Pubblicato in: Cina, Economia e Produzione Industriale

Cina. 2021Q1-Q2-Q3. Situazione del sistema economico ragionevolmente buona.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-10-21.

Cina. The_Great_Hall_of_the_People

                         In sintesi.

Cina. Sept21. Vendite al dettaglio in Cina negli ultimi 12 mesi+16.37%

Cina. Sept21. Investimenti in fixed assets Annuale+7.3%

Cina. Sept21. Pil, Prodotto Interno Lordo, Annual2 +4.9%.

Cina. Sept21. Pil, Prodotto Interno Lordo, ultimi 12 mesi 9.8%.

Cina. Sept21. Produzione Industriale Annuale +3.1%.

Cina. Sept21. Produzione industriale cinese annuale, degli ultimi 12 mesi +11.8%.

Cina. Sept21. Produzione Industriale Profitti +49.5%.

Cina. Sept21. Vendite al dettaglio, Annuale +4.4%.

Cina. Sept21. Vendite al dettaglio, ultimi 12 mesi +16.37%.

Cina. Sept21. Imports 17.6%

Cina. Sept21. Exports 28.1%.

Cina. Sept21. Saldo della bilancia commerciale 66.76 miliardi Usd.

Cina. Sept21. Tasso di disoccupazione 4.9%.

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«As a result, the national economy sustained its recovery and development with all major macro economic indicators falling in the reasonable range»

La situazione economica cinese apparirebbe essere ragionevolmente solida ed in costante crescita, nonostante il fatto che quasi tutto il mondo versi in una situazione di stagflazione che i prezzi delle materie prime siano in costante crescita, specie quelle energetiche, e che la catena degli approvvigionamenti presenti vistose incrinature.

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National Bureau of Statistics of China. The Overall National Economy Maintained the Recovery Momentum in the First Three Quarters.

In the first three quarters, faced with complicated and severe environment both at home and abroad, under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, all regions and departments strictly implemented the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, coordinated both the epidemic prevention and control and the economic and social development in a scientific manner, enhanced cross-cyclical adjustment of macro policies and effectively responded to multiple tests of epidemic and floods. As a result, the national economy sustained its recovery and development with all major macro economic indicators falling in the reasonable range. The overall social situation was harmonious and stable with generally stable employment, increased residents’ income, balanced international payments, adjusted and optimized economic structure and steadily improved quality and efficiency.

According to the preliminary estimates, the gross domestic product (GDP) in the first three quarters reached 82,313.1 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 9.8 percent at comparable prices, with an average two-year growth of 5.2 percent, 0.1 percentage point lower than the average two-year growth of the first half year. By quarter, the GDP for the first quarter increased by 18.3 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 5.0 percent; for the second quarter 7.9 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 5.5 percent; and for the third quarter 4.9 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 4.9 percent. By industry, for the first three quarters, the value added of the primary industry was 5,143.0 billion yuan, up by 7.4 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 4.8 percent; that of the secondary industry was 32,094.0 billion yuan, up by 10.6 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 5.7 percent; and that of the tertiary industry was 45,076.1 billion yuan, up by 9.5 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 4.9 percent. The quarter-on-quarter GDP for the third quarter increased by 0.2 percent.

  1. Agricultural Production Showed Good Momentum and Production of Animal Husbandry Grew Fast.

In the first three quarters, the value added of agriculture (crop farming) went up by 3.4 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 3.6 percent. The total output of summer grain and early rice totaled 173.84 million tons (347.7 billion jin), 3.69 million tons (7.4 billion jin) higher than that of last year, up by 2.2 percent. The sown area for autumn grain was stable with an increase. Of the total, the sown area for corn increased considerably; major crops for autumn grain grew well and another bumper harvest is expected for the year. In the first three quarters, the output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry was 64.28 million tons, up by 22.4 percent year on year. Specifically, the output of pork, beef, mutton and poultry was up by 38.0 percent, 5.3 percent, 3.9 percent and 3.8 percent year on year respectively; that of milk went up by 8.0 percent year on year and eggs down by 2.4 percent. At the end of the third quarter, the number of pigs registered in stock was 437.64 million, up by 18.2 percent year on year, among which 44.59 million were breeding sows, up by 16.7 percent.

  1. Industrial Production Continued to Grow and Business Efficiency Improved Steadily.

In the first three quarters, the total value added of industrial enterprises above the designated size grew by 11.8 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 6.4 percent. In September, the total value added of industrial enterprises above the designated size increased by 3.1 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 5.0 percent; or up by 0.05 percent month on month. In terms of sectors, in the first three quarters, the value added of mining increased by 4.7 percent year on year; that of manufacturing increased by 12.5 percent; and the production and supply of electricity, thermal power, gas and water increased by 12.0 percent. The value added of high-tech manufacturing went up by 20.1 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 12.8 percent. In terms of products, the production of new-energy automobiles, industrial robots and integrated circuits increased by 172.5 percent, 57.8 percent and 43.1 percent year on year respectively, with the average two-year growths all exceeding 28 percent. An analysis by types of ownership showed that in the first three quarters, the value added of state holding enterprises was up by 9.6 percent year on year; that of share-holding enterprises up by 12.0 percent; that of enterprises funded by foreign investors or investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan up by 11.6 percent; and that of private enterprises up by 13.1 percent. In September, the Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) stood at 49.6 percent, of which the PMI of high-tech manufacturing was 54.0 percent, 0.3 percentage point higher than that of last month; the Production and Operation Expectation Index was 56.4 percent.

In the first eight months, the total profits made by industrial enterprises above the designated size totaled 5,605.1 billion yuan, up by 49.5 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 19.5 percent; the profit rate of the business revenue of industrial enterprises above the designated size was 7.01 percent, 1.20 percentage points higher than last year.

  1. Service Sector Recovered Steadily and Modern Service Industries Grew Well.

 The first three quarters witnessed a steady recovery of the tertiary industry. Specifically, in the first three quarters, the value added of information transmission, software and information technology services and transportation, storage and postal services increased by 19.3 percent and 15.3 percent year on year respectively, with an average two-year growth of 17.6 percent and 6.2 percent respectively. In September, the Index of Services Production grew by 5.2 percent year on year, 0.4 percentage point higher than that in August; or an average two-year growth of 5.3 percent, 0.9 percentage point higher. In the first eight months, the business revenue of service enterprises above the designated size grew by 25.6 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 10.7 percent.

In September, the Business Activity Index for Services stood at 52.4 percent, 7.2 percentage points higher than that in August. Specifically, the Business Activity Index for railway transportation, air transportation, accommodation, catering, ecological protection and environment treatment, those hit hard by the epidemic and flood in August, all rebounded significantly to the level above the threshold. From the perspective of market expectation, the Business Activity Expectation Index for services stood at 58.9 percent, 1.6 percentage points higher than that of last month. Of the total, the Business Activity Expectation Index for sectors like railway transportation, air transportation and express mail service exceeds 65.0 percent.

  1. Market Sales Continued to Grow with Sales of Upgraded Goods and Basic Living Goods Increasing Fast.

In the first three quarter, the total retail sales of consumer goods reached 31,805.7 billion yuan, up by 16.4 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 3.9 percent. In September, the total retail sales of consumer goods was 3,683.3 billion yuan, up by 4.4 percent year on year, 1.9 percentage points higher than that in August; an average two-year growth of 3.8 percent, 2.3 percentage points higher than that in August; the month-on-month growth was 0.30 percent. Analyzed by different areas, for the first three quarters, the retail sales of consumer goods in urban areas reached 27,588.8 billion yuan, up by 16.5 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 3.9 percent; and that in rural areas rose by 15.6 percent year on year to 4,216.9 billion yuan, with an average two-year growth of 3.8 percent. Grouped by consumption patterns, for the first three quarters, the retail sales of goods were 28,530.7 billion yuan, up by 15.0 percent year on year, or an average two-year growth of 4.5 percent; and the revenue of catering was 3,275.0 billion yuan, up by 29.8 percent year on year, or an average two-year decline of 0.6 percent. Grouped by categories, the retail sales of gold, silver and jewelry, sports and recreational articles, cultural and office supplies and other upgraded consumer goods by enterprises above the designated size went up by 41.6 percent, 28.6 percent and 21.7 percent year on year respectively; that of basic goods like beverage, clothes, shoes, hats, and textiles and daily necessities went up by 23.4 percent, 20.6 percent and 16.0 percent year on year respectively. The online retail sales of the first three quarters reached 9,187.1 billion yuan, up by 18.5 percent year on year. Specifically, the online retail sales of physical goods totaled 7,504.2 billion yuan, up by 15.2 percent year on year, accounting for 23.6 percent of the total retail sales of consumer goods.

  1. Investment in Fixed Assets Scaled up and Investment in High-tech Industries and Social Sector Grew Fast.

In the first three quarters, the investment in fixed assets (excluding rural households) reached 39,782.7 billion yuan, up by 7.3 percent over that of last year, with an average two-year growth of 3.8 percent; the month-on-month growth in September was 0.17 percent. Specifically, the investment in infrastructure in the first three quarters was up by 1.5 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 0.4 percent;manufacturing up by 14.8 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 3.3 percent; and real estate development up by 8.8 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 7.2 percent. The floor space of commercial buildings sold reached 1,303.32 million square meters, up by 11.3 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 4.6 percent. The total sales of commercial buildings were 13,479.5 billion yuan, up by 16.6 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 10.0 percent. By industries, in the first three quarters, the investment in the primary industry went up by 14.0 percent year on year; that in the secondary industry up by 12.2 percent year on year; and that in the tertiary industry grew by 5.0 percent year on year. The private investment went up by 9.8 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 3.7 percent. The investment in high-tech industries grew by 18.7 percent year on year, an average two-year growth of 13.8 percent. Specifically, the investment in high-tech manufacturing and high-tech services grew by 25.4 percent and 6.6 percent year on year respectively. In terms of high-tech manufacturing, the investment in manufacturing of computers and office devices and in manufacturing of aerospace vehicle and equipment grew by 40.8 percent and 38.5 percent year on year respectively. In terms of high-tech services, the investment in E-commerce services and in testing services went up by 43.8 percent and 23.7 percent year on year respectively. The investment in social sectors went up by 11.8 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 10.5 percent. Specifically, the investment in health and education went up by 31.4 percent and 10.4 percent year on year respectively.

  1. Imports and Exports of Goods Grew Fast and Trade Structure Continued to Improve.

In the first three quarters, the total value of imports and exports of goods was 28,326.4 billion yuan, up by 22.7 percent year on year. Specifically, the value of exports was 15,547.7 billion yuan, up by 22.7 percent and the value of imports was 12,778.7 billion yuan, up by 22.6 percent. The trade balance was 2,769.1 billion yuan in surplus. In September, the total value of imports and exports of goods was 3,532.9 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 15.4 percent. Specifically, the value of exports was 1,983.0 billion yuan, up by 19.9 percent; that of imports was 1,549.8 billion yuan, up by 10.1 percent. In the first three quarters, the exports of mechanical and electrical products grew by 23 percent year on year, 0.3 percentage point higher than the overall export growth rate, accounting for 58.8 percent of the total value of exports. The imports and exports of general trade accounted for 61.8 percent of the total value of imports and exports, 1.4 percentage points higher than the same period last year. The imports and exports by private enterprises grew by 28.5 percent year on year, accounting for 48.2 percent of the total value of imports and exports.

  1. Consumer Price Went up Mildly and Increase of Producer Prices for Industrial Products Expanded.

In the first three quarters, the consumer price (CPI) went up by 0.6 percent year on year, 0.1 percentage point higher than that in the first half of this year. Specifically, in September, the consumer price went up by 0.7 percent year on year, 0.1 percentage point lower than that in August; the same as August month on month. In the first three quarters, the consumer price rose by 0.7 percent in urban areas and up by 0.4 percent in rural areas. Grouped by commodity categories, in the first three quarters, prices for food, tobacco and alcohol went down by 0.5 percent year on year; clothing up by 0.2 percent; housing up by 0.6 percent; articles and services for daily use up by 0.2 percent; transportation and communication up by 3.3 percent; education, culture and recreation up by 1.6 percent; medical services and health care up by 0.3 percent; other articles and services down by 1.6 percent. Among the prices for food, tobacco and alcohol, the prices for pork went down by 28.0 percent, grain up by 1.0 percent, fresh vegetables up by 1.3 percent and fresh fruits up by 2.7 percent. Core CPI of the first three quarters excluding the price of food and energy went up by 0.7 percent, an increase expanded by 0.3 percentage point compared with that of the first half of this year.

In the first three quarters, the producer prices for industrial products went up by 6.7 percent, an increase expanded by 1.6 percentage points than that of the first half of this year. Specifically, the prices in September went up by 10.7 percent year on year, or up by 1.2 percent month on month. In the first three quarters, the purchasing prices for industrial producers went up by 9.3 percent year on year, an increase expanded by 2.2 percentage points than that of the first half of this year. Specifically, the prices in September went up by 14.3 percent, or up by 1.1 percent month on month.

  1. Employment Was Basically Stable and Urban Surveyed Unemployment Rate Was Stable with Moderate Decline.

In the first three quarters, the newly increased employed people in urban areas totaled 10.45 million, achieving 95.0 percent of the annual target. In September, the urban surveyed unemployment rate was 4.9 percent, 0.2 percentage point lower than August and 0.5 percentage point lower than the same period last year. The surveyed unemployment rate of population with local household registration was 5.0 percent and that of population with non-local household registration was 4.8 percent. The surveyed unemployment rates of the population aged from 16 to 24 and from 25 to 59 were 14.6 percent and 4.2 percent respectively. The urban surveyed unemployment rate in 31 major cities was 5.0 percent, 0.3 percentage point lower than August. The employees of enterprises worked 47.8 hours per week on average, up by 0.3 hour compared with that in August. At the end of the third quarter, the number of rural migrant workers totaled 183.03 million, up by 0.7 million compared with that at the end of the second quarter.

  1. Residents’ Income Grew in Tandem with the Economy and Urban-Rural Per Capita Income Ratio Narrowed.

In the first three quarters, the nationwide per capita disposable income of residents was 26,265 yuan, a nominal increase of 10.4 percent year on year, with an average two-year growth of 7.1 percent, or a real increase of 9.7 percent year on year after deducting price factors, with an average two-year growth of 5.1 percent, which was generally at the same pace as the growth of economy. In terms of permanent residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 35,946 yuan, a nominal increase of 9.5 percent year on year and a real increase of 8.7 percent; the per capita disposable income of rural households was 13,726 yuan, a nominal increase of 11.6 percent year on year and a real increase of 11.2 percent. By sources of income, the net income from wages and salary, net business income, net property income and net transfer income saw a year-on-year growth of 10.6 percent, 12.4 percent, 11.4 percent and 7.9 percent in nominal terms respectively. The per capita disposable income of urban households was 2.62 times that of the rural households, 0.05 less than the same period last year. The median of the nationwide per capita disposable income was 22,157 yuan, a nominal increase of 8.0 percent year on year.

Generally speaking, the overall national economy maintained the recovery momentum in the first three quarters with steady progress in economic restructuring and new advancement of high-quality development. However, we must note that the current international environment uncertainties are mounting and the domestic economic recovery is still unstable and uneven. At the next stage, we must take Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guideline, implement the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, adhere to the general working guideline of making progress while maintaining stability, fully and faithfully implement the new development philosophy on all fronts, expedite the building of a new development pattern, carry out the routine epidemic prevention and control, strengthen cross-cyclical adjustment of macro policies, make efforts to promote sustained and healthy economic development, focus on deepening the reform and opening-up and innovation, continuously stimulate market vitality, strengthen development momentum and unleash the potential of domestic demand, so as to maintain the economy operating within the proper range and fulfil the major annual targets and tasks for the economic and social development.

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina

Cina. Testato un missile atomico ipersonico suborbitale. Usa colti di sorpresa.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-10-19.

bomba_atomica_

«La Cina ha provato di recente non un missile ipersonico, ma un veicolo spaziale. Il portavoce del ministero degli Esteri Zhao Lijian, in risposta a quanto riportato ieri dal Financial Times su un sospetto test di agosto che ha sorpreso l’intelligence Usa, ha affermato che la vicenda ha riguardato “una prova di routine di un veicolo spaziale per verificare la tecnologia riutilizzabile del veicolo spaziale. …. la Cina collaborerà con altri Paesi del mondo per l’uso pacifico dello spazio a beneficio dell’umanità» [Fonte]

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Per apprezzare questo scritto, sarebbe opportuno leggere con cura l’articolo del Financial Times, ricco di particolari tecnici e di informazioni quanto mai precise e dettagliate. Tutte inventate?

E che dire delle dichiarazioni rese dai funzionari dell’Intelligence americana? Tutte allucinazioni?

Una unica considerazione.

Mr Zhao Lijian è un oscuro portavoce del ministero degli Esteri.

Ci si domanda come si sia avuto l’ardire di dire che la Cina stesse testando una diabolica arma da guerra, un Paese che “collaborerà con altri Paesi del mondo per l’uso pacifico dello spazio a beneficio dell’umanità“. Sono dei veri filantropi.

È notorio come i missili cinesi non siano strumenti bellici, bensì modestissimi razzi anti-grandine.

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* * * * * * *


«China tests new space capability with hypersonic missile»

«Launch in August of nuclear-capable rocket that circled the globe took US intelligence by surprise»

«China tested a nuclear-capable hypersonic missile in August that circled the globe before speeding towards its target, demonstrating an advanced space capability that caught US intelligence by surprise»

«The missile missed its target by about two-dozen miles, according to three people briefed on the intelligence»

«→→ The test showed that China had made astounding progress on hypersonic weapons and was far more advanced than US officials realised ←←»

«→→ We have no idea how they did this ←←»

«But they do not follow the fixed parabolic trajectory of a ballistic missile and are manoeuvrable, making them harder to track»

«a hypersonic glide vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead could help China “negate” US missile defence systems which are designed to destroy incoming ballistic missiles»

«Hypersonic glide vehicles . . . fly at lower trajectories and can manoeuvre in flight, which makes them hard to track and destroy»

«Tensions between the US and China have risen as the Biden administration has taken a tough tack on Beijing, which has accused Washington of being overly hostile»

«China had made huge advances, including the “potential for global strikes . . . from space»

«→→ the Chinese test said the weapon could, in theory, fly over the South Pole. That would pose a big challenge for the US military because its missiles defence systems are focused on the northern polar route ←←»

«the weapon was being developed by the China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics»

* * * * * * *

Usa. Biden. La Cnn accusa l’Amministrazione delle femmine di mancanza di ‘competenza’.

Russia. Nuovi o perfezionati missili ipersonici. Kh-47M2 Kinzhal e 3M22 Zircon.

Cina. I lanciatori dei missili ipersonici DF-17 sono diventati stealth.

Russia. Pantsir-S1. Accidenti se funzionano bene questi missili!

Russia. I missili intercontinentali ipersonici Avangard sono operativi.

Cina. Sottomarini atomici e relativi missili. Punto della situazione.

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Nell’immaginario collettivo americano i cinesi starebbero intessendo giunchi per farne canestri da esportare come cineserie, struttura prossima al default, tecnologicamente all’età della pietra e totalmente dipendente dall’occidente per l’alta tecnologia.

Poi, ogni tanto, cozzano con la realtà dei fatti. Questo sistema missilistico è totalmente stato concepito e realizzato in Cina, con tecnologie proprie.

Queste affermazioni sono stupefacenti:

«advanced space capability that caught US intelligence by surprise»

«China had made astounding progress on hypersonic weapons and was far more advanced than US officials realised»

Servizi informativi ‘colti di sorpresa’ sono inutili, per non dire dannosi.

Nella realtà dei fatti i cinesi stanno più che bene e guidano adesso l’alta tecnologia.

Una volta messo a punto, questo sistema missilistico risulterebbe essere non individuabile e non intercettabile da parte della difesa antimissile americana.

Non solo.

Potendo orbitare sul Polo Sud, sarebbe in grado di attaccare gli Stati Uniti bypassando la rete radar di avvistamento, che al momento è quasi totalmente dispiegata a nord. Sarebbe come penetrare nel burro.

Anche gli equilibri atomici stanno mutando molto rapidamente: se ne prenda atto.

* * * * * * *


China tests new space capability with hypersonic missile.

Launch in August of nuclear-capable rocket that circled the globe took US intelligence by surprise.

China tested a nuclear-capable hypersonic missile in August that circled the globe before speeding towards its target, demonstrating an advanced space capability that caught US intelligence by surprise.

Five people familiar with the test said the Chinese military launched a rocket that carried a hypersonic glide vehicle which flew through low-orbit space before cruising down towards its target.

The missile missed its target by about two-dozen miles, according to three people briefed on the intelligence. But two said the test showed that China had made astounding progress on hypersonic weapons and was far more advanced than US officials realised.

The test has raised new questions about why the US often underestimated China’s military modernisation. “We have no idea how they did this,” said a fourth person.

The US, Russia and China are all developing hypersonic weapons, including glide vehicles that are launched into space on a rocket but orbit the earth under their own momentum. They fly at five times the speed of sound, slower than a ballistic missile. But they do not follow the fixed parabolic trajectory of a ballistic missile and are manoeuvrable, making them harder to track.

Taylor Fravel, an expert on Chinese nuclear weapons policy who was unaware of the test, said a hypersonic glide vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead could help China “negate” US missile defence systems which are designed to destroy incoming ballistic missiles.

“Hypersonic glide vehicles . . . fly at lower trajectories and can manoeuvre in flight, which makes them hard to track and destroy,” said Fravel, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Fravel added that it would be “destabilising” if China fully developed and deployed such a weapon, but he cautioned that a test did not necessarily mean that Beijing would deploy the capability.

Mounting concern about China’s nuclear capabilities comes as Beijing continues to build up its conventional military forces and engages in increasingly assertive military activity near Taiwan.

Tensions between the US and China have risen as the Biden administration has taken a tough tack on Beijing, which has accused Washington of being overly hostile.

US military officials in recent months have warned about China’s growing nuclear capabilities, particularly after the release of satellite imagery that showed it was building more than 200 intercontinental missile silos. China is not bound by any arms-control deals and has been unwilling to engage the US in talks about its nuclear arsenal and policy.

Last month, Frank Kendall, US air force secretary, hinted that Beijing was developing a new weapon. He said China had made huge advances, including the “potential for global strikes . . . from space”. He declined to provide details, but suggested that China was developing something akin to the “Fractional Orbital Bombardment System” that the USSR deployed for part of the Cold War, before abandoning it.

“If you use that kind of an approach, you don’t have to use a traditional ICBM trajectory. It’s a way to avoid defences and missile warning systems,” said Kendall.

In August, General Glen VanHerck, head of North American Aerospace Defense Command, told a conference that China had “recently demonstrated very advanced hypersonic glide vehicle capabilities”. He warned that the Chinese capability would “provide significant challenges to my Norad capability to provide threat warning and attack assessment”.

Two of the people familiar with the Chinese test said the weapon could, in theory, fly over the South Pole. That would pose a big challenge for the US military because its missiles defence systems are focused on the northern polar route.

The revelation comes as the Biden administration undertakes the Nuclear Posture Review, an analysis of policy and capabilities mandated by Congress that has pitted arms-control advocates against those who believe the US must do more to modernise its nuclear arsenal because of China.

The Pentagon did not comment on the report but expressed concern about China. “We have made clear our concerns about the military capabilities China continues to pursue, capabilities that only increase tensions in the region and beyond,” said John Kirby, spokesperson. “That is one reason why we hold China as our number one pacing challenge.”

The Chinese embassy declined to comment on the test, but Liu Pengyu, spokesperson, said China always pursued a military policy that was “defensive in nature” and its military development did not target any country.

“We don’t have a global strategy and plans of military operations like the US does. And we are not at all interested in having an arms race with other countries,” Liu said. “In contrast, the US has in recent years been fabricating excuses like ‘the China threat’ to justify its arms expansion and development of hypersonic weapons. This has directly intensified arms race in this category and severely undermined global strategic stability.”

One Asian national security official said the Chinese military conducted the test in August. China generally announces the launch of Long March rockets — the type used to launch the hypersonic glide vehicle into orbit — but it conspicuously concealed the August launch.

The security official, and another Chinese security expert close to the People’s Liberation Army, said the weapon was being developed by the China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics. CAAA is a research institute under China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, the main state-owned firm that makes missile systems and rockets for China’s space programme.

Both sources said the hypersonic glide vehicle was launched on a Long March rocket, which is used for the space programme. The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, which oversees launches, on July 19 said on an official social media account that it had launched a Long March 2C rocket, which it added was the 77th launch of that rocket. On August 24, it announced that it had conducted a 79th flight. But there was no announcement of a 78th launch, which sparked speculation among observers of its space programme about a secret launch. CAAA did not respond to requests for comment.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo

Cina. Silura ed affonda con scherno COP26. Costruirà nuove centrali a carbone e petrolio.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-10-13.

2021-10-13__ Scherno 001

COP26, ‘Glasgow climate summit’ si preannuncia essere un fiasco memorabile

Blocco europeo. Prezzi degli energetici fuori controllo. Stagflazione in casa.

Asia. Trend energetici. Il carbone domina nella produzione di corrente elettrica.

G20. Nessun paese ha adempiuto gli Accordi di Parigi del 2015.

Blocco Europeo. Il +250% del natural gas manda in fumo le ambizioni green.

Coronavirus seppellisce l’EU Green Deal. Riposa con i fu liberal.

Timmermans prende atto che il ‘Clima’ è morto stecchito. Originale il mezzo.

* * * * * * *

«His announcement will cause alarm ahead of the COP26 summit in Glasgow in two weeks, and is a major blow to the UK’s plans for securing a global agreement on phasing out coal»

«China makes a mockery of climate targets as it plans to build more coal power stations and ramp up oil and gas exploration to solve its energy crisis just weeks ahead of COP26 summit»

«Beijing plans to build new coal-fired plants and intensify oil and gas exploration»

«China is making a mockery of climate targets as it announced plans to build more coal-fired power plants and increase oil and gas exploration, just weeks ahead of the COP26 summit where world leaders were expected to agree to ambitious emission cuts»

«Beijing’s National Energy Commission said late Tuesday it is important ‘to build advanced coal-fired power plants’ and intensify domestic oil and gas exploration»

«Li Keqiang, the Chinese premier, also hinted that a pledge to cap carbon emissions by 2030 – which already lags behind commitments made by other major economies – could be torn up»

«His announcement will cause alarm ahead of the COP26 summit in Glasgow in two weeks, and is a major blow to the UK’s plans for securing a global agreement on phasing out coal. »

«His announcement will cause alarm ahead of the COP26 summit in Glasgow in two weeks, and is a major blow to the UK’s plans for securing a global agreement on phasing out coal»

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L’enclave liberal occidentale ha per anni coperto la Cina di ogni sorta di calunnie pretestuose e di pacchiane menzogne.

Negli ultimi tempi ha fatto marcia indietro, ma troppo tardi. I cinesi hanno ottima memoria e sanno essere taglienti peggio dei bisturi.

Cina. Kontrordine Kompagni. I cinesi sono gente santa, morigerata, cui nulla può essere imputato.

Bene. Adesso la Cina contraccambia con gli interessi: silura ed affonda COP26 che tanto sarebbe stata a cuore ai liberal.

E lo fa anche facendosi scherno di loro.

* * * * * * *


China makes a mockery of climate targets as it plans to build more coal power stations and ramp up oil and gas exploration to solve its energy crisis just weeks ahead of COP26 summit.

– Beijing plans to build new coal-fired plants and intensify oil and gas exploration after being hit by blackouts la

– China had committed to capping carbon emissions by 2030 but Premier hinted pledge could be scrapped

– Move will cause alarm ahead of the COP26 summit in Glasgow in two weeks, and is a major blow to the UK’s plans for securing a global agreement on phasing out coal

* * * * * * *

China is making a mockery of climate targets as it announced plans to build more coal-fired power plants and increase oil and gas exploration, just weeks ahead of the COP26 summit where world leaders were expected to agree to ambitious emission cuts.    

Beijing’s National Energy Commission said late Tuesday it is important ‘to build advanced coal-fired power plants’ and intensify domestic oil and gas exploration after the country was hit by blackouts last week and that China would rethink emissions targets.

Li Keqiang, the Chinese premier, also hinted that a pledge to cap carbon emissions by 2030 – which already lags behind commitments made by other major economies – could be torn up. 

His announcement will cause alarm ahead of the COP26 summit in Glasgow in two weeks, and is a major blow to the UK’s plans for securing a global agreement on phasing out coal. 

Amidst a global energy crisis caused as economies reopen post-Covid, China has also ordered its coal mines to raise their annual output capacity to 55.3 million tonnes while India has also ordered its own mines to increase production. 

China is already the world’s largest polluter, with more than 50% of its energy coming from coal, which is considered the most-polluting source.  

The UN has said if global emissions are not cut by 50% by 2030, the climate crisis will lead to further wide-ranging and more destructive natural disasters, such as flood and drought.

But with every passing day, that goal seems to be moving further out of reach – with the boss of a South African coal mine saying today that he sees demand for coal continuing for the next two decades at least.

Beijing had previously committed to hitting peak emissions in 2030 and being carbon neutral by 2060 – a target which would involve the closure of more than 600 coal plants. 

But Chinese Premier Li Keqiang hinted that this commitment may be up for debate as he said Beijing will build more coal-fired plants as China seeks to enhance the ‘capacity for energy self-supply’ and create a ‘modern energy system’.    

Keqiang said: ‘Energy security should be the premise on which a modern energy system is built and the capacity for energy self-supply should be enhanced,’ the Guardian reported.

‘Given the predominant place of coal in the country’s energy and resource endowment, it is important to optimise the layout for the coal production capacity, build advanced coal-fired power plants as appropriate in line with development needs, and continue to phase out outdated coal plants in an orderly fashion. 

‘Domestic oil and gas exploration will be intensified.’  

China has been suffering from widespread power outages that have shut factories and hit production and global supply chains amid a global energy shortage that has seen demand for fossil fuels soar despite the UN warning of the devastating effects.

July Ndlovu, the boss of the South African coal mine Thungela, said the demand for coal production will last for the next two decades.  

Inlovu told Radio 4’s Today programme that while Europe and the US will be at the forefront of the transition from coal toward renewable energies, countries such as China and India – which have far younger fossil fuel infrastructure – will follow much later. 

He said: ‘You can considerably see the US and Europe returning their coal plants earlier and then the rest of the developing economies on the back end of that.

‘Clearly there is uncertainty on how long that will be, but we certainly see demand lasting until into the next decade-and-a-half or even two decades.’

Keqiang added officials want to gather new evidence to rethink a roadmap for reaching peak emissions, with the deadline likely to be extended beyond 2030. 

The premier said he had ordered ‘in-depth studies and calculations in light of the recent handling of electricity and coal supply strains, to put forward a phased timetable and roadmap for peaking carbon emissions.’  

It came after blackouts hit cities across China last week amid a spike in demand for energy around the globe. 

The country was so short on power that cities were hit by blackouts with factories forced to close or else open for just a couple of hours per week.

The crisis, which began biting a fortnight ago, was caused by the cost of coal spiking as the economy reopened post-Covid, meaning power stations were operating at a loss and began to shut down. As a result, China’s imports of coal surged by 76% in September.

Power outages were reported in southern Guangdong province, but are most severe in the north eastern manufacturing hubs of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.

And an additional 16 provinces were forced to ration energy due to a shortage in supply, but avoided full-scale blackouts. 

In response, Shanxi – China’s biggest coal-producing region – ordered its 98 coal mines to raise their annual output capacity by 55.3 million tonnes and allowed 51 coal mines that had hit their maximum annual production levels to keep producing.

In China’s No. 2 coal region, Inner Mongolia, 72 mines were told that they could operate at higher capacities immediately, provided they ensure safe production. 

But incessant rain has flooded 60 mines in Shanxi, as four mines with a combined annual output capacity of 4.8 million tonnes remained shut in the region.

The flooding has worsened the supply outlook, with electricity shortages and rationing expected to continue into early next year.  

Former UK Labour leader Ed Miliband, who now serves as the Shadow Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, said China must ‘step up’ in reducing their emissions but also criticized the UK government for not putting pressure on Beijing to make them act.

Miliband told the Radio 4’s Today Programme: ‘The Chinese need to step up and it is a problem. This is happening because the UK haven’t built the coalition to put the pressure on countries like China to make them step up.  

He added: ‘The Paris Agreement succeeded because we had an alliance of developing and vulnerable countries and developing countries like ours that put maxiumum pressure on the biggest emitters like China. 

‘Now the problem is, because the (UK) government hasn’t had a proper strategy for this COP23 summit, we haven’t built that coalition.’

It comes amid a wider energy crisis that has seen shortages and soaring prices in Europe, India and China.

In response, India is ramping up its coal production from 1.94 million to 2 million tonnes per day within a week following supply shortages which caused some utility providers to resort to unscheduled power cuts, reports The Statesman

India was said to have been close to running out of coal, but government sources said coal-powered plans are maintaining stock for five days. The sources said in a month’s time, the levels of coals will be back to usual levels.  

Coal accounts for nearly 70 percent of India’s electricity generation and around three-quarters of the fossil fuel is mined domestically. 

As Asia’s third-largest economy rebounds following a coronavirus wave, heavy monsoon rains have flooded coal mines and disrupted transport networks, leading to a sharp rise in prices for coal buyers, including power stations. 

International coal prices have also soared.  

Even before the current energy crisis erupted, the world was far behind on efforts to avert catastrophic climate change.

The United Nations estimates that global emissions will be 16 per cent higher in 2030 than they were in 2010 based on countries’ current pledges.

* * * * * * *


China’s plan to build more coal-fired plants deals blow to UK’s Cop26 ambitions.

Renewed commitment to coal could scupper Britain’s aim to secure global phase-out pact at climate summit.

China plans to build more coal-fired power plants and has hinted that it will rethink its timetable to slash emissions, in a significant blow to the UK’s ambitions for securing a global agreement on phasing out coal at the Cop26 climate summit in Glasgow.

In a statement after a meeting of Beijing’s National Energy Commission, the Chinese premier, Li Keqiang, stressed the importance of regular energy supply, after swathes of the country were plunged into darkness by rolling blackouts that hit factories and homes.

While China has published plans to reach peak carbon emissions by 2030, the statement hinted that the energy crisis had led the Communist party to rethink the timing of this ambition, with a new “phased timetable and roadmap for peaking carbon emissions”.

China has previously set out plans to be carbon neutral by 2060, with emissions peaking by 2030, a goal analysts say would involve shutting 600 coal-fired power plants. President Xi Jinping has also pledged to stop building coal plants abroad.

“Energy security should be the premise on which a modern energy system is built and and the capacity for energy self-supply should be enhanced,” the statement said.

“Given the predominant place of coal in the country’s energy and resource endowment, it is important to optimise the layout for the coal production capacity, build advanced coal-fired power plants as appropriate in line with development needs, and continue to phase out outdated coal plants in an orderly fashion. Domestic oil and gas exploration will be intensified.”

Beijing’s ambitions for carbon dioxide output are seen as critical in the push to achieve global net zero carbon emissions by 2050 and fulfil the 2015 Paris agreement to limit average temperature rises to 1.5C. But Li said Beijing wanted to gather new evidence on when its peak emissions would be reached.

The statement said he had commissioned “in-depth studies and calculations in light of the recent handling of electricity and coal supply strains, to put forward a phased timetable and roadmap for peaking carbon emissions”.

Li’s rhetoric follows reports that China has ordered its two top coal-producing regions, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, to combat the country’s power supply crisis.

Beijing’s renewed embrace of coal – apparently at odds with Xi’s state climate ambitions – are likely to cause alarm in the run-up to Cop26.

Alok Sharma, the UK’s president-designate of Cop26, has said an agreement to phase out coal power is a key aim of the summit.

George Magnus, a research associate at Oxford University’s China Centre and the author of Red Flags: Why Xi’s China Is in Jeopardy, said Beijing had been forced to revise its plans in the face of the reality of economic problems and power outages.

“China has stumbled into an energy crisis in much the same way the rest of us have done but it is exacerbated by the fact that the grid and the electricity companies are subject to price controls and cannot pass the prices on,” he said. “Many have decided to shut down production and they have had a lot of power outages for households and companies. This has come at a very bad moment in China, on top of [collapsed property giant] Evergrande and the property bust.

“They have basically cycled back on their coal policy. With Cop26 coming up, there is a lot of talk about how committed the Chinese are to net zero goals by 2050 but this is another setback. It has happened before, when the economy was weaker during the pandemic, that they relaxed restrictions on coal capacity. Now they are doing it again.

“If the new relaxations last a few weeks, it might not matter so much. If it lasts into 2022 as China strives to avoid bad economic outcomes ahead of its key CCP 20th party congress in November 2022, climate policy optimists might have to rethink for sure.”

Concern about China’s coal ambitions come on the eve of the publication of the International Energy Agency’s annual world energy outlook, which says much greater action is required globally if the world is to reach net zero by 2050.

The IEA said its hopes of speeding up the clean energy transition to meet the target involved a “rapid” reduction in the amount of coal burned to produce electricity.

* * * * * * *


Dalla Cina un duro colpo alla Cop26: “Costruiremo nuove centrali a carbone”

“Esplorazione nazionale di petrolio e gas sarà intensificata”.

La Cina prevede di costruire più centrali elettriche a carbone e ha lasciato intendere che rivedrà il suo calendario per ridurre le emissioni, in un duro colpo alle ambizioni del Regno Unito di garantire un accordo globale sull’eliminazione graduale del carbone al vertice sul clima Cop26 di Glasgow.

In una dichiarazione dopo una riunione della Commissione nazionale per l’energia di Pechino, il premier cinese Li Keqiang ha sottolineato l’importanza di un approvvigionamento energetico regolare, dopo che fasce del Paese sono sprofondate nell’oscurità a causa dei blackout che hanno colpito fabbriche e abitazioni.

Mentre la Cina ha pubblicato piani per raggiungere il picco delle emissioni di carbonio entro il 2030, la dichiarazione ha suggerito che la crisi energetica ha portato il Partito comunista a ripensare i tempi di questa ambizione, con un nuovo “calendario graduale e una tabella di marcia per il picco delle emissioni di carbonio”.

La Cina, ricorda il Guardian, aveva precedentemente stabilito piani per raggiungere la neutralità di emissioni di carbonio entro il 2060, con un picco entro il 2030, un obiettivo che secondo gli analisti implicherebbe la chiusura di 600 centrali elettriche a carbone. Anche il presidente Xi Jinping si era impegnato a porre fine alla costruzione di centrali a carbone.

“La sicurezza energetica dovrebbe essere la premessa su cui si costruisce un moderno sistema energetico e la capacità di autoapprovvigionamento energetico dovrebbe essere potenziata”, si afferma nella nota di Pechino.

“Dato il ruolo predominante del carbone nella dotazione energetica e di risorse del paese, è importante ottimizzare il layout per la capacità di produzione del carbone, costruire centrali elettriche a carbone avanzate in linea con le esigenze di sviluppo e continuare a eliminare gradualmente e in modo ordinato gli impianti obsoleti per il carbone. L’esplorazione nazionale di petrolio e gas sarà intensificata”, è stato aggiunto.

Le ambizioni di Pechino per la produzione di anidride carbonica sono considerate fondamentali nella spinta per raggiungere emissioni globali zero di carbonio entro il 2050 e rispettare l’accordo di Parigi del 2015 per limitare l’aumento della temperatura media a 1,5°C. Ma Li ha detto che Pechino intende raccogliere nuove prove su quando sarà raggiunto il suo picco di emissioni. Nella dichiarazione si afferma infatti che sono stati commissionati “studi e calcoli approfonditi alla luce della recente gestione dei problemi di fornitura di elettricità e carbone, per proporre un calendario graduale e una tabella di marcia per il picco delle emissioni di carbonio”.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale

La crisi energetica europea sta contagiando il mondo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-10-07.

Lazzareto 001

«Millions of people around the globe will feel the impact of soaring natural gas prices this winter»

«Nations are more reliant than ever on natural gas to heat homes and power industries amid efforts to quit coal and increase the use of cleaner energy sources»

«But there isn’t enough gas to fuel the post-pandemic recovery and refill depleted stocks before the cold months»

«Countries are trying to outbid one another for supplies as exporters such as Russia move to keep more natural gas home. The crunch will get a lot worse when temperatures drop»

«→→ Pipeline flows from Russia and Norway have been limited ←←»

«That’s worrying as calmer weather has reduced output from wind turbines»

«No wonder European gas prices surged by almost 500% in the past year and are trading near record»

«→→ The spike has forced some fertilizer producers in Europe to reduce output, with more expected to follow, threatening to increase costs for farmers and potentially adding to global food inflation ←←»

«In the U.K., high energy prices have forced several suppliers out of business»

«In China, industrial users including makers of ceramics, glass, and cement may respond by raising prices; households in Brazil will face expensive power bills»

«Economies that can’t afford the fuel—such as Pakistan or Bangladesh—could simply grind to a halt»

«The prospect of accelerating energy costs, in conjunction with squeezed supply chains and food prices at decade highs, could make more central bankers question whether the jump in inflation is as transitory as they’d hoped»

«If the winter is actually cold, my concern is we will not have enough gas for use for heating in parts of Europe»

«If Chinese factories have to contend with widespread power shortages, global prices for steel and aluminum will jump»

«But as more gas goes abroad, less will be available at home»

«→→ This winter, the world is likely to learn how much the global economy depends on natural gas ←←»

* * * * * * *

Blocco Europeo. Il +250% del natural gas manda in fumo le ambizioni green.

Blocco Europeo è strangolato dai rincari del 280% YoY del Gas Naturale. – Mr Putin ringrazia.

COP26, ‘Glasgow climate summit’ si preannuncia essere un fiasco memorabile

G20. Nessun paese ha adempiuto gli Accordi di Parigi del 2015.

Putin riduce giorno dopo giorno le forniture di gas naturale ad una Europa quasi senza scorte.

* * * * * * *

Questi sono i risultati di aver demonizzato per motivi ideologici il carbone e di aver cercato di imporre una transizione al gas naturale. Ma questi sono vezzi ben costosi, ed ora l’Europa paga alla Russia un gas naturale rincarato del 500% nell’ultimo anno. Tutto il comparto produttivo è ridotto alle corde, e questo inverno anche i privati cittadini ne saranno coinvolti.

Il buio, il gelo e la fame sono altamente maieutici.

Se poi li si sommassero alla stagflazione, il quadro generale sarebbe da catastrofe biblica.

* * * * * * *


Europe’s Energy Crisis Is Coming for the Rest of the World, Too

Millions of people around the globe will feel the impact of soaring natural gas prices this winter.

This winter, the world will be fighting over something that’s invisible, yet rarely so vital—and in alarmingly shorter supply.

Nations are more reliant than ever on natural gas to heat homes and power industries amid efforts to quit coal and increase the use of cleaner energy sources. But there isn’t enough gas to fuel the post-pandemic recovery and refill depleted stocks before the cold months. Countries are trying to outbid one another for supplies as exporters such as Russia move to keep more natural gas home. The crunch will get a lot worse when temperatures drop.

The crisis in Europe presages trouble for the rest of the planet as the continent’s energy shortage has governments warning of blackouts and factories being forced to shut.

Inventories at European storage facilities are at historically low levels for this time of year. Pipeline flows from Russia and Norway have been limited. That’s worrying as calmer weather has reduced output from wind turbines while Europe’s aging nuclear plants are being phased out or are more prone to outages—making gas even more necessary. No wonder European gas prices surged by almost 500% in the past year and are trading near record.

The spike has forced some fertilizer producers in Europe to reduce output, with more expected to follow, threatening to increase costs for farmers and potentially adding to global food inflation. In the U.K., high energy prices have forced several suppliers out of business.

Even a normally cold winter in the Northern Hemisphere is expected to drive up natural gas prices further across much of the world. In China, industrial users including makers of ceramics, glass, and cement may respond by raising prices; households in Brazil will face expensive power bills. Economies that can’t afford the fuel—such as Pakistan or Bangladesh—could simply grind to a halt.

Utilities and policymakers are praying for mild temperatures because it’s already too late to boost supplies. The prospect of accelerating energy costs, in conjunction with squeezed supply chains and food prices at decade highs, could make more central bankers question whether the jump in inflation is as transitory as they’d hoped. Traders will be carefully dissecting every weather forecast published from now to December.

“If the winter is actually cold, my concern is we will not have enough gas for use for heating in parts of Europe,” Amos Hochstein, the U.S. State Department’s senior adviser for energy security, told Bloomberg Television on Sept. 20. For some countries, “it won’t only be a recessionary value, it will affect the ability to actually provide gas for heating. It touches everybody’s lives.”

In Asia, importers of liquefied natural gas are paying record prices for this time of year to secure supplies, with some starting to snap up dirtier fuels such as coal and heating oil in case they don’t obtain enough. This may undermine efforts by governments to hit ambitious green goals: Gas emits about half as much carbon dioxide as coal when burned.

China, the world’s biggest buyer of natural gas, hasn’t filled stockpiles fast enough, even though imports are almost double what they were last year, according to customs data. Several Chinese provinces are already rationing electricity to industries to meet President Xi Jinping’s targets for energy efficiency and pollution reduction. A power crisis could exacerbate shutdowns if authorities divert gas to light and heat households.

If Chinese factories have to contend with widespread power shortages, global prices for steel and aluminum will jump. To make matters worse, the country is also grappling with a coal shortage.

Utilities in Japan and South Korea are largely protected by long-term LNG contracts that are indexed to oil. Still, Korea Electric Power Co. said on Sept. 23 that it will increase electricity prices for the first time in almost eight years. A sudden cold snap could force more power companies to dive into the spot market to buy emergency gas supplies at record-high rates. That’s what happened last winter.

The cost of securing LNG supplies has sparked a political controversy in strapped Pakistan, with opposition politicians demanding an inquiry into purchases by the state-owned importer.

In Brazil, the lowest flows to the Parana River Basin in almost a century have slashed hydropower output and forced utilities to rely more heavily on gas. The country boosted gas imports to an all-time high in July, and power bills are rising. With inflation already ballooning, that could hurt President Jair Bolsonaro’s chances in next year’s election.

The stage is set for an all-out scramble among Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America for shipments of LNG from exporters such as the Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. “We have huge demand from all our customers and unfortunately, we can’t cater for everyone,” warned Saad Al-Kaabi, Qatar’s energy minister, at an industry conference this month.

American exporters are poised to ship more LNG than ever as new projects come online toward the end of the year. But as more gas goes abroad, less will be available at home. Even though gas prices have been notably lower in the U.S. than in Europe and Asia, they are trading near the highest level since 2014. Gas inventories are running below their five-year seasonal average, yet U.S. shale drillers are reluctant to boost production out of concern that would crimp their profitability and put off investors.

The Industrial Energy Consumers of America has requested that the Department of Energy reduce U.S. exports until storage levels get back to normal, a move that might exacerbate shortages abroad.

It used to be that the average person paid little attention to the market price of natural gas. It isn’t like oil, where a snap decision from OPEC will almost immediately affect how much they pay at the pump. This winter, the world is likely to learn how much the global economy depends on natural gas.

Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Materie Prime

Mondo. Materie prime. Costi alla produzione. Carbone +258% anno su anno.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-10-05.

2021-09-28__ Coal 001

I costi alla estrazione del carbone fossile sono aumentati al 28 settembre del 258% anno su anno. Si noti che questi sono i prezzi alla estrazione, non certamente i wholesales prices.

2021-09-28__ Coal 002

* * * * * * *

Australia. Proseguirà ad estrarre, usare ed esportare carbone. Liberal affranti.

China Is Planning to Build 43 New Coal-Fired Power Plants. Can It Still Keep Its Promises to Cut Emissions?

Materie prime. Ancora prezzi in salita. Carbone +120.31 percento.

Asia. Trend energetici. Il carbone domina nella produzione di corrente elettrica.

Cina. 2020. Attivate centrali a carbone per 38.4 GW ed in costruzione per altri 36.9 GW.

China Promotes Climate Goal, and Builds New Coal Plants

Carbone. Consumi mondiali. I numeri parlano chiaro. La Cina.

Kremlin. Putin. La Russia potenzia estrazione ed esportazione del carbone.

* * * * * * *

«Coal futures surged to a fresh record high of $210 per metric ton in late September, bringing the monthly gain to nearly 20% and the yearly to almost 160%. Several factors have been pushing coal prices up, including tight supply in China as the country vows to achieve emissions standards and reach carbon neutrality by 2060; a lack of mine investment reflecting pressure from socially conscious investors; imports constraints due to coronavirus restrictions and a surge in natural gas prices amid prospects of a shortage in inventories, specially in Europe. The power crunch is likely to stay given that environmental policies have deterred coal companies from investing in new mines to increase supply and forecasters predict an unusually cold winter season.»

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Geopolitica Mondiale, India, Russia

Dushanbe. Russia e Cina integrano l’Iran nello SCO. Altra débâcle irredimibile di Joe Biden.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-27.

2021-09-27__ Iran entra nello SCO 001

Leaders Of Russia, China-Led Security Blocs Meet To Discuss Afghanistan

«Russia and its Central Asian allies have launched two days of talks in the Tajik capital to discuss the situation in Afghanistan a month after Taliban militants entered Kabul and seized power in the war-torn country.

Leaders of the Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) met for a summit in the Tajik capital on September 16, to be followed a day later by a gathering of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), which includes China. ….

Founded in 2001, the SCO initially consisted of China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan before India and Pakistan joined in 2017. ….

Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi, whose country is an observer member of the SCO and keen to join the grouping, will attend the gathering.»

* * *

Iran to gain Central Asia clout with entry into SCO security club.

«Iran is set to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization led by China and Russia as a full member, a move experts say will give Tehran more influence over Central Asia — including war-torn neighbor Afghanistan.

“Today, we will launch procedures to admit Iran as a member state of the SCO, and Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Qatar as new dialogue partners,” Chinese President Xi Jinping said via video link on Friday, addressing the SCO Council of Heads of State in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

Xi said he was confident the “growing SCO family” would “be the builders of world peace, contributors to global development and defenders of the international order,” according to an English translation shared by China’s official Xinhua News Agency.»

* * *

Russia. Pakistan, Greater Eurasian Partnership ed Eurasian Economic Union.

«Russia e Cina stanno sviluppando un grandioso progetto strategico per l’erezione di una Greater Eurasian Partnership volta a riunire in una comunità di intenti e di reciproci benefici tutte le popolazioni euroasiatiche, ossia più di quattro miliardi di persone. I loro sono diplomatici dilungo corso, passati attraverso dure selezioni, ben diversi dai ministri degli esteri occidentali, che, tra l’altro, stanno in carica per tempo molto limitato, cambiando di volta in volta l’indirizzo politico.

*

Ad oriente prese dapprima campo la Sco, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, nata come meccanismo per favorire la risoluzione di dispute territoriali tra i sei paesi aderenti – Cina, Russia, Kazakistan, Kirghizistan, Tagikistan e Uzbekistan – l’organizzazione è andata progressivamente istituzionalizzandosi, intensificando la cooperazione tra i suoi membri tanto su questioni di sicurezza quanto in ambiti come quello economico, energetico e culturale.

Mesi addietro, senza alcuna tromba trionfante, ha preso corpo il Rcep. …

Adesso sta emergendo il progetto strategico russo della Greater Eurasian Partnership ed Eurasian Economic Union. Come dicono i nomi stessi, sono un piano che si articolerà su decenni, ma che saranno decenni di crescita comune.

“The Greater Eurasian Partnership has two broad economic goals. First, it aims to connect Russia and the EAEU to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Its second, lesser goal is to move beyond China and connect the EAEU with Iran, India, and Southeast Asia.”»

* * * * * * *

                         In sintesi.

– Stati Uniti ed Europa hanno da lunga pezza annoverato l’Iran tra gli stati canaglia, fomentatori del terrorismo, colpendolo con un totale bando e coprendolo di sanzioni.

– Russia e Cina lo hanno invece ammesso a pieno titolo nello Sco, e di lì nella Greater Eurasian Partnership ed Eurasian Economic Union, una unione politica, militare ed economica, organizzazioni basate sulla non ingerenza negli affari interni e su rapporti paritetici.

– Sono improvvisamente mutati gli equilibri geopolitici mondiali a favore del Blocco Euroasiatico.

– Questa ulteriore débâcle della Harris-Biden Administration evidenzia molto chiaramente quanto poco pesino sia gli Stati Uniti sia l’Unione Europea.

Lasciamo alla arguta penna di Maurizio Blondet la descrizione dettagliata della risposta sinorussa all’Aukus.

*


La risposta di Russia e Cina all’AUKUS.

                         Integrano l’Iran

 Il magistrale pezzo di Pepe Escobar che ha seguito l’incontro della Shanghai Cooperation Organization e Dushanbe. Titolo originale:

                         L’Eurasia prende forma: come la SCO ha appena ribaltato l’ordine mondiale

Sotto lo sguardo di un Occidente senza timone, la riunione del ventesimo anniversario dell’Organizzazione per la cooperazione di Shanghai è stata focalizzata su due risultati chiave: dare forma all’Afghanistan e dare il via a un’integrazione eurasiatica a spettro completo.

Pepe Escobar

I due momenti salienti dello storico vertice del 20 ° anniversario dell’Organizzazione per la cooperazione di Shanghai (SCO) a Dushanbe, in Tagikistan, dovevano venire dai discorsi programmatici di – chi altro – i leader del partenariato strategico Russia-Cina.

Xi Jinping: “Oggi avvieremo le procedure per ammettere l’Iran come membro a pieno titolo della SCO”.

Vladimir Putin: “Vorrei sottolineare il Memorandum d’intesa firmato oggi tra il Segretariato della SCO e la Commissione Economica Eurasiatica. È chiaramente progettato per promuovere l’idea della Russia di stabilire un partenariato della Grande Eurasia che copra la SCO, l’EAEU (Unione economica eurasiatica), l’ASEAN (Associazione delle nazioni del sud-est asiatico) e l’iniziativa Belt and Road della Cina (BRI).”

In breve, durante il fine settimana, l’Iran è stato sancito nel suo legittimo ruolo eurasiatico principale e tutti i percorsi di integrazione eurasiatica sono convergenti verso un nuovo paradigma geopolitico e geoeconomico globale,.

(MB – L’Iran ha oggi due alleati veri, che si chiamano Russia e Cina. Sarà più difficile per Israele indurre gli americani a “bomb, bomb, bomb Iran” e fare canagliate come a uno stato-paria e isolato. Anche la speranza di Biden di trattare di nuovo gli accordi sul nucleare iraniano (che Teheran ha adempiuto fedelmente e Trump ha rotto) strappando a Teheran in cambio della levata delle sanzioni, in più, la rinuncia di missili di portata tale da colpire Israele, non è più praticabile. L’Iran con a fianco la Cina, cliente del suo petrolio e largitrice di investimenti, + può resistere a questo genere di ricatti)

“Dushanbe si è rivelato come l’ultimo crossover diplomatico. Il presidente Xi ha rifiutato con fermezza qualsiasi “lezione supponente” e ha sottolineato percorsi di sviluppo e modelli di governance compatibili con le condizioni nazionali. Proprio come Putin, ha sottolineato il focus complementare di BRI e EAEU, e di fatto ha sintetizzato un vero Manifesto multilateralista per il Sud del mondo.

Proprio sul punto, il presidente Kassym-Jomart Tokayev del Kazakistan ha osservato che la SCO dovrebbe promuovere “lo sviluppo di una macroeconomia regionale”. Ciò si riflette nella spinta della SCO a iniziare a utilizzare le valute locali per il commercio, aggirando il dollaro USA.

                         Guarda quel quadrilatero

Dushanbe non è stato solo un letto di rose. L’Emomali Rahmon del Tagikistan, fedele musulmano laico ed ex membro del Partito Comunista dell’URSS – al potere da non meno di 29 anni, rieletto per la quinta volta nel 2020 con il 90% dei voti – ha subito denunciato la “sharia medievale” dei talebani 2.0 e hanno affermato di aver già “abbandonato la loro precedente promessa di formare un governo inclusivo”.

Rahmon … era già al potere quando i talebani conquistarono Kabul nel 1996. Era obbligato a sostenere pubblicamente i suoi cugini tagiki contro l’”espansione dell’ideologia estremista” in Afghanistan – che di fatto preoccupa tutti i membri della SCO -afferma quando si tratta di distruggere loschi abiti jihadisti di stampo ISIS-K.

La polpa della questione a Dushanbe era nei bilaterali – e un quadrilatero.

Prendi il bilaterale tra il ministro degli Esteri indiano S. Jaishankar e il FM cinese Wang Yi. Jaishankar ha affermato che la Cina non dovrebbe vedere “le sue relazioni con l’India attraverso la lente di un paese terzo” e si è preoccupato di sottolineare che l’India “non sottoscrive alcuna teoria dello scontro di civiltà”.

È stata una vendita piuttosto difficile considerando che il primo vertice Quad si svolge questa settimana a Washington, DC, ospitato da quel “paese terzo” che ora è immerso nel profondo della modalità di scontro di civiltà contro la Cina.

Il primo ministro pakistano Imran Khan è satto in una serie di bilaterali: ha incontrato i presidenti di Iran, Bielorussia, Uzbekistan e Kazakistan. La posizione diplomatica ufficiale del Pakistan è che l’Afghanistan non dovrebbe essere abbandonato, ma impegnato.

Quella posizione aggiungeva sfumature a quanto aveva spiegato l’inviato presidenziale speciale russo per gli affari della SCO Bakhtiyer Khakimov sull’assenza di Kabul al tavolo della SCO: “In questa fase, tutti gli Stati membri hanno capito che non ci sono ragioni per un invito finché non c’è un legittimo, governo generalmente riconosciuto in Afghanistan”.

E questo ci porta all’incontro chiave della SCO: un quadrilatero con i ministri degli Esteri di Russia, Cina, Pakistan e Iran.

Il ministro degli Esteri pakistano Qureshi ha affermato: “Stiamo monitorando se tutti i gruppi sono inclusi o meno nel governo [afgano]”. Il nocciolo della questione è che, d’ora in poi, Islamabad coordinerà la strategia della SCO sull’Afghanistan e farà da intermediario nelle trattative talebane con i leader di spicco tagiki, uzbeki e hazara. Questo alla fine aprirà la strada verso un governo inclusivo riconosciuto a livello regionale dai paesi membri della SCO.

Il presidente iraniano Ebrahim Raisi è stato accolto calorosamente da tutti, specialmente dopo il suo energico discorso programmatico, un classico dell’Asse della Resistenza. Il suo rapporto bilaterale con il presidente bielorusso Aleksandr Lukashenko ruotava attorno a una discussione sul “confronto delle sanzioni”. Secondo Lukashenko: “Se le sanzioni hanno fatto del male alla Bielorussia, all’Iran e ad altri paesi, è stato solo perché ne siamo responsabili noi stessi. Non sempre siamo stati negoziabili, non sempre abbiamo trovato la strada da percorrere sotto la pressione delle sanzioni».

Considerando che Teheran è pienamente informata sul ruolo della SCO di Islamabad in termini di Afghanistan, non ci sarà bisogno di schierare la brigata Fatemiyoun – informalmente conosciuta come Afghan Hezbollah – per difendere gli Hazara sciiti. Fatemiyoun si è formata nel 2012 ed è stata determinante in Siria nella lotta contro Daesh, soprattutto a Palmyra. Ma se ISIS-K non scompare, questa è una storia completamente diversa.

Particolarmente importante per i membri della SCO Iran e India sarà il futuro del porto di Chabahar. Questa rimane la mossa cripto-Via della seta dell’India per collegarla all’Afghanistan e all’Asia centrale. Il successo geoeconomico di Chabahar dipende più che mai da un Afghanistan stabile – ed è qui che gli interessi di Teheran convergono pienamente con la spinta SCO di Russia-Cina.

Ciò che la Dichiarazione SCO di Dushanbe del 2021 ha enunciato sull’Afghanistan è rivelatore:

L’Afghanistan dovrebbe essere uno stato indipendente, neutrale, unito, democratico e pacifico, libero da terrorismo, guerra e droga.

È fondamentale avere un governo inclusivo in Afghanistan, con rappresentanti di tutti i gruppi etnici, religiosi e politici della società afgana.

Gli Stati membri della SCO, sottolineando l’importanza dei molti anni di ospitalità e assistenza efficace forniti dai paesi regionali e vicini ai rifugiati afghani, considerano importante che la comunità internazionale si impegni attivamente per facilitare il loro ritorno dignitoso, sicuro e sostenibile al loro patria.

Per quanto possa sembrare un sogno impossibile, questo è il messaggio unificato di Russia, Cina, Iran, India, Pakistan e i vari ‘stan’ dell’Asia centrale. Si spera che il primo ministro pakistano Imran Khan sia all’altezza del compito e pronto per il suo primo piano della SCO.

                         Quella tormentata penisola occidentale

Le Nuove Vie della Seta sono state lanciate ufficialmente otto anni fa da Xi Jinping, prima ad Astana – ora Nur-Sultan – e poi a Giacarta.

Questo è il modo in cui l’ho segnalato all’epoca.

L’annuncio è arrivato vicino a un vertice della SCO, poi a Bishkek. La SCO, ampiamente liquidata a Washington e Bruxelles come un semplice talk shop, stava già superando il suo mandato originale di combattere le “tre forze del male” – terrorismo, separatismo ed estremismo – e comprendeva la politica e la geoeconomia.

Nel 2013 c’è stata una trilaterale Xi-Putin-Rouhani. Pechino ha espresso pieno sostegno al programma nucleare pacifico dell’Iran (ricordate, questo è stato due anni prima della firma del Piano d’azione congiunto globale, noto anche come JCPOA).

Nonostante molti esperti all’epoca lo negassero, c’era davvero un fronte comune Cina-Russia-Iran in Siria (Asse di Resistenza in azione). Lo Xinjiang veniva promosso come snodo chiave per l’Eurasian Land Bridge. Il gasdotto è stato al centro della strategia cinese, dal petrolio del Kazakistan al gas del Turkmenistan. Alcune persone potrebbero persino ricordare quando Hillary Clinton, in qualità di Segretario di Stato, si è pronunciata in modo lirico su una Nuova Via della Seta a propulsione americana.

Ora confrontare il Manifesto del Multilateralismo di Xi a Dushanbe otto anni dopo, e ricordare come la SCO “ha dimostrato di essere un ottimo esempio di multilateralismo nel 21 ° secolo”, e “ha svolto un ruolo importante nel migliorare la voce dei paesi in via di sviluppo. ”

L’importanza strategica di questo vertice SCO che si terrà subito dopo l’Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) a Vladivostok non può essere sopravvalutata abbastanza. L’EEF si concentra, ovviamente, sull’Estremo Oriente russo e sostanzialmente promuove l’interconnessione tra Russia e Asia. È un fulcro assolutamente chiave del partenariato eurasiatico della Russia.

Una cornucopia di accordi è all’orizzonte: l’espansione dall’Estremo Oriente all’Artico e lo sviluppo della rotta del Mare del Nord, e coinvolgendo tutto, dai metalli preziosi e l’energia verde alla sovranità digitale che scorre attraverso i corridoi logistici tra Asia ed Europa attraverso la Russia.

Come ha suggerito Putin nel suo discorso programmatico, questo è ciò che riguarda la Greater Eurasia Partnership: l’Unione economica dell’Eurasia (EAEU), la BRI (Belt and Road Initiative), l’iniziativa dell’India, l’ASEAN e ora la SCO, che si sviluppa in una rete armonizzata, gestita in modo cruciale da “sovrano centri decisionali”.

                         Grande Asia di sovrani ed eguali

Quindi, se la BRI propone una “comunità di futuro condiviso per il genere umano” molto taoista, il progetto russo, concettualmente, propone un dialogo di civiltà (già evocato dagli anni di Khatami in Iran) e progetti economico-politici sovrani. Sono, infatti, complementari.

Glenn Diesen, professore all’Università della Norvegia sudorientale e redattore della rivista Russia in Global Affairs, è tra i pochissimi studiosi di spicco che stanno analizzando in profondità questo processo. Il suo ultimo libro racconta in modo straordinario l’intera storia nel suo titolo: L’ Europa come la penisola occidentale della Grande Eurasia: regioni geoeconomiche in un mondo multipolare .

Non è chiaro se gli eurocrati di Bruxelles – schiavi dell’atlantismo e incapaci di cogliere le potenzialità della Grande Eurasia – finiranno per esercitare una reale autonomia strategica.

Diesen evoca in dettaglio i paralleli tra la strategia russa e quella cinese. Fa notare come la Cina “sta perseguendo un’iniziativa geoeconomica a tre pilastri sviluppando la leadership tecnologica attraverso il suo piano China 2025, nuovi corridoi di trasporto attraverso la sua Belt and Road Initiative da trilioni di dollari e stabilendo nuovi strumenti finanziari come banche, sistemi di pagamento e internazionalizzazione. dello yuan. Allo stesso modo, la Russia sta perseguendo la sovranità tecnologica, sia nella sfera digitale che oltre, così come nuovi corridoi di trasporto come la rotta del Mare del Nord attraverso l’Artico e, soprattutto, nuovi strumenti finanziari”.

L’intero Sud del mondo, stordito dal crollo accelerato dell’Impero occidentale e dal suo ordine unilaterale basato su regole, sembra ora pronto ad abbracciare il nuovo solco, pienamente mostrato a Dushanbe: una Grande Eurasia multipolare di sovrani eguali.

Pubblicato in: Armamenti, Cina

Cina. Nega l’ingresso in porto alla fregata tedesca Bayern.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-24.

2021-09-21 Bayern 001

«China has denied a German warship on a mission to the contested South China Sea entry into a harbour»

«The ship involved is the frigate Bayern, the spokesperson told a news briefing, but did not identify the Chinese harbour»

«China has decided that it does not want a harbour visit, and we took notice of that»

«The vessel set sail from Germany last month for a six-month mission to the South China Sea»

«China claims almost all of the South China Sea and has established military outposts on artificial islands in the waters that contain gas fields and rich fishing»

«The United States and some other countries have also said they do not accept the extent of China’s claims in the South China Sea»

«Berlin has made it clear that the Bayern mission serves to stress the fact Germany does not accept China’s claims»

* * * * * * *

La politica estera tedesca è semplicemente incomprensibile.

Loro, la Francia, e tutta l’Unione Europea è stata scarica, e di brutto, dagli Stati Uniti e dal Regno Unito, che nemmeno li hanno avvisati del nuovo patto AUKUS per l’Oceano Pacifico.

La Nato è in frantumi e la Francia ritira gli ambasciatori.

Sui russi scaglia ogni tipo di reprimenda, e sui cinesi altrettanto.

Manda fregate militari nel Mare Cinese del Sud a rivendicarne l’internazionalità delle acque dai cinesi ritenute essere di propria competenza, e poi si stupisce che la Cina non apra i suoi porti alla fregata Bayern.

Sembrerebbe che dovrebbero chiarirsi meglio le idee.

*


China denies German warship entry into harbour, Berlin says.

Berlin, Sept 16 (Reuters) – China has denied a German warship on a mission to the contested South China Sea entry into a harbour, a German foreign ministry spokesperson said on Wednesday.

The ship involved is the frigate Bayern, the spokesperson told a news briefing, but did not identify the Chinese harbour. The vessel set sail from Germany last month for a six-month mission to the South China Sea.

“China has decided that it does not want a harbour visit, and we took notice of that,” the spokesperson said.

China’s foreign ministry spokesman, Zhao Lijian, when asked about the incident, said that China hoped countries outside the region would play a “constructive role” and respect regional countries efforts’ to maintain peace and stability.

“China attaches great importance to the development of an all-round strategic partnership between China and Germany, including cooperation between the two militaries,” he said, speaking at a briefing in Beijing on Thursday.

China’s defence ministry has not responded to requests for comment.

China claims almost all of the South China Sea and has established military outposts on artificial islands in the waters that contain gas fields and rich fishing.

China’s claims are contested in part by some of its neighbours including the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia and Brunei.

The United States and some other countries have also said they do not accept the extent of China’s claims in the South China Sea.

Berlin has made it clear that the Bayern mission serves to stress the fact Germany does not accept China’s claims though officials have said the German navy would stick to common trade routes.

Pubblicato in: Banche Centrali, Devoluzione socialismo

G20. Nessun paese ha adempiuto gli Accordi di Parigi del 2015.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-22.

Carbone. Consumi degli stati 001

«lunga promessa con l’attender corto / ti farà trïunfar ne l’alto seggio»

«achieving net zero will be virtually impossible».

Quando l’America e l’enclave liberal socialista europea sembravano essere ancora egemoni, tutti gli stati sottoscrissero gli Accordi i Parigi. Chi non avesse sottoscritto il ‘clima’ sarebbe stato sanzionato.

Ma le parole sono parole: solo i dati fattuali contano.

Gli obiettivi posti erano ‘virtually impossible’, ed hanno fatto la fine di tutti i sogni sradicati dalla realtà: nessuno si sogna di mantenere la parola data.

                         Sources.

Statistical Review of World Energy – British Petroleum

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

* * * * * * *


«Not a single G20 country is in line with the Paris Agreement on climate»

«None of the world’s major economies — including the entire G20 — have a climate plan that meets their obligations under the 2015 Paris Agreement»

«The watchdog Climate Action Tracker (CAT) analyzed the policies of 36 countries, as well as the 27-nation European Union, and found that all major economies were off track to contain global warming»

«The analysis also included some low-emissions countries, and found that the Gambia was the only nation among all 37 to be “1.5 compatible.”»

«Under the 2015 Paris accord, more than 190 countries agreed to limit the increase in global temperatures»

«The report comes less than two months ahead of UN-brokered international climate talks in Glasgow, known as COP26»

«CAT reported that progress had stalled after dozens of world leaders made ambitious new pledges to slash greenhouse gas emissions during the US President Joe Biden’s Climate Leaders’ Summit in April»

«The overall climate plans of the US, European Union and Japan are not sufficient»

«CAT had previously categorized the US as “critically insufficient” — the worst category»

«All signatories were supposed to update their NDCs by July 31 this year under the Paris accord. There are still more than 70 countries that have yet to submit an update»

«India, Saudi Arabia and Turkey are among countries that missed the July 31 deadline. China, the world’s biggest polluter, announced a new target, but hasn’t formally submitted it to the UN»

«Of particular concern are Australia, Brazil, Indonesia Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Singapore, Switzerland and Vietnam: they have failed to lift ambition at all, submitting the same or even less ambitious 2030 targets than those they put forward in 2015»

«The continued use of coal remains a significant policy problem, the report found, with China and India retaining huge coal pipelines. Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and South Korea are also planning to go ahead with coal use in the future»

«The Australian government, which has said it will keep mining coal past 2030, is also investing money into new gas exploration and infrastructure»

«Cutting emissions is a non-negotiable part of the Paris Accord»

«achieving net zero will be “virtually impossible»

* * * * * * *

I dati riportati in Tabella dovrebbero essere eloquenti.

La relazione fornita dalla Climate Action Tracker dovrebbe essere altrettanto eloquente. Ma se gli stati se ne fanno un baffo degli Accordi di Parigi, i liberal socialisti se ne fanno uno  torciglione di quello che facciano gli stati, e la manfrina prosegue.

Possiamo quindi concludere come il ‘clima’ sia una pura e semplice, ma costosissima, buffonata.

*


Not a single G20 country is in line with the Paris Agreement on climate, analysis shows.

None of the world’s major economies — including the entire G20 — have a climate plan that meets their obligations under the 2015 Paris Agreement, according to an analysis published Wednesday, despite scientists’ warning that deep cuts to greenhouse gas emissions are needed now.

The watchdog Climate Action Tracker (CAT) analyzed the policies of 36 countries, as well as the 27-nation European Union, and found that all major economies were off track to contain global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The countries together make up 80% of the world’s emissions.

The analysis also included some low-emissions countries, and found that the Gambia was the only nation among all 37 to be “1.5 compatible.” As the study only included a few smaller emitters, it’s possible there are other developing countries in the world on track as well.

Under the 2015 Paris accord, more than 190 countries agreed to limit the increase in global temperatures to well below 2 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures — ideally to 1.5 degrees. Scientists have said 2 degrees is a critical threshold for some of the Earth’s ecosystems, and is one that would also trigger more catastrophic extreme weather events.

The report comes less than two months ahead of UN-brokered international climate talks in Glasgow, known as COP26. The event’s president, British MP Alok Sharma, has said he hopes to “keep 1.5 alive” as a global warming limit.

CAT reported that progress had stalled after dozens of world leaders made ambitious new pledges to slash greenhouse gas emissions during the US President Joe Biden’s Climate Leaders’ Summit in April.

“In May, after the Climate Leaders’ Summit and the Petersburg dialogue, we reported that there appeared to be good momentum with new climate action commitments,” said Niklas Höhne, a founding partner of the NewClimate Institute, a CAT partner.

“But since then, there has been little to no improvement: nothing is moving,” he said. “Anyone would think they have all the time in the world, when in fact the opposite is the case.”

Six countries, including the UK, have an overall climate policy that is “nearly sufficient,” according to the report, meaning they are not yet consistent with 1.5-degree alignment but could be with small improvements. The UK’s targets are in line with 1.5 degrees, but its policies in practice don’t meet the benchmark.

The overall climate plans of the US, European Union and Japan are not sufficient to reach the 1.5-degree goal, the analysis found, saying that while their domestic targets are relatively close to where they need to be, their international policies are not.

CAT had previously categorized the US as “critically insufficient” — the worst category — under former President Donald Trump, who formally withdrew the country from the Paris Agreement shortly before the end of his term.

The United States’ domestic emission-cutting target has since been upgraded to “almost sufficient.” However, the US is still insufficient in CAT’s “fair share” target rating, which takes into account the country’s “responsibility and capability.”

Under the Paris agreement, countries submitted their pledges to cut emissions, also known as Nationally Determined Contributions, or NDCs. All signatories were supposed to update their NDCs by July 31 this year under the Paris accord. There are still more than 70 countries that have yet to submit an update.

India, Saudi Arabia and Turkey are among countries that missed the July 31 deadline. China, the world’s biggest polluter, announced a new target, but hasn’t formally submitted it to the UN.

And many countries submitted an “update” without actually increasing their pledge. Brazil and Mexico submitted the same targets as they did in 2015. Changes to those countries’ baseline assumptions make their pledges weaker than they were before, the analysis showed. Russia, the CAT report said, submitted an update that looks stronger on paper, but doesn’t amount to meaningful change.

“Of particular concern are Australia, Brazil, Indonesia Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Singapore, Switzerland and Vietnam: they have failed to lift ambition at all, submitting the same or even less ambitious 2030 targets than those they put forward in 2015. These countries need to rethink their choice,” said Bill Hare, CEO of Climate Analytics, another CAT partner.

The continued use of coal remains a significant policy problem, the report found, with China and India retaining huge coal pipelines. Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and South Korea are also planning to go ahead with coal use in the future.

CAT also warned that in many countries’ attempts to wean of coal, which is generally the fossil fuels that causes the most emissions, many countries were looking to use more natural gas, which CAT said was being falsely sold as a “bridging fuel.”

The Australian government, which has said it will keep mining coal past 2030, is also investing money into new gas exploration and infrastructure, and “is of particular concern,” CAT said in its report.

Thailand has plans to ramp up new gas as it phases out coal, while the EU is still planning to commit public funding to new gas infrastructure, and various member states are lobbying hard for the continued use of this fossil fuel.

Hare warned against the development of blue hydrogen, based on natural gas, as an alternative to other fossil fuels.

“Gas is a fossil fuel, and any investment into gas today risks becoming a stranded asset. And while interest in green hydrogen has grown exponentially, there is still a large number of hydrogen projects in the pipeline where it’s produced from gas,” Hare said. “Hydrogen produced from gas still produces carbon, and is inconsistent with reaching net zero.”

                         Net zero by 2050

Cutting emissions is a non-negotiable part of the Paris Accord. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap solar radiation in the atmosphere, just like glass traps heat in a greenhouse. This causes temperatures to rise and drives more extreme weather, ice melt, sea level rise and ocean acidification.

To keep the warming under 1.5 degrees, the world needs to reach net zero by 2050, a landmark UN climate science report published in August showed.

Net zero refers to a state when the amount of greenhouse gas emitted is no greater than the amount removed from the atmosphere.

According to UN Climate Change, just over 130 countries have pledged to cut emissions to net-zero so far. The new analysis by CAT found that even if all of them followed up on their plans, warming would still reach 2 degrees.

If they stick with the policies they have in place, temperatures will likely be 2.4 degrees higher by the end of century.

Temperatures are already around 1.2 degrees higher than they were before humans started burning huge amounts of fossil fuels, so room for error is very limited.

“An increasing number of people around the world are suffering from ever more severe and frequent impacts of climate change, yet government action continues to lag behind what is needed,” said Bill Hare, the CEO of the think tank Climate Analytics and another author of the analysis.

While many governments have committed to net zero, Hare said that without a real action soon, achieving net zero will be “virtually impossible.”

Pubblicato in: Cina, Devoluzione socialismo, Materie Prime

Australia. Proseguirà ad estrarre, usare ed esportare carbone. Liberal affranti.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-18.

Carbone Tipologie 001

«In Australia, nearly 80% of coal is produced from open-cut mines, in contrast to the rest of the world where open-cut mining only accounts for 40% of coal production. Open-cut mining is possible because coal seams are close to the surface. Such mining is cheaper than underground mining and enables up to 90% recovery of the resource. Many brown coal beds lie close to the surface and can be hundreds of metres thick, so can be extracted easily and cheaply. Firstly the topsoil is removed and stored for use later in restoring the disturbed land. The surface rock (called overburden) covering the coal is then blasted with explosives and removed by excavators. The uncovered coal is in turn then blasted to break up the layers and loaded into large trucks which can hold up to 300 tonnes of material. The coal is transported to the processing plant where impurities are removed.» [Geoscience Australia]

Le riserve australiane di carbone sono stimate essere 159.634 miliardi di tonnellate, ne estraggono 554.764 milioni di tonnellate l’anno, e ne esportano 427 milioni di tonnellate [Fonte]

2021-09-08__ Australia Carbone 001

Recentemente alcuni funzionari UN hanno rimproverato l’Australia.

«The United Nations’ top climate official has urged Australia to have a “more honest and rational conversation” about urgently abandoning coal power, which he said was in the nation’s and the world’s best interests.

Selwin Hart, UN Assistant Secretary-General and Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Climate Action, said wealthy nations must stop using coal power by 2030 and the rest of the world must dump it by 2040 if the world is to keep global warming to within the agreed target of 1.5 degrees Celsius.» [Fonte]

La frase “wealthy nations must stop using coal power by 2030 and the rest of the world must dump it by 2040” soffre del solito, grossolano, errore, di considerare che l’enclave occidentale liberal sia il “mondo”, falsità grossolana.

China Is Planning to Build 43 New Coal-Fired Power Plants. Can It Still Keep Its Promises to Cut Emissions?

«China is planning to build 43 new coal-fired power plants and 18 new blast furnaces — equivalent to adding about 1.5% to its current annual emissions — according to a new report. The new projects were announced in the first half of this year despite the world’s largest polluter pledging to bring its emissions to a peak before 2030, and to make the country carbon neutral by 2060.»

«The news shows that at least some in China are prioritizing economic growth over emissions reductions — although some analysts say they are still optimistic that China will reach its climate targets. “There is this desire in the Chinese political and economic system to keep on building, to continue the infrastructure fever,” says Li Shuo, a senior global policy adviser for Greenpeace in Beijing.»

«coal accounted for 56.8% of China’s domestic energy generation in 2020 …. China is still increasing construction of coal-fired power plants»

* * *

China’s coal consumption seen rising in 2021, imports steady

«China, the world’s biggest coal consumer, saw overall consumption of the fossil fuel increase by 0.6% in 2020 from a year earlier to around 4.04 billion tonnes. …. China churned out 3.84 billion tonnes of coal in 2020, the most since 2015»

* * * * * * *

Come si constata, il resto del mondo, Cina in testa, non ha la minima intenzione di ridurre l’estrazione e l’uso del carbone.

Adesso, al resto del mondo si associa anche l’Australia.

«Coal will be a major contributor to Australia’s economy well beyond 2030 given growth in global demand, the country’s resources minister said on Monday»

«action on emissions would cost jobs»

«The future of this crucial industry will be decided by the Australian government, not a foreign body that wants to shut it down costing thousands of jobs and billions of export dollars for our economy»

* * * * * * *

Le Nazioni Unite? Ma chi mai sono e chi mai si credono di essere da pretendere di dare ordini all’Australia?

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Australia sees strong future for coal beyond 2030 despite U.N. call

Melbourne, Sept 6 (Reuters) – Coal will be a major contributor to Australia’s economy well beyond 2030 given growth in global demand, the country’s resources minister said on Monday, a day after a United Nations envoy called on the country to phase out the fossil fuel.

Without greater efforts to cut coal, climate change will dramatically damage Australia’s economy, Selwin Hart, the United Nations special adviser on climate change, said in a speech in the capital Canberra on Sunday.

Australia’s heavy reliance on coal-fired power makes it one of the world’s largest carbon emitters per capita, but its conservative government has steadfastly backed fossil fuel industries, saying tougher action on emissions would cost jobs.

Australia’s latest export figures show “the reports of coal’s impending death are greatly exaggerated and its future is assured well beyond 2030,” Resources Minister Keith Pitt said in a statement.

In the three months to July, Australian coal exports grew 26% in value to A$12.5 billion ($9.3 billion), he noted. Coal prices have climbed as global economies recover from COVID-19 restrictions.

“The future of this crucial industry will be decided by the Australian government, not a foreign body that wants to shut it down costing thousands of jobs and billions of export dollars for our economy,” Pitt added.

The U.N. has called for phasing out coal by 2030 in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, which include Australia.

In July, energy and environment ministers from the Group of 20 big economies failed to deliver a deal to phase out coal by 2025. But some experts said there were chances of progress at U.N. climate talks in Glasgow in November.

Prime Minister Scott Morrison has said Australia is on a path to net zero carbon emissions but has stopped short of committing to a timeline. He has said that Australia would update its 2030 emissions projections going into the Glasgow talks.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio

Laos. Ferrovia Boten–Vientiane (China–Laos railway) quasi terminata.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2021-09-13

Laos-China Railway

«The Boten–Vientiane railway (often referred to as the China–Laos railway) is a 414 kilometres (257 mi) 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge electrified railway under construction in Laos, between the capital Vientiane and the small town of Boten on the border with China. It is the most expensive and largest project ever to be constructed in Laos.

In the north the line will be connected to the Chinese rail system in Mohan, through the Yuxi–Mohan railway. In the south it meets the existing metre-gauge railway in Thanaleng, linking it via Nong Khai in Thailand to Bangkok. A high-speed, standard gauge extension to Bangkok is also under construction. When finished, the Boten–Vientiane railway will form an important part of the Kunming–Singapore railway.

China aims to build a 5,500-km trans-Asia railway, which begins in Yunnan’s provincial capital Kunming and travels through Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Malaysia, before ending in Singapore, according to Ding He, a deputy project manager for the China–Laos railway project. The Boten–Vientiane railway is part of the Belt and Road Initiative.» [Fonte]

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«Despite the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, both Chinese and Lao engineers are striving to complete the construction of the China-Laos Railway and put it on operation in the coming December as scheduled»

«It will be on December 2 when we are to complete the railway construction and make it ready for full operation»

«In the southern end of the railway in Vientiane, the China Railway No. 5 Engineering Group (CREC-5) has completed the construction of the main structure of the longest bridge along the China-Laos Railway, the Phonethong super major bridge with a length of 7,528.56 meters and 231 piers»

«In the northern end of the railway, the China Railway Construction Engineering Group (CRCEG) roofed the Lao border gate station in Boten On June 15, while the same Chinese company ceiled the top of the first railway station in Nateuy, some 360 km north of Lao capital Vientiane, nine months ago on Sept. 16, 2020»

«There is a Chinese saying ‘to get rich, build roads first»

«In the past two years, the cooperation between Laos and China has been outstanding. Especially, the first modern Vientiane-Vangvieng Expressway»

«an operating speed of 160 km per hour.»

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Caratteristica del progetto Belt and Road è quello di dotare il sud-est asiatico di una rete ferroviaria ed autostradale allo stato dell’arte. Senza un sistema coordinato di rete ferroviaria ed autostradale sarebbe impossibile lo scambio di merci ed i viaggi delle persone.

Non solo.

La China–Laos railway si prolungherà fino in Thailandia, servendo Nakhon Ratchasima ed, infine, Bangkok ed il suo porto, i cui traffici sono quindi previsti in forte aumento. Le infrastrutture generano posti di lavoro.

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Roundup: Construction progress of China-Laos Railway on schedule despite pandemic

VIENTIANE, June 25 (Xinhua) — Despite the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, both Chinese and Lao engineers are striving to complete the construction of the China-Laos Railway and put it on operation in the coming December as scheduled.

“It will be on December 2 when we are to complete the railway construction and make it ready for full operation,” Xiao Qianwen, general manager of the Laos-China Railway Co., Ltd., a joint venture based in Lao capital Vientiane for the construction and operation of the first modern railway in the country, told Xinhua on Friday.

“We are not changing the timetable and we are striving for that goal, with over 90 percent of the engineering work done, and our preparation for the operation is well on the way.”

In the southern end of the railway in Vientiane, the China Railway No. 5 Engineering Group (CREC-5) has completed the construction of the main structure of the longest bridge along the China-Laos Railway, the Phonethong super major bridge with a length of 7,528.56 meters and 231 piers.

In the northern end of the railway, the China Railway Construction Engineering Group (CRCEG) roofed the Lao border gate station in Boten On June 15, while the same Chinese company ceiled the top of the first railway station in Nateuy, some 360 km north of Lao capital Vientiane, nine months ago on Sept. 16, 2020.

By May 15, the construction of all 67 communication towers along the China-Laos railway had completed, while the China-Laos railway tracks had been extended from Vientiane to the northern end of Boten.

“We will installed all the tracks by mid-August,” Lei Chao, a China Railway No. 2 Engineering Group (CREC-2) railing base project manager, told Xinhua on Friday in Vientiane.

Lei said the CREC-2 teams are carry out strict precaution measures against the COVID-19 pandemic as to achieve uninterrupted construction of the project with zero infection case. The company kicked off the track laying on March 27, 2020.

According to Xiao Qianwen, most of the construction sites are located in tropical mountainous areas, with complex geographical conditions and poor traffic conditions, resulting in difficulties for the construction.

Especially during the rainy season, the machinery can not get access to the construction sites and sometimes the Chinese engineering teams even have to turn to the piggyback transportation to carry large amounts of the needed materials and equipment.

The China-Laos Railway’s construction has been confronted with huge challenges and difficulties during the pandemic, but the construction progress in an orderly and balanced manner has boosted the confidence in the timely completion of the railway in this December, Bounthong Chitmany, vice president of Laos, said when talking to Xiao Qianwen in the Lao presidential palace on June 15.

On June 10, when inspecting the Vientiane railway station’s construction, Lao Deputy Prime Minister Sonexay Siphandone praised the Chinese engineering company there which hired some 700 local employees, hoping the railway will offer more jobs to local communities.

The deputy prime minister, on behalf of the Lao government, hailed and progresses and achievements of the China-Laos Railway construction amid the epidemic, saying that the railway is a landmark project of the friendship between Laos and China and its completion coincides with the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Laos, which is of great significance.

Both sides must cooperate to efficiently advance the remaining work, complete the construction and start the operation on schedule, and live up to the ardent expectations of the two parties and the two peoples, said Sonexay.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has brought many difficulties to the Lao people, and thus, I especially expect the railway to be open to traffic this year, which is something the Lao people have been dreaming for a long time,” said Somphone Inleuangsy, aged 24, from Luang Namtha, a mountainous province in northern Laos that borders China. He is currently receiving training at the CREC-2 railing base on the northern outskirts of Vientiane.

She told Xinhua “There is a Chinese saying ‘to get rich, build roads first,’ and I hope Laos, with the Laos-China railway, will become prosperous soon. I also hope Laos will become a transportation hub in Southeast Asia to drive the development in the region.”

“As a female, among all over 600 trainees of the China-Laos Railway, I feel very honored and proud. I hope that I can become a formal railway employee after the training, and I hope my parents can see how I drive a train,” Somphone said. “I also hope that with the opening of the China-Laos railway, more Chinese friends can come to help the development here.”

At present, a total of 636 Lao youngsters are trained for the future operation of China-Laos Railway, working as train drivers, equipment and infrastructure maintenance personnel.

“In the past two years, the cooperation between Laos and China has been outstanding. Especially, the first modern Vientiane-Vangvieng Expressway in Laos has been put into operation through cooperation, and the high-speed Laos-China Railway will be completed by the end of this year,” said Valy Vetsaphong, Lao Prime Minister’s advisor and vice president of the Lao National Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

“This is due to the policy coordination between the two countries, and the dovetail between Laos’ strategy to convert from a landlocked country to a land-linked hub and China’s Belt and Road Initiative.”

Valy told Xinhua “The Laos-China Railway will lay a new foundation for the introduction of foreign investment, and Laos will surely take the advantage to participate in the regional and global industrial chain. In other words, the China-Laos Railway will not only promote bilateral trade, investment and people-to-people exchanges, but also benefit the countries to be connected. I believe that the completion and operation of the Laos-China railway will promote the post-pandemic recovery of neighboring countries and the whole region.”

The over 400 km railway will run from Boten border gate in northern Laos bordering China to Vientiane with an operating speed of 160 km per hour.

The electrified passenger and cargo railway is built with the full application of the Chinese management and technical standards. The construction of the project started in December 2016 and is scheduled to be completed and open to traffic in December 2021. Enditem