considera Formosa quale suo territorio nazionale.

* * * * * * *

«China and the United States could end up in a military conflict if the United States encourages Taiwan’s independence»

«China considers the neighboring, democratically ruled island of Taiwan its “sacred” territory and has never renounced the use of force to ensure eventual unification»

«”Let me emphasize this. The Taiwan issue is the biggest tinder-box between China and the United States»

«If the Taiwanese authorities, emboldened by the United States, keep going down the road for independence, it most likely (will) involve China and the United States, the two big countries, in a military conflict»

«Under the long-standing policy, Washington officially recognizes Beijing rather than Taipei, while the act requires the United States to provide Taiwan with the means to defend itself»

«While Chinese officials have warned of military action over Taiwan, it is unusual for them to link it directly to the United States»

«US President Joe Biden has said that the United States was not encouraging independence for Taiwan, but he caused a stir in October when he said it would come to the island’s defense if China attacked»

* * * * * * *

Il messaggio è forte e chiaro. Suona come un ultimatum. Starà a Joe Biden non tracimare.

* * * * * * *


Support of Taiwan independence could spark US military conflict with China, Chinese ambassador says.

China and the United States could end up in a military conflict if the United States encourages Taiwan’s independence, Beijing’s ambassador to Washington said in a US radio interview broadcast on Friday.

China considers the neighboring, democratically ruled island of Taiwan its “sacred” territory and has never renounced the use of force to ensure eventual unification.

“Let me emphasize this. The Taiwan issue is the biggest tinder-box between China and the United States,” Qin Gang told National Public Radio.

“If the Taiwanese authorities, emboldened by the United States, keep going down the road for independence, it most likely (will) involve China and the United States, the two big countries, in a military conflict,” he said.

Asked to comment, the US Defense Department said the United States remained committed to its “one China” policy and its commitments under the US Taiwan Relations Act.

Under the long-standing policy, Washington officially recognizes Beijing rather than Taipei, while the act requires the United States to provide Taiwan with the means to defend itself.

“We will continue to assist Taiwan in maintaining a sufficient self-defense capability while also maintaining our own capacity to resist any use of force that would jeopardize the security of the people of Taiwan,” a Pentagon spokesperson said.

The US State Department and White House did not immediately respond to requests for comment on Qin’s remark, which came just hours after US Secretary of State Antony Blinken and China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi discussed the crisis over Ukraine.

While Chinese officials have warned of military action over Taiwan, it is unusual for them to link it directly to the United States.

Tensions between Beijing and Taipei have escalated in recent months as China’s military has conducted repeated air missions over the Taiwan Strait, the waterway separating the island from China.

US President Joe Biden has said that the United States was not encouraging independence for Taiwan, but he caused a stir in October when he said it would come to the island’s defense if China attacked.

The latter remark appeared to depart from Washington’s long-held policy of “strategic ambiguity” — not making clear how the United States would respond — though the White House quickly said Biden was not signaling a change in policy.

The chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Mark Milley, told Congress last year China wants the ability to invade and hold Taiwan within the next six years but might not intend to do so in the near term.

Pubblicato in: Economia e Produzione Industriale

Mondo. Stagflazione. Prostituzione. I prezzi sono crollati.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-20.

Prosituzione 999

Havoscope redige un listino prezzi aggiornato a livello mondiale delle prestazioni sessuali delle prostitute.

I prezzi dipendono dalla età e dalla gradevolezza delle ragazze, nonché dalla tipologia delle prestazioni richieste.

Le ragazze giovani e belle hanno prezzi maggiori di quelle meno giovani e bruttine.

Infine, i prezzi dipendono molto dalla situazione economica del paese ove sono stati rilevati e dalle prestazioni erogate.

In ogni caso, dal nostro punto di vista, si constata come nel volgere di meno di due anni i prezzi medi siano crollati di tre volte circa.

Questo dato è di interesse, perché la prostituzione è l’unico mercato ragionevolmente libero, ove i prezzi richiesti si adeguano anche molto rapidamente alle situazioni socio – economiche al contorno: Per questo motivo sono un ottimo indicatore della reale situazione economica di una nazione.

Per esempio, una ragazzina di tredici anni costa 5.5 Usd in Brasile, mentre in Germania una prostituta richiede in media 65 Usd per incontro.

Nel Regno Unito una peripatetica chiede 20 Usd, mentre negli Stati Uniti con 40 – 100 Usd si possono ottenere dai 15 ai 30 minuti di incontro con una ragazza minorenne.

* * * * * * *

Questi dati dovrebbero dare da pensare su quanto morda la stagflazione sulle popolazioni.

* * * * * * *


Number of Prostitutes in the World: 13,828,700

  1. China 5 Million
  2. India 3 Million
  3. United States 1 Million
  4. Philippines 800,000
  5. Mexico 500,000
  6. Germany 400,000
  7. Brazil 250,000 children
  8. Thailand 250,000
  9. Bangladesh 200,000
  10. South Korea 147,000
  11. Turkey 118,000
  12. Taiwan 100,000
  13. Cambodia 70,000
  14. Ukraine 67,500
  15. United Kingdom 58,000

* * * * * * *


Prostitution Revenue By Country

  1. China $73 Billion
  2. Spain $26.5 Billion
  3. Japan $24 Billion
  4. Germany $18 Billion (Legal Industry)
  5. United States $ 14.6 Billion
  6. South Korea $12 Billion
  7. India $8.4 Billion
  8. Thailand $6.4 Billion
  9. Philippines $6 Billion
  10. Turkey $4 Billion
  11. Switzerland $3.5 Billion
  12. Indonesia $2.25 Billion
  13. Taiwan $1.84 Billion
  14. Ukraine $1.5 Billion
  15. Bulgaria $1.3 Billion
  16. United Kingdom $1 Billion

* * * * * * *


2022-01-18__ Prostituzione 001

2022-01-18__ Prostituzione 002

2022-01-18__ Prostituzione 003

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pubblicato in: Commercio, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Indonesia. Dec21. Import +47.93% Export +35.30% anno su anno.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-19.

2022-01-18__ Indonesia 001

                         In sintesi.

– The value of Indonesia’s exports in December 2021 …. rose 35.30 percent compared to December 2020

– Imports of Indonesia in December 2021 …. increased by 47.93 percent compared with December 2020

– exports of mining and others increased by 92.15 percent compared to the same period in 2020

– The main country destinations of non-oil and gas exports in December 2021 were China at US$5.10 billion, United States at US$2.64 billion, and Japan at US$1.70 billion

* * * * * * *

L’Indonesia è la dimostrazione vivente di come un sistema economico produttivo sano possa non solo sopravvivere ma anche crescere pur dovendo operare in un contesto mondiale in stagflazione.

L’Indonesia è ricca di minerali, che estrae e vende bene, essendo sempre richiesti dai mercati internazionali.

Questa è la chiave del successo: produrre bene richiesti dal mercato senza preclusioni ideologiche.

* * * * * * *


Exports in December 2021 reached US$22.38 billion, imports reached to US$21.36 billion.

                         EXPORT

– The value of Indonesia’s exports in December 2021 reached US$22.38 billion, decreased 2.04 percent compared to exports in November 2021 but rose 35.30 percent compared to December 2020.

– Non-oil and gas exports in December 2021 reached US$21.28 billion, decreased 1.06 percent compared to November 2021 but rose 37.13 percent compared to December 2020.

– Cumulatively, Indonesia’s exports from January to December 2021 reached US$231.54 billion, increased 41.88 percent over the same period in 2020. Likewise, non-oil and gas exports reached US$219.27 billion or increased 41.52 percent.

– The highest decrease in non-oil and gas exports in December 2021 was mineral fuels commodity, in amount of US$880.4 million or decreased 21.32 percent from November 2021. The highest increase was animal or vegetable fats and oils commodity, in amount of US$428.8 million or increased 16.84 percent.

– By industry classification, exports of manufacturing products during period January−December 2021 increased by 35.11 percent, exports of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries increased by 2.86 percent, and exports of mining and others increased by 92.15 percent compared to the same period in 2020.

– The main country destinations of non-oil and gas exports in December 2021 were China at US$5.10 billion, United States at US$2.64 billion, and Japan at US$1.70 billion, with the contribution of the three reaching 44.34 percent. Meanwhile, exports to ASEAN and the European Union (27 countries) amounted to US$3.93 billion and US$1.71 billion, respectively.

– According to the province of origin, Indonesia’s largest exports in January– December 2021 came from Jawa Barat Province with a value of US$33.86 billion (14.62 percent), followed by Kalimantan Timur Province at US$24.32 billion (10.50 percent) and Jawa Timur Province at US$23.00 billion (9.94 percent).

                         IMPORT

– Imports of Indonesia in December 2021 were worth US$21.36 billion, rose by 10.51 percent compared with November 2021, or increased by 47.93 percent compared with December 2020.

– Imports of oil and gas in December 2021 were worth US$3.38 billion, rose by 11.66 percent compared with November 2021, or inclined by 127.95 percent compared with December 2020.

– Imports of non-oil and gas in December 2021 were worth US$17.98 billion, rose by 10.29 percent compared with November 2021, or grew by 38.78 percent compared with December 2020.

– The most significant increase in imports of non-oil and gas in December 2021 was machinery/mechanical appliances and parts thereof which rose by US$401.5 million (15.24 percent). On the other hand, cereals experienced the highest decrease, which reduced by US$135.2 million (38.63 percent).

– The largest trading partner countries of non-oil and gas imports in January– December 2021 were China US$55.74 billion (32.66 percent), Japan US$14.61 billion (8.56 percent), and Thailand US$9.08 billion (5.32 percent). Imports of nonoil and gas from ASEAN and EU countries were US$29.31 billion (17.17 percent) and US$10.97 billion (6.43 percent), respectively.

– Based on Broad Economic Categories (BEC), total of Indonesia imports in January– December 2021 rose US$5,529.5 million (37.73 percent) for consumption goods, US$44,174.2 million (42.80 percent) for intermediate goods, and US$4,924.1 million (20.77 percent) for capital goods.

– Indonesia’s balance of trade in December 2021 experienced a surplus of US$1.02 billion, which was mainly affected by a surplus of non-oil and gas of US$3.30 billion. On the other hand, there was a deficit of US$2.28 billion in oil and gas.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Cina. Di fronte alle sanzioni Intel elimina i riferimenti allo Xinjiang.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-15.

1483-1520__Raffaello__La_Scuola_di_Atene_Il Pensatore_

«U.S. chipmaker Intel has deleted references to Xinjiang from an annual letter to suppliers after the company faced a backlash in China for asking suppliers to avoid the sanctions-hit region»

«Last month, Intel was slammed on Chinese social media for a letter to suppliers published on its website»

«The Dec. 23 letter said Intel had been “required to ensure that its supply chain does not use any labour or source goods or services from the Xinjiang region” following restrictions imposed by “multiple governments”»

«The letter now reads that the company prohibits “any human trafficked or involuntary labour such as forced, debt bonded, prison, indentured, or slave labour throughout your extended supply chains.”»

«It apologised last month for the “trouble” it had caused, saying that its commitment to avoid supply chains from Xinjiang was an expression of compliance with U.S. law, rather than a statement of its position on the issue»

«Multinational companies have come under pressure as they aim to comply with Xinjiang-related trade sanctions while continuing to operate in China, one of their biggest markets»

«Intel’s deletion of any reference to Xinjiang in its annual letter to suppliers, which was first reported by the Wall Street Journal, was criticised by U.S. Senator Marco Rubio»

* * * * * * *

Cina. Saranno bandite ditte ed istituzioni implicate nelle sanzioni occidentali.

Cina. Impone nuove sanzioni a personaggi americani e canadesi.

Cina. Impone sanzioni su personalità ed istituzioni del Regno Unito.

Cina. Non solo sanzioni. Ancor peggio è il boicottaggio popolare.

Cina. Inizia il boicottaggio delle imprese occidentali. Versace, Zara & Co.

La Cina boicotta Dolce & Gabbana: “hanno offeso la madrepatria”

Sanzioni. Attenti, che la Cina le fa per davvero.

Cina. Le severe sanzioni all’Australia sono un drastico monito per tutto il mondo.

Cina mette dazi severi sull’orzo australiano. Relazioni deteriorate.

Cina. Adesso è lei ad imporre le sanzioni. Il caso della Australia.

Cina. Diffida la Walmart Inc che boicotta i prodotti dello Xinjiang.

Lituania. Cina bandisce le società che hanno rapporti con la Lituania. Vilnius ed EU sulla brace.

Lituania. Blinken e Simonyte e le sanzione imposte dalla Cina. Lituania sulla brace.

Lituania. Cina bandisce le società che hanno rapporti con la Lituania. Vilnius ed EU sulla brace.

* * * * * * *

E così, anche il colosso Intel ha preferito eliminare tutti i riferimenti allo Xinjiang che le erano stati imposti in America, optando per rimanere sul mercato cinese.

Il bando dalla operatività sul suolo cinese convince qualsiasi multinazionale.

Tutti questi sono semplici esempi di chi oramai detenga il potere di far valere le proprie ragioni.

* * * * * * *


Intel deletes reference to Xinjiang after backlash in China.

Beijing, Jan 11 (Reuters) – U.S. chipmaker Intel has deleted references to Xinjiang from an annual letter to suppliers after the company faced a backlash in China for asking suppliers to avoid the sanctions-hit region.

Last month, Intel was slammed on Chinese social media for a letter to suppliers published on its website. The Dec. 23 letter said Intel had been “required to ensure that its supply chain does not use any labour or source goods or services from the Xinjiang region” following restrictions imposed by “multiple governments”.

This paragraph, or any reference to Xinjiang or China, was no longer in the letter, according to a Reuters review of the same page on Tuesday. The letter now reads that the company prohibits “any human trafficked or involuntary labour such as forced, debt bonded, prison, indentured, or slave labour throughout your extended supply chains.”

Intel did not immediately respond to a request for comment. It apologised last month for the “trouble” it had caused, saying that its commitment to avoid supply chains from Xinjiang was an expression of compliance with U.S. law, rather than a statement of its position on the issue.

Multinational companies have come under pressure as they aim to comply with Xinjiang-related trade sanctions while continuing to operate in China, one of their biggest markets.

The United States has accused China of widespread human rights abuses in Xinjiang, home to the country’s predominantly Muslim Uyghurs, including forced labour. Beijing has repeatedly denied the claims.

Intel’s deletion of any reference to Xinjiang in its annual letter to suppliers, which was first reported by the Wall Street Journal, was criticised by U.S. Senator Marco Rubio.

“Intel’s cowardice is yet another predictable consequence of economic reliance on China,” Rubio said in a statement on Monday.

“Instead of humiliating apologies and self-censorship, companies should move their supply chains to countries that do not use slave labour or commit genocide.”

Rubio was one of four U.S. politicians who introduced the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act last month calling for a ban on imports from Xinjiang over allegations of forced labour there. On Dec. 23, U.S. President Joe Biden signed the act into law.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Materie Prime, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Entrata in funzione la mega Centrale Elettrica a carbone di Shanghaimiao.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-12.

Cina Shanghaimiao 001

Questo è il mesto commento di Reuters.

China fires up giant coal power plant in face of calls for cuts.

«China, under fire for approving new coal power stations as other countries try to curb greenhouse gases, has completed the first 1,000-megawatt unit of the Shanghaimiao plant, the biggest of its kind under construction in the country. ….

China is responsible for more than half of global coal-fired power generation and is expected to see a 9% year-on-year increase in 2021 ….

the country is likely to build as much as 150 gigawatts (GW) of new coal-fired power capacity over the 2021-2025 period, bringing the total to 1,230 GW.»

* * * * * * *

«As the world seeks to phase down use of coal, China’s biggest coal-fired power plant has just finished construction and entered operation on Dec. 28»

«The Shanghaimiao plant, located in the country’s top coal-producing region of Inner Mongolia, said on Tuesday that its first of four 1,000-megawatt units was online after passing a 168 hour period of trials»

«The plant will supply power to China’s eastern coastal Shandong Province»

«China’s power generation accounts for one-third of global coal consumption, and the country’s dependence is anticipated to grow by nine percent in 2021»

«the country is likely to build as much as 150 gigawatts (GW) of new coal-fired power capacity over the 2021-2025 period, bringing its total to 1,230 GW ahead of its 2025 deadline»

* * * * * * *

La Cina prosegue imperterrita a costruire centrale elettriche alimentate a carbone.

I media liberal ortodossi usano parole vive solo nella loro ente ideologizzata.

«China, under fire for approving new coal power stations»

Sinceramente, né noi né i cinesi ci si era accorti che la Cina fosse “sotto tiro“.

«As the world seeks to phase down use of coal»

Nella loro congenita e umile modestia, i liber occidentali considerano sé stessi essere e rappresentare “the world”.

Nei fatti, al contrario, il resto del mondo civile li ignora, tanto sono politicamente ed economicamente ininfluenti.

Non sono a quanto pare bastate le dure lezioni del G20 e di Cop26.

* * * * * * *


China Fires Up New Giant Coal Power Plant in Face of Calls for Cuts.

As the world seeks to phase down use of coal, China’s biggest coal-fired power plant has just finished construction and entered operation on Dec. 28.

The Shanghaimiao plant, located in the country’s top coal-producing region of Inner Mongolia, said on Tuesday that its first of four 1,000-megawatt units was online after passing a 168 hour period of trials.

The plant will supply power to China’s eastern coastal Shandong Province.

The thermal power plant is operated by the Guodian Power Shanghaimiao Corporation, a subsidiary of the centrally-owned China Energy Investment Corporation.

China, where coal-fired plants generate more than two-thirds of its electricity, pledged to reduce its reliance on coal as part of global efforts to tackle climate change, but to do so only after 2025.

The power crunch engulfing the country this year has disrupted the daily lives of tens of millions of people, crippled industrial output, and wreaked havoc on global supply chains.As a result, the authorities ordered the mining and burning of more coal to stave off a prolonged energy crisis over the winter.

China’s power generation accounts for one-third of global coal consumption, and the country’s dependence is anticipated to grow by nine percent in 2021, the International Energy Agency said in a report published this month.

China’s State Grid Corporation said in a December report that energy security concerns mean the country is likely to build as much as 150 gigawatts (GW) of new coal-fired power capacity over the 2021-2025 period, bringing its total to 1,230 GW ahead of its 2025 deadline.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Materie Prime, Unione Europea

Carbone. Newcastle future impennato a 193 Usd per tonnellata.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-07.

2022-01-07__ Coal 001

«Newcastle coal futures continued to rally to $190 per metric ton in the first week of January, the highest since early November, after Indonesia, the world’s biggest exporter of thermal coal, announced it will ban exports of coal in January, aiming to secure supply to domestic power plants. The Indonesian government had pledged to review the ban on Wednesday but talks were postponed although many companies do not want the ban to continue as the costs of having scores of ships stranded offshore are very high. The ban prompted a global rise in coal prices to start 2022 and could go even higher, as imports to China, Japan, India and South Korea account for 73% of coal exports from Indonesia. Meanwhile, many European countries started using more coal as the power crunch continues and natural gas prices remain elevated. In 2021, coal gained nearly 110% on strong demand and limited supplies.»

* * * * * * *

Ma le tensioni sono su tutte le materia prime.

TTF Gas  +399.93%, UK Gas a +212.76% anno su anno.

Cobalto +93.15%, Brent +47.56% anno su anno.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Persona Umana, Scienza & Tecnica, Stati Uniti

Persone di Talento. È in corso una competizione mondiale per reclutarli.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-02.

2021-12-30__ Talento 001

«I greci ci criticano perché siamo così severi con i nostri figli e così lassi con gli schiavi: non hanno capito che i nostri figli dovranno dominare il mondo»

«When a true genius appears in the world you may know him by this sign; that the dunces are all in confederacy against him»

Il vero tesoro di una nazione è costituito dai suoi uomini di talento. Dopo la fine della guerra mondiale Germania, Giappone ed Italia erano distrutte, prive di risorse, ma avevano conservato con cura le loro persone di talento. Quindici anni dopo si assistette al loro ‘miracolo economico’.

Un Newton oppure una Md Curie fanno una nazione. Un milione di mediocri non fa un genio.

Il problema è identificarli, lasciarli crescere e, sopratutto, non ostacolarli.

* * * * * * *

«Is the U.S. Losing the War for Global Talent?»

«International students, particularly those coming from societies and cultures dramatically different from the US, are still not fully prepared for the vastly different academic culture»

«Students are quite different in how they’re approaching the idea of a foreign credential»

«Should I go to the U.S.? Is that the best return on investment for my family’s money? Or am I going to go to the U.K. or some other country?»

«Until about a decade ago, international students in the U.S. were dominated by those coming to the U.S. to pursue a master’s or Ph.D.»

«Then, with the huge growth in the Chinese middle class, there was this big influx of young Chinese students at the undergraduate level»

«foreign undergraduates, for the most part, have been full-fee paying students»

«Many families are now rethinking whether they have the resources to pay for their children’s education abroad»

«→→ What is it that Americans don’t understand about the experiences of international students? ←←»

«People don’t often appreciate how important international students have been to the post-1960s history of success of the U.S., from technology to academia to medicine»

«in the U.S., we do not want to have a candid conversation about the pathway from higher education to skilled talent and how countries grow their talent pool»

«If we look at the statistics, 70 to 80 percent of international students continue to stay on in the U.S. after their studies»

«More generally, we need to smooth that pathway from being a student to joining the workforce»

«When you’re an international student, everything you do in your program of study is governed by immigration rules»

«The policies in Canada are much friendlier to international students because of that clear understanding that education is a pathway to careers and the workforce»

* * * * * * *

Cina. Di gran lunga i migliori studenti al mondo.

Italia. Un addetto alla scuola ogni 5.57 studenti, sei volte più che in Cina.

Scuola Italiana. Fotocopie di una burocrazia satanica.

Invalsi 2019, l’Italia divisa in due. Quasi la metà dei maturandi «analfabeta» in matematica

Nuova Zelanda. Cresce il numero di studenti con proficiency in Cinese.

Cina. I grandi Atenei inglesi stanno trasferendosi in Cina.

Coronavirus e Cina mettono in dissesto le Università inglesi.

Conoscere e capire la Cina. Test di ammissione in seconda elementare.

* * * * * * *

Università. Rank mondiale. Irrompono le cinesi e declinano le liberal.

«Irrompono a viva forza le università cinesi nelle top 100.

Peking University, 27°, richiama il 16% di studenti stranieri;

Tsinghua University, 30°, richiama il 9% di studenti stranieri;

University of Hong Kong, 40°, richiama il 42% di studenti stranieri;

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 44°, richiama il 31% di studenti stranieri;

Chinese University of Hong Kong, 58°, richiama il 31% di studenti stranieri

* * * * * * *

I dati dei Rank mondiali sono inequivocabili.

Le università cinesi attirano gli studenti molto di più di quelle americane, che una volta erano posto mitico ed ambito ove andare a studiare.

Non è tempo e luogo per una analisi approfondita, ma almeno un elemento salta immediatamente agli occhi.

«in the U.S., we do not want to have a candid conversation».

«Stati Uniti d’America dove un professore viene licenziato per aver detto che “L’uragano Harvey è la risposta del karma al voto repubblicano del Texas”. Il tutto è avvenuto all’Università di Tampa, il nome del professore di sociologia è quello di Kenneth L. Storey»

Privare l’università della possibilità di esprimere liberamente le proprie opinioni la denatura e la rende solo strumento di azione politica, ossia tutto tranne che ‘università’: logico quindi che gli studenti esteri le evitino.

* * * * * * *


Is the U.S. Losing the War for Global Talent?

International students, particularly those coming from societies and cultures dramatically different from the US, are still not fully prepared for the vastly different academic culture.

* * *

This is one of a series of interviews by Bloomberg Opinion columnists on how to solve the world’s most pressing policy challenges. It has been edited for length and clarity.

Virginia Postrel: You came to the U.S. as a graduate student in psychology in 1992 and worked for many years at the Institute of International Education, as well as other jobs in international education. Your new book, “America Calling,” is a memoir of your own experiences and a report on the general state of foreign students in the U.S. How is the experience of current students different today from when you came? 

Rajika Bhandari, author, “America Calling: A Foreign Student in a Country of Possibility”: Students are quite different in how they’re approaching the idea of a foreign credential. They’re seeing it from the perspective of a very savvy consumer. Should I go to the U.S.? Is that the best return on investment for my family’s money? Or am I going to go to the U.K. or some other country? Students are armed with information in a way that they never were before.

However, there’s a lot that hasn’t changed. First and foremost are the enduring challenges around immigration, which rule the existence of an international student’s life in the U.S. in a way that most people who don’t have to experience it will never fully understand.

The other piece that remains the same is that international students, particularly those coming from societies and cultures dramatically different from the U.S., are still not fully prepared for the vastly different academic culture: the idea of a college classroom as a very open, democratic environment; the idea of really being independent in your learning; the idea that you can and should question your professor because you will actually be assessed on how well you’re able to articulate your ideas and to think critically. That can really be a shock for many students coming from highly traditional Asian cultures, where there are strict hierarchies in the classroom — and God forbid you ever question the professor.

VP: What is the current breakdown between graduate and undergraduate international students?

RB: Until about a decade ago, international students in the U.S. were dominated by those coming to the U.S. to pursue a master’s or Ph.D. Then, with the huge growth in the Chinese middle class, there was this big influx of young Chinese students at the undergraduate level. Over the past few years, we’ve seen more undergraduates coming to the U.S. However, according to some of the statistics for this year, it seems like that gap may be narrowing once again.

One reason is that foreign undergraduates, for the most part, have been full-fee paying students. They’re the ones who really fund the bottom line of U.S. institutions. Yet those are also the ones whose families have really been economically impacted by the pandemic. In many countries, the middle class itself has shrunk. Many families are now rethinking whether they have the resources to pay for their children’s education abroad.

VP: What is it that Americans don’t understand about the experiences of international students?

RB: People don’t often appreciate how important international students have been to the post-1960s history of success of the U.S., from technology to academia to medicine. One of the co-founders of Moderna was an international student. The new CEO of Twitter was an international student. Many Americans know that these individuals are immigrants, but what that journey has been — and why education has been a really critical aspect to that journey — is not well understood.

VP:  There’s a kind of pantomime, enacted by everyone involved, which holds that students come to the U.S. to study and then go back to their home countries. That’s what the student visas are based on. When you came, that was your intention as well. In what ways is that model not realistic?

RB: That question really gets at the heart of why I wrote this book. I felt a growing sense of frustration that in the U.S., we do not want to have a candid conversation about the pathway from higher education to skilled talent and how countries grow their talent pool.

In almost every developed country—look at the U.K. Australia, New Zealand, Germany, many others—the pathway from education to immigration has been omnipresent for a very long time. In the U.S., that’s not the case. If we look at the statistics, 70 to 80 percent of international students continue to stay on in the U.S. after their studies. Yet the flow of international students is still viewed within this framework of “exchange,” this pantomime, as you said earlier, of bilateral exchange. But it’s not an exchange. Many more students are coming than going. The number who come on exchange programs, like the flagship Fulbright Program, is very, very small. Most students who are coming here are individually motivated students funding their way.

One of the biggest challenges is that the F-1 international student visa continues to remain what’s called a “single intent visa,” which means that an undergraduate student at the age of 17 has to stand before a consular affairs officer in their home country and say, “Yes, I’m fairly certain that after four years, I’m coming back.” How can you know? We don’t ask 17-year-olds in the U.S. to know exactly what they’re going to decide four years down the line. I think most students are being honest, stating what they think is the right thing for them. It was true for me. But you evolve and change.

VP: So what reforms to the system what would you propose?

RB: First, remove that single-intent requirement of the student visa. Another issue is that currently, the applied work opportunities that international students have after their studies, through the Optional Practical Training Program, are incredibly fraught. The program was not created by legislation. So it’s like a sword hanging over every international student: Will I be able to pursue this one year of work after studies or not? What’s going to happen?

More generally, we need to smooth that pathway from being a student to joining the workforce. The restrictions and backlogs right now are really significant. It’s an issue of looking at the talent that the U.S. is losing — talent that’s been trained in the U.S.

VP: How does the U.S. immigration system shape the experience of international students while they’re here? How do they have a different experience from a similarly situated American student who might be in the same program with them?

RB: There’s this crippling sense of uncertainty that governs your entire time in the U.S. There are so many immigration rules to abide by, for example, in how much coursework you need to take each semester. Most American students are free to take the semester off, particularly graduate students: “I’ll continue to enroll, but I’m going to go work for two years at the World Bank.” None of that freedom exists for international students. When you’re an international student, everything you do in your program of study is governed by immigration rules.

I say sarcastically in the book that many people have the stereotype that “Oh, international students are brilliant, they finish their doctoral degrees in just five or six years, they’re so smart.” It’s not that they’re smart. They don’t have a choice. There is no option but to keep marching along and to meet those requirements, or you immediately fall out of status and have to head back to your country.

This sense of uncertainty hovers over you as you go through that pathway. It’s an endless process of waiting and not knowing. You’re applying for your Optional Practical Training work permit, and then you’re waiting and waiting, because you don’t know when it’ll come through. Then you might apply for an H1-B work permit. And that comes with its own uncertainties. It’s really something that governs an international student’s entire existence in the way that American students don’t even have to ever think about.

VP: How does that compare to say, the experience in Canada?

RB: The policies in Canada are much friendlier to international students because of that clear understanding that education is a pathway to careers and the workforce.

VP: Many people who want to restrict but not eliminate immigration want to skew it toward highly educated individuals who bring lots of human capital. But I worry about some of the potential side effects of that model. Part of the implicit American social contract—which is not always honored—is that we respect each other as individuals, and especially in the context of work. We respect the person who’s doing a job. We don’t look down on them because it’s a lower-paid job or requires less education. The work itself is worthy of respect. Does taking in lots of privileged people from hierarchical societies like India’s risk eroding the egalitarian relationships of everyday American life? Do people who come from the elite of highly hierarchical societies bring that elite view with them and inject it into daily American life?

RB: That is a fabulous question. And I do not put myself above that. I do think that there’s something special about entering a new society as a student, because you’re like a sponge, and you’re at an age where your values and ideas and beliefs are still being shaped. And so the experience can have a profound and transformative impact on a person. And it definitely did on me.

I realize that I came in with a lot of those ideas that you just laid out, from a society that was very rigidly structured across class lines. I had my own biases and beliefs, whether it was about race and skin color, or the dignity of labor. Being in the U.S. really forced me to confront my own biases, and to evolve and change into being more open in my thinking, and hopefully being a better human being.

And so that’s one thing that I’m imparting to students these days, when they ask me, I want to come to the U.S. and study, how can I succeed? One of my challenges to them is really think about making yourself open to how a society can actually transform you.

VP: How did studying and living in the U.S. help you understand India better?

RB: When you leave your home, and you’re away for sufficient enough period of time, it really gives you that sense of objectivity and the feeling of being an outsider looking in — knowing that society really well, but still being one step removed. For me, those learnings were largely around sexism and my place in the world as a young woman: seeing my homeland and my society for what it is and realizing that that’s not what I wanted for myself, that I wanted something different.

VP:  Even though there are certainly negative experiences in the book, it did make me feel good about the country. It was a positive view of America—not a beautiful fairy tale, but if you want to come here and then you end up staying, there must be something good about the country.

RB:  I’m really happy to hear you say that. What draws people to the U.S.? I say in the book that it’s the country that gave the world Indiana Jones. I wasn’t trying to be flippant — but just to say that there’s this idea of freedom embodied in different ways: freedom of thought, the freedom to pursue one’s aspirations, freedom to reinvent yourself.

VP: You have a great example of your surprise at seeing somebody in the U.S. who had braces as an adult. You see it as a sign of reinventing yourself.

RB:  It’s that freedom, manifested in many different ways, that students also encounter as soon as they arrive here. They are pushed to think in ways they had not experienced before. And I think it’s what really draws people here. It’s still present, despite all of the challenges that the country has had over the past four or five years.

This column does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board or Bloomberg LP and its owners.

Virginia Postrel is a Bloomberg Opinion columnist. She is a visiting fellow at the Smith Institute for Political Economy and Philosophy at Chapman University and the author, most recently, of “The Fabric of Civilization: How Textiles Made the World.”

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina

Cina. Nel 2030 disporrà di oltre mille testate atomiche. Un arsenale offensivo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2022-01-01.

2021-11-15__ China’s Nuclear Development 001

«China is building new nuclear weapons much faster than previously predicted, already has a “nascent nuclear triad,” and will field more than 1,000 nuclear warheads by 2030»

«the accelerating pace of the [People’s Republic of China’s] nuclear expansion may enable [it] to have up to 700 deliverable nuclear warheads by 2027, … [and] at least 1,000 warheads by 2030, exceeding the pace and size»

«In its last report, the Pentagon said China had 200 nuclear warheads and was expected to double that number by the end of the decade»

«China is “developing a first-strike capability.”»

«China’s plan for now is to develop a “credible second-strike” capacity with nuclear weapons»

«According to a State Department disclosure in early October, the U.S. has 3,750 nuclear warheads, down from 3,805 a year earlier and 3,822 in 2018»

«The Pentagon said the People’s Liberation Army Rocket Forces are developing new intercontinental ballistic missiles that will “significantly improve” their overall force, and they will be equipped with multiple independently targeted warheads, necessitating an increase in warhead production»

«China is expanding its inventory of road-mobile DF-26 intermediate-range ballistic missiles, which can strike ground or maritime targets, and in 2020, fielded its first hypersonic weapons system, the DF-17 hypersonic glide vehicle-capable medium-range ballistic missile»

«China has also built up its H-8 bomber force, adding a “nuclear air-launched ballistic missile,” effectively establishing China’s own version of a triad, along with intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles»

«China’s nuclear missile submarine fleet includes six boats, each of which can carry 12 CSS-N-14 (JL-2) sea-launched ballistic missiles»

«The H-6N can carry six land-attack cruise missiles with a range allowing it to hit targets “in the second island chain” from airfields in the mainland»

2021-11-15__ China’s Nuclear Development 002

* * * * * * * *

Armamenti Nucleari. È in atto una corsa al riarmo per la prossima guerra.

Cina. Mica solo armamenti nuovi di zecca.

Cina. Starebbe (potrebbe) trasferendo armamenti atomici nelle isole artificiali.

Cina. Gli Usa sono indifesi rispetto ai missili ipersonici suborbitali. – Generale Milley.

Cina. I lanciatori dei missili ipersonici DF-17 sono diventati stealth.

Cina. Testato un missile atomico ipersonico suborbitale. Usa colti di sorpresa.

Biden dice di essere ‘preoccupato’ dei missili ipersonici cinesi e russi. La prossima guerra.

Missili a 6 volte la velocità del suono, testati in Cina nuovi velivoli ipersonici

* * *

A quanto sarebbe dato di sapere, la Cina ha un problema di breve termine che si embrica su quello a medio-lungo termine.

L’obiettivo immediato sarebbe il poter disporre di una forza dissuasiva credibile, che possa scoraggiare un attacco esterno.

L’obiettivo di medio-lungo termine sembrerebbe consistere nel poter disporre di una credibile ed efficiente forza nucleare di attacco.

* * * * * * * *


China’s Nuclear Development Outstrips Predictions; 1,000 Warheads by 2030.

China is building new nuclear weapons much faster than previously predicted, already has a “nascent nuclear triad,” and will field more than 1,000 nuclear warheads by 2030, according to the Pentagon’s 2021 report on China’s military power, released Nov. 3.  

According to a Pentagon briefing paper highlighting changes from the 2020 edition of the report, “the accelerating pace of the [People’s Republic of China’s] nuclear expansion may enable [it] to have up to 700 deliverable nuclear warheads by 2027, … [and] at least 1,000 warheads by 2030, exceeding the pace and size” that the Defense Department previously projected. China is also shifting to a “launch on warning” posture for its nuclear weapons.

In its last report, the Pentagon said China had 200 nuclear warheads and was expected to double that number by the end of the decade, indicating nearly a trebling of its deployment pace in the coming years. Moreover, the new document only captures developments up to December 2020, and its 2021 release was about two months late, the Pentagon said. The pace may have accelerated even further since.

Air Force Secretary Frank Kendall, speaking at AFA’s Air, Space & Cyber Conference in September, foreshadowed the report, saying that, in his view, China is “developing a first-strike capability.”

The Pentagon was not as alarming, saying China’s plan for now is to develop a “credible second-strike” capacity with nuclear weapons, meaning enough could survive a first strike by the U.S. to retaliate with “multiple rounds of counterstrike, deterring an adversary with the threat of unacceptable damage.”

Even at 1,000 nuclear weapons, though, China will not have achieved parity with the U.S. in terms of warheads, according to a senior defense official who briefed reporters ahead of the report’s release.

According to a State Department disclosure in early October, the U.S. has 3,750 nuclear warheads, down from 3,805 a year earlier and 3,822 in 2018. The U.S. inventory has declined due to the decay of the warheads’ plutonium cores and a replacement pace that doesn’t keep up with retirements.

The Pentagon said the People’s Liberation Army Rocket Forces are developing new intercontinental ballistic missiles that will “significantly improve” their overall force, and they will be equipped with multiple independently targeted warheads, necessitating an increase in warhead production.

China is expanding its “capacity to produce and separate plutonium by constructing faster breeder reactors and reprocessing facilities,” the report said.

The PLARF “has commenced building at least three new solid-fueled ICBM silo fields, which will cumulatively contain hundreds of new ICBM silos,” the report noted. Concurrently, China is expanding its inventory of road-mobile DF-26 intermediate-range ballistic missiles, which can strike ground or maritime targets, and in 2020, fielded “its first hypersonic weapons system, the DF-17 hypersonic glide vehicle-capable medium-range ballistic missile.”

In August, China tested a globe-circling hypersonic weapon, which may have been the DF-17.

China has also built up its H-8 bomber force, adding a “nuclear air-launched ballistic missile,” effectively establishing China’s own version of a triad, along with intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

The PRC also plans to “increase the peacetime readiness of its nuclear forces by moving to a launch-on-warning (LOW) posture with an expanded silo-based force,” the paper said.

There “clearly has been a change” in China’s approach to nuclear weapons, the defense official said. Besides diversifying its nuclear arsenal, China is also expanding the underlying infrastructure needed to make warheads and connect its weapons with a command and control network, he said.

“The nuclear expansion the PRC is undertaking is certainly very concerning to us,” the official asserted. It “raises some questions … They haven’t really explained why they’re doing it, [and] … we’d like to have more insight into their intentions.”

Compared to China’s historic stockpiles, “they’re moving in a direction that substantially exceeds where they’ve been before in numbers and capabilities,” the official said. This “reinforces the importance of pursuing some practical measures for risk reduction.” While China has a “no first use” of nuclear weapons policy, it is “suggesting in some of their professional military writings that maybe that wouldn’t apply” in all circumstances, the official said. Given that, and the shift to a launch-on-warning posture, “That just makes it more important that responsible powers that seek those capabilities … need to have discussions with each other,” he said.

The official declined to say more because the Nuclear Posture Review is ongoing, and the issue of China’s growing nuclear force will be dealt with in the resulting document.

The U.S. has urged China in recent years to participate in joint strategic arms talks with the U.S. and Russia, but China has declined, saying it is not interested. China is signatory to no nuclear arms agreements or protocols.

The report said China fields about 100 ICBMs in different basing modes, including roll-out and road-mobile missiles. It “appears to be doubling the numbers of launchers in some ICBM units.” The PLA is developing a “DF-5C and may be developing a DF-32 ICBM.”

China’s nuclear missile submarine fleet includes six boats, each of which can carry 12 CSS-N-14 (JL-2) sea-launched ballistic missiles. The next generation of SSBN submarine likely goes into production “in the early 2020s.” The new model will likely also have upgraded missiles.

The People’s Liberation Army Air Forces have operationally fielded the H-6N bomber—a derivative of Russia’s Tu-16 Badger bomber—“providing a platform for the air component” of China’s nascent triad. The H-6N force is developing tactics and the aircraft is equipped with an air-refueling probe. It also has a recessed space in the fuselage likely meant “for external carriage of an ALBM believed to be nuclear capable.”

The H-6N can carry six land-attack cruise missiles with a range allowing it to hit targets “in the second island chain” from airfields in the mainland. The H-6K is being equipped with YJ-12 anti-ship cruise missiles to hit targets in the same range, “significantly extending” the Chinese Navy’s reach.

The PLAAF “is also developing new medium- and long-range stealth bombers to strike regional and global targets,” the report said. While this was publicly announced in 2016, “it may take more than a decade to develop this type of advanced bomber,” the Pentagon said.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Materie Prime

Carbone. Nov21. Mercati Internazionali e quelli europei. La Cina determina i prezzi.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-12-09.

2021-12-08__ Coald 001

«The powerful National Development and Reform Commission proposed to set 2022 annual thermal coal prices at 550 yuan to 850 yuan ($86 to $133) a tonne»

“La potente Commissione Nazionale per lo Sviluppo e la Riforma ha proposto di fissare i prezzi annuali del carbone termico per il 2022 da 550 a 850 yuan (da 86 a 133 dollari) a tonnellata”

* * * * * * *

«Well-below average temperatures across Europe saw daily power prices rise above 200 euros in most major markets for Monday, as the increased demand boost dependence on expensive fossil-fuel plants»

«With temperatures in the north of Sweden dropping below -40 Celsius prices in the Nordic regions climbed to the second highest level on record 226.54 euros per megawatt-hour for Monday on Nord Pool»

«To shore up the balance in the grid, an oil-fired reserve plant was also started in Sweden»

«In Poland prices jumped 69% to 240.59 euros, highest levels since day-ahead auction for that market started on Nord Pool in February this year»

«Prices in Germany rose to 265.39 euros and in France to 282.50 euros, near the highs from earlier this autumn. »

«With European carbon prices trading within 10 cents of record above 80 euros per ton reached last week, benchmark gas and coal prices elevated by low storage levels, generating power at fossil-fueled plants remains very expensive»

«The first 240-t mining dump trucks have started work at JSC Siberian Anthracite»

«Two cars have already entered the line, six more are planned to be launched by the end of 2021, 10 units of equipment – by the end of 1Q22»

«After the launch of all 18 dump trucks, the increase in overburden volume will be 1.5 million m3 or 50 000 m3/d»

«China’s November coal imports at highest in 2021 …. Nov coal imports at 35.05 mln T, vs 26.94 mln T in Oct …. Chinese mines capped prices»

«Chinese coal traders, however, were forced to sell cargoes at losses or tried to delay imports after market intervention triggered a 50% price drop that saddled them with unprofitable supplies»

«November’s arrivals were also far higher than the 11.67 million tonnes brought in a year earlier»

«Imports in the first 11 months of the year were 292.32 million tonnes, up 10.6% year-on-year»

«China’s coal output has soared to record daily levels after Beijing ordered miners to boost production immediately to cool prices and plug a power shortage»

«Meanwhile, the amount of coal stored by power plants in the country reached 147 million tonnes as of Nov. 24»

«Last Friday, the powerful National Development and Reform Commission proposed to set 2022 annual thermal coal prices at 550 yuan to 850 yuan ($86 to $133) a tonne»

* * * * * * *

Si voglia o meno, sia cosa gradita o meno, è la Cina che determina i prezzi del carbone.

* * * * * * *


JSC Siberian Anthracite purchases dump trucks.

The first 240-t mining dump trucks have started work at JSC Siberian Anthracite.

Two cars have already entered the line, six more are planned to be launched by the end of 2021, 10 units of equipment – by the end of 1Q22.

The purchase of high-performance mining dump trucks is carried out as part of a programme to increase production and expand the fleet of heavy equipment. The group’s investments in the acquisition of new equipment exceeded RUB 5 billion. The use of new machines will improve the level of industrial safety and have a positive impact on the environmental situation.

The new mining dump trucks optimally combine increased payload capacity and high technical performance. They have been significantly upgraded in comparison with 220-t vehicles: engine power increased by 200 hp, body volume increased by 10%.

The trucks are fuel efficient and stable on the road, equipped with electronically controlled diesel engines, which provide high power and stable performance. An AC-AC electric drive was chosen as the transmission, which increases the reliability of the dump truck, reduces the cost of the life cycle and 1 t-km of transportation. There is a mini-computer on board that controls all parameters and gives signals in case of failure. The equipment is equipped with automatic fire extinguishing systems and an alarm device about approaching a high-voltage line.

According to Artur Ziyazitdinov, Head of the Department of Motor Transport of Siberian Anthracite JSC, the new equipment will increase the volume of coal production.

“After the launch of all 18 dump trucks, the increase in overburden volume will be 1.5 million m3 or 50 000 m3/d. By increasing the volume of overburden transportation, we will be able to talk about a further increase in coal production.”

At present, approximately 100 dump trucks transporting overburden run on the ‘Siberian Anthracite’ daily.

* * *


China’s November coal imports at highest in 2021.

– Nov coal imports at 35.05 mln T, vs 26.94 mln T in Oct

– Some Australian coal at ports granted customs clearance

– Chinese mines capped prices, domestic inventory at highs

* * *

Beijing, Dec 7 (Reuters) – China’s coal imports hit their highest level of 2021 in November, as the world’s biggest consumer of the dirty fuel scrambled to feed its power system as the winter heating season kicked in.

The country brought in 35.05 million tonnes of coal last month, up from 26.94 million tonnes in October, data from the General Administration of Customs showed on Tuesday.

Chinese coal traders, however, were forced to sell cargoes at losses or tried to delay imports after market intervention triggered a 50% price drop that saddled them with unprofitable supplies.  

Chinese authorities since October have also allowed some Australian coal, which had piled up at ports for almost a year due to political tensions between Beijing and Canberra, to pass customs clearance.

Customs data showed that 777,915 tonnes of Australian coking coal was cleared in October.

But China has not lifted an unofficial imports ban on Australian coal, traders said.

November’s arrivals were also far higher than the 11.67 million tonnes brought in a year earlier during a broad curb on coal imports.

Imports in the first 11 months of the year were 292.32 million tonnes, up 10.6% year-on-year, customs data showed.

China’s coal output has soared to record daily levels after Beijing ordered miners to boost production immediately to cool prices and plug a power shortage.

Some coal mines at major Chinese mining regions such as Inner Mongolia and Shanxi have voluntarily capped ex-pit prices in response to Beijing’s call to stabilise the market.

Meanwhile, the amount of coal stored by power plants in the country reached 147 million tonnes as of Nov. 24 and may hit an all-time high by the end of the month.  

Last Friday, the powerful National Development and Reform Commission proposed to set 2022 annual thermal coal prices at 550 yuan to 850 yuan ($86 to $133) a tonne, and has told miners and power plants to maximise signing up next year’s supplies via term contracts, Chinese media reported.

* * *


European Power Prices Climbs in Freezing Cold Weather This Week.

Well-below average temperatures across Europe saw daily power prices rise above 200 euros in most major markets for Monday, as the increased demand boost dependence on expensive fossil-fuel plants.

With temperatures in the north of Sweden dropping below -40 Celsius prices in the Nordic regions climbed to the second highest level on record 226.54 euros per megawatt-hour for Monday on Nord Pool. To shore up the balance in the grid, an oil-fired reserve plant was also started in Sweden. 

In Poland prices jumped 69% to 240.59 euros, highest levels since day-ahead auction for that market started on Nord Pool in February this year. Prices in Germany rose to 265.39 euros and in France to 282.50 euros, near the highs from earlier this autumn. 

With European carbon prices trading within 10 cents of record above 80 euros per ton reached last week, benchmark gas and coal prices elevated by low storage levels, generating power at fossil-fueled plants remains very expensive. It leaves power market exposed very high prices during spells of cold and windless weather. 

“European power prices are therefore expected to remain very high in December,” Andy Sommer, head of fundamental analysis & modeling at Axpo Solutions AG, said in emailed note. “Weather in the coming weeks, France’s nuclear plant performance, Russia’s daily gas deliveries and China’s coal policy, are all going to determine if prices rise even higher”

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Materie Prime, Stati Uniti

Usa. Joe Biden rilascia 50 milioni barili dalle riserve strategiche. Benzina a 6 Usd a gallone.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-11-26.

2021-11-25__ US Gasoline 001

«President Joe Biden has ordered the release of 50 million barrels of oil from America’s strategic reserve»

* * * * * * *

«When President Joe Biden ordered the release of 50 million barrels of oil from America’s strategic reserve to help reduce energy costs, he was taking aim at a growing burden for millions of Americans embarking on Thanksgiving travel»

«The step announced Tuesday, done in a rare coordination with several other nations, is among the few things a presidential administration can do to try to lessen the squeeze — and the political threat — of rising inflation»

«→→ The likelihood of providing meaningful relief in the near future, however, is probably low ←←»

* * *

«America’s Strategic Petroleum Reserve holds about 605 million barrels of oil in underground salt caverns in Texas and Louisiana»

«Now the U.S exports more oil than it imports»

«There’s a limit to how much can be released at once. In the past the government has released about 1 million barrels per day. At that rate, the promised influx of 50 million barrels of crude could last about two months»

«The idea is that by putting more oil on the market, prices will fall. That hasn’t happened yet»

«The OPEC oil cartel and its allies will be meeting in about a week to decide whether to increase production or to hold back, a strategy the group often employs to boost prices»

«The coalition Biden assembled — bringing together India, China, Japan, South Korea and the U.K. to tap their strategic oil reserves — is unprecedented»

«Altogether, the group could be adding 70 million to 80 million barrels of oil onto the market»

«OPEC and its allies have oil reserves that can last for decades»

«What many consumers want to know is what’s going to happen to gasoline prices at the pump»

«Really, what we’re talking about are the most price-sensitive consumers in the economy, ….  They may not show up in GDP numbers or recessions, but they show up in vote counts as marginal voters, who may or may not respond in the next election cycle, and I think if we get down to it that’s really what this is about»

«The oil and gas industry employs more than 10 million people in the U.S. and contributes about 8% of the nation’s gross domestic product»

«Companies that supply oil benefit from higher prices. But consumers don’t like it when those higher prices trickle down to the pump»

«It’s the tension between aspirations to decarbonize and the practical concern to have low gasoline prices»

* * * * * * *

Usa. Midterm. Nei sondaggi i Repubblicani superano i Democratici per 13 punti.

Usa. Il 58% degli Elettori ritiene che i media siano ‘nemici del popolo’.

California. Benzina. Prezzo alla pompa 4.682 dollari per gallone.

Usa. Midterm. Biden potrebbe perdere sia Congresso sia Senato. – Abc Poll.

Il costo della benzina alla pompa sfiora adesso i sei dollari al gallone. Ben lontani i tempi nei quali costava cinquanta centesimi. Più passa il tempo e maggiore è la sorda rabbia del Contribuente americano.

* * *


EXPLAINER: What is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve?

President Joe Biden has ordered the release of 50 million barrels of oil from America’s strategic reserve.

* * *

New York — When President Joe Biden ordered the release of 50 million barrels of oil from America’s strategic reserve to help reduce energy costs, he was taking aim at a growing burden for millions of Americans embarking on Thanksgiving travel.

The step announced Tuesday, done in a rare coordination with several other nations, is among the few things a presidential administration can do to try to lessen the squeeze — and the political threat — of rising inflation. The likelihood of providing meaningful relief in the near future, however, is probably low. Still, any help in easing fuel prices, even modestly, would be welcomed by many Americans.

Here is a look at what’s involved:

———

                         JUST WHAT IS THE PETROLEUM RESERVE?

America’s Strategic Petroleum Reserve holds about 605 million barrels of oil in underground salt caverns in Texas and Louisiana. It was created following the 1970s Arab oil embargo to store oil that could be tapped in an emergency. But the dynamics of the global oil industry changed dramatically in recent years: Now the U.S exports more oil than it imports.

There’s a limit to how much can be released at once. In the past the government has released about 1 million barrels per day. At that rate, the promised influx of 50 million barrels of crude could last about two months.

———

                         WHY DID BIDEN TAP THE RESERVE?

The idea is that by putting more oil on the market, prices will fall. That hasn’t happened yet. But depending on what happens in the rest of the world, there’s still a chance it could work.

Oil prices rose slightly after the announcement. Traders were anticipating the news, and may have been underwhelmed by the details, said Claudio Galimberti, senior vice president for oil markets at Rystad Energy.

“The immediate price reaction is not the final judgment on the effectiveness of this effort,” said Jim Burkhard, vice president at IHS Markit. “It will really be in the months ahead.”

Whether the move is effective depends on several factors.

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                         WHAT ABOUT OPEC?

The OPEC oil cartel and its allies will be meeting in about a week to decide whether to increase production or to hold back, a strategy the group often employs to boost prices. Earlier this month, Biden had hoped OPEC nations, led by Saudi Arabia, would agree to significantly boost production. But they only made modest increases.

If OPEC decides next week that it wants higher prices, its members could take oil off the market. “Just overnight, they could just offset it,” Burkhard said. “So that’s a big question mark, is how they react to this.”

The coalition Biden assembled — bringing together India, China, Japan, South Korea and the U.K. to tap their strategic oil reserves — is unprecedented, Galimberti said. Altogether, the group could be adding 70 million to 80 million barrels of oil onto the market, he estimates.

“It’s kind of a coalition of oil importers,” he added. “But can they really supplant, or can they really represent a rival to OPEC-plus? The answer is absolutely not.” That’s because the group of importers are using their strategic petroleum reserves, which are limited. On the other hand, OPEC and its allies have oil reserves that can last for decades. “So there is no comparison between the two,” Galimberti said.

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                         WILL GASOLINE GET CHEAPER?

What many consumers want to know is what’s going to happen to gasoline prices at the pump. Many factors go into the price of gasoline. Refineries buy crude oil in advance, so they’re still working with more expensive oil, and states have differing tax rates that impact the price. Nevertheless, if OPEC doesn’t respond by curtailing production, the influx of oil could lead to a gasoline price decrease of 10 cents to 15 cents per gallon, said Kevin Book, managing director at Clearview Energy Partners. Even if the price drop doesn’t happen, Biden can make the case that he tried.

“Really, what we’re talking about are the most price-sensitive consumers in the economy,” Book said. “They may not show up in GDP numbers or recessions, but they show up in vote counts as marginal voters, who may or may not respond in the next election cycle, and I think if we get down to it that’s really what this is about.”

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                         WHY DOES OIL MATTER?

The future of oil and gas in the U.S. is a political flashpoint and source of tension, especially as companies and government agencies grapple with climate change and the transition to cleaner sources of energy.

On the one hand, the U.S. oil and gas industry has been praised by some political leaders for creating energy independence. Where the U.S. once relied heavily on imports, other nations now rely on the U.S. for oil. It’s also a job supplier: The oil and gas industry employs more than 10 million people in the U.S. and contributes about 8% of the nation’s gross domestic product, according to the American Petroleum Institute. Any impact resulting from Biden’s release of oil from the strategic reserves “is likely to be short-lived unless it is paired with policy measures that encourage the production of American energy resources,” the API said in a statement.

Companies that supply oil benefit from higher prices. But consumers don’t like it when those higher prices trickle down to the pump.

“The broader drama is this new variable in the oil market: It’s the tension between aspirations to decarbonize and the practical concern to have low gasoline prices,” Burkhard said. “And there there’s a conflict between those two forces. And that’s why we’re going to continue to see dislocations between demand and supply.”