Pubblicato in: India, Problemia Energetici, Russia, Stati Uniti

India. Nucleare. Dopo i sei reattori russi, compra anche sei reattori americani.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-03-24.

India. Akciós Utazások. 001

India. Quadruplicato il Pil in meno di venti anni. Q4 +7.2%.

India. Non può finanziare l’energia necessaria per lo sviluppo.

«Nowadays India’s consumption of oil, of which 80% has to be imported, is continuously growing»

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«In 2017, when the average annual price per barrel was 54 USD, India spent over 75 billion USD on oil»

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La Russia sbarca in India con sei nuovi reattori nucleari

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«L’India intende triplicare la sua capacità nucleare e si affida ad Usa e Russia»

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«Gli Stati uniti costruiranno sei centrali nucleari in India»

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«ad ottobre 2018, il Paese ha siglato un patto con la Russia per la costruzione di altri sei reattori nucleari.»

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Di questi giorni la notizia che l’India comprerà anche altre sei centrali atomiche dagli Stati Uniti. Sembrerebbe dai fatti che l’India abbia optato per il nucleare.

Una ghiotta curiosità.

Fino allo scorso anno era in corsa anche la Francia.

Poi, a quanto si dice nei corridoi, Mr Macron ha esternato con la sua usuale franchezza a Mr Modi il suo pensiero sulla India, Da quel momento di questo progetto non se ne sente più parlare.


Energia Oltre. 2019-03-21. Usa costruiranno sei centrali nucleari in India

L’India intende triplicare la sua capacità nucleare e si affida ad Usa e Russia

Gli Stati uniti costruiranno sei centrali nucleari in India. E’ questo, in breve, quanto deciso in occasione dell’incontro a Washington tra il ministro degli Esteri indiano, Vijay Gokhale, e Andrea Thompson, sottosegretario di stato Usa per il controllo delle armi e la sicurezza internazionale.

I due Paesi “si sono impegnati a rafforzare la sicurezza bilaterale e la cooperazione nucleare, comprendente la costruzione di sei centrali nucleari statunitensi in India”, è stato detto a margine dell’incontro.

WESTINGHOUSE RAGGIUNGE OBIETTIVO?

Dopo anni in cui la societa’ statunitense Westinghouse ha negoziato con New Delhi la costruzione di centrali a energia atomica, ora ha l’occasione per dare una svolta ai suoi progetti Fino ad oggi, infatti, non c’è stata alcuna intesa a causa di problemi legati alla legislazione locale.

TRIPLICARE CAPACITA’ NUCLEARE

La realizzazione delle centrali rientra in un progetto ben più grande: l’India vuole triplicare la sua capacita’ nucleare entro il 2024. Con questo obiettivo, ad ottobre 2018, il Paese ha siglato un patto con la Russia per la costruzione di altri sei reattori nucleari.

Annunci
Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Problemia Energetici, Senza categoria, Unione Europea

Nucleare. Si inizia a rivalutarlo. Il declino dei liberal. – Bbc.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-02-07.

2019-01-19__nucleare__001

Per vivere, e possibilmente crescere, il mondo ha bisogno non solo di energia, ma soprattutto di energia a costi ragionevoli.

Stanno arrivando i tempi nei quali i conti devono essere fatti in modo accurato.

Di questi tempi la Cina ha cessato le sovvenzioni statali alle energie alternative che si sono dimostrate essere antieconomiche ed ha annunciato che intende aumentare del 25% la quota di energia ottenuta bruciando carbone.

Carbone. Consumi mondiali. I numeri parlano chiaro. La Cina.

Cina. Energie alternative solo se più economiche. Fine delle sovvenzioni.

Simultaneamente, la Cina ha lanciato un consistente piano di costruzione di centrali atomiche.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Cina. In funzione a Taishan il primo reattore nucleare Epr.

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Per quanti abbiano memoria storica, i Meeting di Davos erano stati le celebrazioni sacrali del ‘clima’ e della fine del carbone, il cui uso avrebbe dovuto scomparire dalla faccia della terra.

Ma questo anno non saranno presenti né il Presidente Trump né il Presidente Xi.

Davos assomiglia sempre più ad un nobile decaduto che vive sotto i ponti di un rigagnolo, vendendosi gli ultimi pezzi del servizio di argento per comprarsi un tozzo di pane.

Davos, Merkel ‘sostituisce’ Trump al Forum fra le nevi

«Si aprirà a Davos il 22 e fino al 25 gennaio il consueto appuntamento con il World Economic Forum, l’incontro con il gotha politico ed economico del mondo.

Via Trump, arriva la Merkel. Per un presidente americano che non sarà presente quest’anno al Forum economico mondiale, causa i guai in casa legati allo scontro con i democratici e allo ‘shutdown’, arriva a sorpresa una cancelliera tedesca che in molti, oggi, considerano l’ultimo baluardo della globalizzazione e del mondo liberale. ….

Vistosa anche l’assenza della figlia Ivanka e del genero Jared Kushner. Così come quest’anno è assente Xi Jinping, primo presidente cinese al Wef che nel 2017 lanciò una controffensiva a suo modo globalista. ….

Impegnato da guai domestici (gilet gialli) anche il presidente francese Emmanuel Macron, l’Europa vedrà una folta rappresentanza della Commissione Ue (da Barnier a Katainen, dalla Malmstrom a Moscovici a Oettinger)»

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Con Mr Macron e Frau Merkel ridotti a molto meno delle anatre zoppe, il ‘clima‘ non ha più potentati politici di appoggio, quelli che stabilivano per legge quale dovesse essere la verità scientifica del momento, traendone quindi le conseguenze per i propri sodali.

Non stupisce quindi l’editoriale della Bbc, la Masada dei liberal socialisti, in cui l’articolista si interroga se il nucleare non sia la risposta corretta ai crescenti bisogni energetici mondiali.

È un pezzo di rara fattura per il preziosismo formale di un inglese che cerca di dire senza volerlo fare apertamente. È un apprezzabile esercizio di contorsionismo logico, logico si fa per dire. Ricorda da vicino lo stile con il quale l’on. De Mita di infausta memoria scriveva le proprie relazioni.

Ancora qualche anno di pazienza, e poi l’Unione Europea marcerà tranquillamente con centrali a carbone affiancate da quelle atomiche.


Bbc. 2019-01-18. Climate change: Is nuclear power the answer?

Nuclear is good for the environment. Nuclear is bad for the environment. Both statements are true.

Why is it good? Nuclear power is planned to be a key part of the UK’s energy mix.

The key benefit is that it helps keep the lights on while producing hardly any of the CO2 emissions that are heating the climate.

CO2 emissions come from traditional ways of creating electricity such as burning gas and coal.

And the government is expected to have halted emissions almost completely by 2050, to help curb damage to the climate.

Why is it bad for the environment?

Because major nuclear accidents are few and far between, but when they happen they create panic.

Take the Fukushima explosions in 2011, which released radioactive material into the surrounding air in Japan. Or the Chernobyl accident in 1986, which spewed radioactive material across northern Europe.

But arguably, the bigger environmental problem is what to do with nuclear waste.

This is a very live issue in the UK, where contaminated material has been held in a temporary store at the Sellafield site in Cumbria.

The government has been trying for years to secure a site with the right geology, offering cash sweeteners to local communities to host a permanent £12bn underground store for the most dangerous waste. So far no permanent dump has been agreed – that is after 70 years of nuclear power in the UK.

Can we get by without new nuclear?

“The UK policy identifying the need for nuclear to play a role alongside renewables has been supported by numerous independent studies,” said a spokesperson for EDF, which is building the Hinkley C nuclear power plant.

“Nuclear provides low-carbon electricity when the wind doesn’t blow and the sun doesn’t shine.”

Previously civil servants estimated that future UK energy supplies would be divided up roughly 30/30/30 between nuclear, wind and fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage (CCS).

But no-one has been willing to invest at scale in the expensive CCS technology, which pumps CO2 emissions into rocks.

Wind is ready to take its place in the sun. But with old nuclear stations closing, nuclear won’t be able to fulfil its third of the deal unless new nuclear plants are built.

The issue has caused a bitter divide between environmentalists, with some arguing that the risk from climate change is so severe that it’s worth supping nuclear fuel, albeit with a long spoon.

Others argue that the technology is dead and that renewables and other options can supply the UK’s needs without the danger of nuclear accidents and waste.

Prof Jim Watson, director of the UK Energy Research Centre, told BBC News: “Most analysts now have accepted that we don’t need 30% of energy from nuclear – renewables can take a substantially bigger share.

“But taking any option off the table makes the job of meeting essential carbon targets even harder. It would certainly be hard to do without nuclear altogether.”

What are the alternatives?

The people who keep our lights on are looking to find ways of extending the life of existing nuclear plants, and trying to get nuclear power more cheaply.

Factory-built small modular reactors that can be delivered on the back of a lorry are touted as one solution – but they are not expected to be operating at any scale until well into the 2030s. And what’s more, with nuclear, bigger is generally better.

Meanwhile, other options are being urgently explored. We need the power market to be more flexible. We need to develop better batteries and other techniques for storing power.

And we need systems that will reduce the demand for electricity at peak times and transfer the demand to off-peak times when wind energy is plentiful and cheap.

One particularly hard task is to find ways of storing power between months and even seasons.

Last but by no means least, the government needs to prompt people to insulate their homes to reduce the demand for energy in the first place.

The news that Hitachi is suspending work on a nuclear plant in north Wales has made all these tasks more urgent.

Pubblicato in: India, Problemia Energetici

India. Non può finanziare l’energia necessaria per lo sviluppo.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-08-08.

2018-07-26__India__Centrali__001

«At the beginning of the 1990s, about 65% of India’s oil demand was covered by its own production»

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«Nowadays India’s consumption of oil, of which 80% has to be imported, is continuously growing»

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«In 2017, when the average annual price per barrel was 54 USD, India spent over 75 billion USD on oil»

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«Thus, an increase in the average annual price per barrel to 75 USD means that India will pay 110 billion USD per year»

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«An annual increase in the price of oil by only 1 USD will add 1.44 billion dollars to the trade deficit»

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Ma il problema non è soltanto il prezzo del petrolio.

«Due to the population growth and the resultant increase in the number of cars as well as the stagnancy in the domestic oil production, the imports of this raw material will be rising for the foreseeable future»

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La produzione di energia elettrica in India è soprattutto basata sul carbone, con quasi il 70% della produzione in rapida crescita, si prevede che triplicato nel 2020.

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Nel primo trimestre 2018 il pil indiano è cresciuto del 7.4%. un tasso di crescita che dura dal 2002.

Se la crescita del pil è sicuramente un dato confortante, si dovrebbe nel contempo ricordare come esso possa prender campo solo con un adeguato supporto energetico, che comporta il simultaneo incremento dei prodotti petroliferi.

In parole povere, i benefici derivanti dall’incremento del pil andrebbero a ripianare i maggiori costi dell’approvvigionamento energetico, e sempre che il costo del barile non aumenti ancora.

L’India ha avviato da tempo grandi progetti di centrali idroelettriche

Arun. Centrale idroelettrica condivisa tra India e Nepal.

ma anche questi sforzi sembrerebbero essere insufficienti.

«Nel 2011 l’energia nucleare in India ha generato il 3,7% dell’energia elettrica prodotta in totale nel Paese.

A settembre 2010, sono presenti in questa nazione 6 centrali elettronucleari in funzione che dispongono complessivamente di 19 reattori operativi e uno in costruzione.

Si stanno inoltre edificando due nuove centrali elettronucleari dotate di un totale di 3 reattori.

Non vi sono centrali elettronucleari chiuse.»

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«Il futuro programma nucleare indiano è uno dei maggiori al mondo assieme a quello cinese, i piani sono di aumentare il contributo dell’energia nucleare per il suo mix energetico: avere almeno 21.000 MW in funzione nel 2020; 63.000 MW nel 2032 per poi arrivare a generare il 25% dell’elettricità nel 2050, con un possibile aumento fino al 50%, che corrisponderebbe a 6-700 GW di potenza installata.»

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Verosimilmente, solo l’implementazione del programma nucleare potrebbe risolvere questo problema, anche se non certo per quanto riguarda l’autotrazione.


Gefira. 2018-07-26. India cannot finance the oil it needs for its economic growth

At the beginning of the 1990s, about 65% of India’s oil demand was covered by its own production. Nowadays India’s consumption of oil, of which 80% has to be imported, is continuously growing. Due to the population growth and the resultant increase in the number of cars as well as the stagnancy in the domestic oil production, the imports of this raw material will be rising for the foreseeable future. Such a high dependence on external producers along with growing oil prices will become a significant burden on the Indian economy.

With the oil price hovering around 60 and 70 dollars per barrel, US shale on average still generates a negative cash flow. America and other producers therefore need more expensive oil. The Trump administration does whatever is in its power to raise the oil price to make America’s shale oil industry profitable. Since Trump came to office, United State’s sanctions imposed on the biggest oil producers such as Russia,Iran or Venezuela pushed up the oil price.

The renewed Iranian sanctions will not only do harm to Tehran, but also to Delhi. In terms of oil imports India has already overtaken Japan, becoming the world’s third (after China and the United States) largest oil importer. India imports oil from Saudi Arabia (20%), Iraq (16%), Iran (11%), Nigeria (11%), United Arab Emirates (9%) and Venezuela (8%), which makes up a 14% (largest) share of all imported goods.

In 2017, when the average annual price per barrel was 54 USD, India spent over 75 billion USD on oil. Taking into account this year’s increase in imports to 4 million barrels per day plus the rising prices, one can expect a higher burden on the Indian economy. Thus, an increase in the average annual price per barrel to 75 USD means that India will pay 110 billion USD per year. If the barrel reached 100 USD, the same level of imports would amount to 146 billion USD. The equivalent level of raw material delivered at USD 125 per barrel means an expenditure of 183 billion USD. As it is, India’s trade deficit already almost doubled in the fiscal year 2017-2018 to 87.2 billion dollars,3)with the price of oil standing on average at 57 dollars a barrel. An annual increase in the price of oil by only 1 USD will add 1.44 billion dollars to the trade deficit.

The rise in oil prices will have a very negative impact on Indian spending and will also slow down the country’s economic growth. Also China and Europe will suffer, but these highly advanced manufacturing hubs have a comfortable trade surplus. India, an impoverished, overcrowded state with a rapidly growing population, is not able to finance the energy it needs.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici, Russia

Russia – Cina. Accordo per costruire reattori nucleari di nuova generazione.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2018-06-15.

Cina. Centrali atomiche. 001

La Cina è un paese da oltre un miliardo e trecento milioni di abitanti: nel breve volgere di trenta anni è passata da un paese misero ad essere la prima potenza economica mondiali, se misurata come pil ppa.

Di questi tempi ha varato un grandioso progetto per fare emergere dalla povertà nella fascia della classe media circa seicento milioni di persone. Si delinea quindi un mercato interno di dimensioni quasi eguali a quelle di tutto l’occidente considerato assieme.

Cina ed emersione dalla povertà rurale.

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A parte il carbone, la Cina non dispone di significative quantità di energetici estrattivi, ed infatti è il maggiore importatore mondiale di petrolio e gas naturale.

Dimenticate Russia, Arabia, Iran, Opec. È la Cina che fa i prezzi del petrolio.

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Per queste considerazioni la Cina ha come passo obbligato il dotarsi di una consistente quantità di centrali atomiche.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

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«China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer»

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«The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.»

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«Deal signed in Beijing to build four Rosatom-designed reactors. Nations set to build two VVER-1200s at Xudabao, two at Tianwan»

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«China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power»

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«The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries»

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«As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom»

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Questa notizia dovrebbe dare da pensare a molti.

Sul mercato mondiale l’occidente è rappresentato soltanto dalla Westinghouse Electric Co., la quale però sta vincendo sempre meno commissioni e virtualmente è impossibilitata a costruire reattori in patria. In una situazione del genere i suoi prodotti diventano presto obsoleti e poco competitivi.

Se è vero che la Korea del Sud riesce ancora a reggere sul mercato del nucleare, sarebbe altrettanto vero constatare come sia specializzata in reattori atomici di bassa – media potenza. Un’offerta che può soddisfare molte esigenze locoregionali, ma non certo le richieste energetiche della Cina.

A parte il fatto che i reattori della Rosatom siano allo stato dell’arte, in pratica sono gli unici acquistabili sul mercato e con solide garanzie della manutenzione.

La prima centrale nucleare in Egitto a firma russa

La politica nucleare di Putin tra Nordafrica e Medio Oriente

Nucleare: Intesa tra Russia e Sud Africa per la costruzione di nuovi reattori nucleari (9,6 GW)

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L’occidente ha abbandonato per motivazioni ideologiche un settore altamente strategico nelle mani dei russi e dei cinesi.

È stato dissipato un know-how di difficile e costosa acquisizione con una leggerezza difficilmente comprensibile.


Bloomberg. 2018-06-09. Russia Joins China’s Race for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors

– Deal signed in Beijing to build four Rosatom-designed reactors

– Nations set to build two VVER-1200s at Xudabao, two at Tianwan

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China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power.

A plan to build four Russian units was among four deals signed Friday during a ceremony in Beijing attended by presidents Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin. The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries. China will finance the reactor construction, Rosatom Chief Executive Officer Alexey Likhachev said after the ceremony.

China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer. The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.

The nation signaled in March it would end a multiyear freeze on new reactor construction this year, and a month later approved the fuel-loading of Westinghouse Electric Co.’s AP1000 in Zhejiang province’s Sanmen and French-designed EPR in Guangdong’s Taishan. That paves the way for startups within months, which would be the first successful operations globally for units of their kind.

Russian Reactors

As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom.

China already uses some of Russia’s older technology. Two VVER-1000 units at Tianwan started in 2007, and a third was connected to the grid in December, Rosatom said.

“Tianwan has been a testing ground for Russian nuclear technology,” said Snowy Yao, an analyst at China Securities International Finance Holding Co. “China looks willing to try out all the latest designs before endorsing a winner.”

The two countries also on Friday signed deals for the supply of equipment, fuel and services for the CFR-600 fast reactor pilot project developed by state-owned CNNC, as well as the supply of generator parts for China’s lunar exploration program.

China previously signed a contract with Westinghouse to build two units at Xudabao, according to a World Nuclear Association report in October 2016. They were among six AP1000 reactors planned for the site, it said. A Beijing-based Westinghouse spokesman declined to comment Friday.

Pubblicato in: Problemia Energetici

Nigeria. Nuove centrali nucleari.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-11-03.

Niger e Nigeria 001

La Nigeria è un paese con 191 milioni di abitanti disposti su 923,768 km2. Il pil ppa procapite è di poco superiore ai seimila dollari americani all’anno, ed il tasso di fertilità vale 5.5.

L’economia nigeriana è la ventiseiesima a livello mondiale, è produttrice di petrolio, che però rappresenta solo il 14.4% del pil. Se il comparto agricolo appare in regresso, quello estrattivo ed industriale evidenzia segni di crescita.

Nigeria quasi fuori dalla recessione. Pil +3.2%.

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Il problema energetico è pressante, sia per la diversificazione delle fonti sia per l’orografia.

In un paese sostanzialmente povero di infrastrutture questo problema è acuito in modo severo.

Infatti, indipendentemente dal tipo di alimentazione, numero e dislocazione delle centrali elettriche è fortemente condizionato dai problemi del trasferimento dell’energia prodotta dalla centrale al consumatore finale.

Energia. Il problema degli elettrodotti a lunga distanza. Le dissipazioni.

Gli elettrodotti presentano infatti una dissipazione anche molto severa, così che le centrali elettriche dovrebbero essere locate abbastanza vicine, per ridurre la distanza della trasmissione.

Ma per un paese non ancora intensamente industrializzato questo aspetto implica la costruzione di numerose centrali elettriche, ma di piccole – medie dimensioni, per evitare lo spreco della sovrapproduzione, collocate abbastanza ravvicinate.

Come si vede, è un equilibrio molto delicato, plurifattoriale, che può essere mantenuto e fatto crescere solo avendo una visione globale della intera problematica.

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«Russia and Nigeria signed agreements on construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant and a Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor on the territory of Federal Republic of Nigeria»

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«According to the latest information provided by Bloomberg, Nigeria is in talks with Russia’s Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $80 billion as Africa’s biggest economy seeks to add 1,200 megawatts of capacity by the end of the decade»

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«A further three nuclear plants are planned, taking total capacity to 4,800 megawatts by 2035, with each facility costing $20 billion»

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«The first Nigerian plant will be operational in 2025»

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Tutto il mondo in crescita economica sta indirizzandosi verso il nucleare.

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Al momento, Cina, Russia e South Korea sono le principali esportatrici di impianti nucleari: i paesi occidentali si sono da tempo autoesclusi da questo mercato ed al momento attuale non avrebbero nemmeno il know-how sufficiente per entrare in una ragionevole concorrenza.

Scelta questa che travalica l’aspetto meramente tecnico.

Costruire una centrale atomica lega il paese a quello produttore dell’impianto per un lungo lasso di tempo. Diventa la espressione visibile di un accordo diplomatico e strategico sul lungo termine.

Sotto questo punto di vista, la rinuncia al nucleare dell’Occidente diventa elemento di peso ben maggiore di quello energetico puro. Un pesante scotto pagato ad una visione ideologica.

«Since 2004 Nigeria has a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University, and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2027 according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity. Nigeria hoped to begin construction in 2011 and start nuclear power production in 2017-2020. On 27 July 2007 Nigeria’s President Umaru Yar’Adua has urged the country to embrace nuclear power in order to meet its growing energy needs. Construction has not begun but plans have not been canceled by 2016.

More recently, in April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia’s state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State, in South-South Nigeria, and Kogi State, in the central northern part of the country. Both sites are planned to house two plants each.» [Fonte]

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Daily Trust. 2016-12-21. Nigeria, Russia sign nuclear power plants pact – Osaisai


Rosatom. 2017-10-31. Russia and Nigeria signed nuclear project development agreements

October 30, Abu-Dhabi – Russia and Nigeria signed agreements on construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant and a Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor on the territory of Federal Republic of Nigeria. The parties also signed a roadmap for cooperation in the field of peaceful usage of nuclear technologies.

On behalf of ROSATOM the documents were signed by Anton Moskvin, Vice president for Marketing and Business Development of Rusatom Overseas (a part of ROSATOM). The signer on behalf of Nigeria was Simon Pesco Mallam, Chairman of the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission.

The Signing Ceremony was attended by Director General of ROSATOM Mr. Alexey Likhachev and Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the international organizations in Vienna Ms. Vivian Nwunaku Rose Okeke. 

“The development of nuclear technologies will allow Nigeria to strengthen its position as one of the leading countries of the African continent. These are the projects of a large scale and strategic importance, that will determine the relationship between our two countries in the long term”, emphasized Anton Moskvin.

The feasibility studies for the Nuclear Power Plant project and the Research Center construction will include site screening, as well as the determination of key parameters of implementation, including; capacity, equipment lists, time frames and stages of implementation, as well as financing schemes.

For reference:

The two countries started their partnership in 2009 by executing an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful usage of nuclear technologies. Further on, intergovernmental agreements on cooperation in design, construction, operation and decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plant and the Nuclear Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor were signed.


Naij. 2017-10-31. Nigeria To Sign $80billion Nuclear Pact With Russia

According to the latest information provided by Bloomberg, Nigeria is in talks with Russia’s Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $80 billion as Africa’s biggest economy seeks to add 1,200 megawatts of capacity by the end of the decade. Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Franklin Erepamo Osaisai said that a joint coordination committee is in place and negotiations are ongoing for financing and contracting. Osaisai announced that Nigeria signed an agreement with Rosatom to cooperate on the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a facility in 2012. A further three nuclear plants are planned, taking total capacity to 4,800 megawatts by 2035, with each facility costing $20 billion. The first Nigerian plant will be operational in 2025. The source noted that peak electricity output of Africa’s biggest economy is about 3,800 megawatts, with a further 1,500 megawatts unavailable because of gas shortages. It added that South Africa, with a third of Nigeria’s population yet eight times more installed capacity, has also signed an agreement with Rosatom as the nation looks to add 9,600 megawatts of atomic power to its strained grid.


Bloomberg. 2017-10-31. Russia Signs Agreement With Nigeria for Nuclear Power Plant

– Study for plant and research center to include cost, capacity

– Rosatom seeking to build plants in other African nations

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Russia has signed agreements with Nigeria to build and operate a nuclear power plant in the oil-rich West African nation that has a deficit of reliable power and faces security challenges by Islamist militants in the far northeast.

Feasibility studies for the plant and a research center construction will include site screening, capacity, financing, and time frames of the projects, state-owned Russian nuclear company Rosatom said in an emailed statement. Representatives from the firm and the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission signed the deal.

The nations in 2009 signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful usage of nuclear technologies. Nigeria in 2015 was in talks with Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $20 billion, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission said at the time.

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, distributes an average of 4,500 megawatts of electricity. Half the output of the Egbin power plant, the nation’s biggest, is lost because of inadequate transmission infrastructure, its chief officer said last month.

Rosatom is seeking to build nuclear power plants in other countries on the continent including South Africa.

Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-24.

2017-09-01__Cina_Nucleare__001sites-of-npps-in-china

La World Nuclear Association ha pubblicato un estensivo lavoro sullo stato attuale e le prospettive future del nucleare in Cina: «Nuclear Power in China»

L’articolo è troppo lungo per essere riportato in toto, per cui ne citeremo solo qualche estratto significativo.

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«- Mainland China has 37 nuclear power reactors in operation, 20 under construction, and more about to start construction.

– The reactors under construction include some of the world’s most advanced, to give a 70% increase of nuclear capacity to 58 GWe by 2020-21. Plans are for up to 150 GWe by 2030, and much more by 2050.

– The impetus for nuclear power in China is increasingly due to air pollution from coal-fired plants.

– China’s policy is to have a closed nuclear fuel cycle.

– China has become largely self-sufficient in reactor design and construction, as well as other aspects of the fuel cycle, but is making full use of western technology while adapting and improving it.

– Relative to the rest of the world, a major strength is the nuclear supply chain.

– China’s policy is to ‘go global’ with exporting nuclear technology including heavy components in the supply chain.»

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«Most of mainland China’s electricity is produced from fossil fuels, predominantly from coal – 73% in 2015. Two large hydro projects are recent additions: Three Gorges of 18.2 GWe and Yellow River of 15.8 GWe. Wind capacity in 2015 was 8.6% of total, but delivering only 3.3% of the electricity.»

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«The IEA notes that since 2012, China has been the country with the largest installed power capacity, and it has increased this by 14% since then to reach 1,245 GWe in 2014, or 21% of global capacity, slightly ahead of the United States (20%). The age structures of the power plants in these two countries differ remarkably: in China almost 70% (865 GWe) was built within the last decade, whereas in the United States half of the fleet (580 GWe) was over 30 years old.»

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«Electricity demand has been slowing from over 14% pa in 2010, corresponding with a 10% growth in GDP, according to the China Electricity Council. Three-quarters of this was in industry. In 2015 electricity demand growth was only 0.5%, corresponding with a 6.9% growth in GDP, showing a marked decoupling of the two metrics, though this is partly due to subdued economic conditions. In the 13th Five-Year Plan, power demand growth is expected to be 3.8-4.6% pa to 2020. Residential consumption is about 13% of the total (compared with about 20% in Europe and 34% in the USA).

Per capita electricity consumption was 3510 kWh in 2012. By 2030 it is expected to be 5500 kWh/yr and by 2050 about 8500 kWh/yr.»

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«Nuclear generation was 24% up on 2015.»

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«it consumed about 4.3 billion tonnes of coal in 2013, more than half the world total, and coal peaked at more than 70% of China’s primary energy»

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«In March 2013 the NDRC announced new plans for seawater desalination.* China aims to produce 2.2 million m3/day of desal water by 2015, more than three times the 2011 level. More than half of the freshwater channelled to islands and more than 15% of water delivered to coastal factories will come from the sea by 2015»

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«In the 13th Five-Year Plan from 2016, six to eight nuclear reactors are to be approved each year.»

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«In December 2011 the National Energy Administration (NEA) said that China would make nuclear energy the foundation of its power-generation system in the next “10 to 20 years”, adding as much as 300 GWe of nuclear capacity over that period»

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«China General Nuclear Power (CGN) was expecting to have 34,000 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2020, providing 20% of the province’s power»

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«37 operating nuclear power reactors: 33,657 MWe»

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«60 nuclear reactors under construction: 68,7006 MWe»

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«179 nuclear reactors proposed: 205,000 MWe»

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In sintesi.

– Le centrali elettriche alimentate a carbone fossile contribuiscono al 73% della produzione elettrica.

– Le centrali atomiche contribuiscono al 24% della produzione elettrica.

– Il restante 3% proviene da fonti idroelettriche ed altre alternative.

– I tre quarti delle centrali elettriche cinesi è stato costruito negli ultimi dieci anni, contro i trenta degli Stati Uniti.

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– La Cina ha al momento in funzione 37 centrali atomiche, 60 sono in costruzione e 179 sono al momento proposte o in fase di progettazione.

Una decina di anni ed il suo fabbisogno energetico sarà supplito nella sua quasi totalità dal nucleare.

Pubblicato in: Problemia Energetici

Turkia. Ripresa la costruzione della centrale atomica russa.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2016-11-16.

 istanbul-004

«Turkey expects the first unit of its planned $20 billion Akkuyu nuclear power plant, being built in collaboration with Russia, to be online by the end of 2023»

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«work on the Akkuyu project, in southern Turkey, would be accelerated after Russia and Turkey restored ties in August»

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È amara constatazione che l’Occidente abbia abbandonato il nucleare al punto tale da non essere più in grado di progettare e costruire centrali atomiche allo stato dell’arte.

Alcune società americane ed europee continuano a gestire e manutenere centrali atomiche, ma ciò è ben lontano dall’avere capacità progettuali competitive sui mercati internazionali.

A ciò si aggiunga il fatto che alle motivazioni economiche e tecniche, le scelte dei paesi non occidentali sono condizionate anche dal clima politico internazionale.

A nostro personale parere, il ritiro così drastico dal nucleare fu scelta strategicamente improvvida.


Reuters. 2016-11-08. Turkey expects first unit of Akkuyu nuclear plant to be online by end 2023

Turkey expects the first unit of its planned $20 billion Akkuyu nuclear power plant, being built in collaboration with Russia, to be online by the end of 2023, energy minister Berat Albayrak said on Tuesday.

President Tayyip Erdogan has said that work on the Akkuyu project, in southern Turkey, would be accelerated after Russia and Turkey restored ties in August. That followed months of tension between Ankara and Moscow after Turkey downed a Russian warplane over Syria late last year.

In a presentation to parliament outlining his ministry’s budget for next year, Albayrak said Turkey would focus on enhancing supply security in natural gas and electricity and using as much domestic and renewable energy sources as possible.

He also said the country was on track to become a major hub for energy trading, particularly for natural gas. Plans were being accelerated for additional natural gas storage, and for a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU) for liquefied natural gas (LNG), he said.

“Following the latest measures, the storage capacity will increase to 10 million cubic meters,” Albayrak said, adding that Turkey’s annual natural gas consumption was around five times more than that.

Turkey plans to bring online the first phase of new natural gas storage facilities near the capital Ankara by January, while upgrades for existing storage are due to be completed from 2019 onwards.

It also plans to drill a deep water oil well in the western part of the Black Sea in 2018, Albayrak said.

He added that Turkey’s total power generation capacity has risen to 78,072 megawatts (MW) as of end-September, with 2,097 production plants.

Natural gas is the main source of Turkey’s energy supply at 31 percent, while oil products are the source for 30 percent of energy supplies, followed by coal with 27 percent and renewables at 12 percent.

Pubblicato in: Geopolitica Europea, Medio Oriente, Problemia Energetici

Egitto. Impianto Nucleare russo di Al Dabaa funzionante per il 2022.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2016-05-20.

 Egypt 004. - Al Daab

 

L’Egitto è una nazione di quasi novanta milioni di abitanti con pil ppa pro capite di circa 6,540 Usd l’anno. Nell’ultimo decennio è stato travagliato da una serie di torbidi politici denominati “Primavera Araba” che hanno profondamente destabilizzato e severamente rallentato il processo di emersione del sistema economico. Non indifferenti sono state le intromissioni, anche sfacciatamente aperte, di molte potenze internazionali, politiche e religiose.

Per un concreto rilancio del sistema economico, oltre la ovvia necessità di un clima di stabilità politica, è fondamentale poter disporre di un adeguato supporto energetico.

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L’Egitto ha sempre cercato di barcamenarsi dapprima tra Occidente ed Oriente, poi tra islamici moderati e fondamentalisti, infine cercando di schivare i colpi di quanti avessero tutti gli interessi che ritornasse nel degrado economico e politico.

Diciamo pure che è stata ben dura.

Dopo una lunga serie di trattative, decolla adesso l’inizio della costruzione della centrale nucleare di Al Dabaa.

L’impianto sarà progettato, costruito e gestito interamente dai russi.

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Considerazioni.

Per l’Egitto è essenziale poter contare su di un impianto di produzione di energia elettrica affidabile, con ragionevoli rapporti prestazioni/costi, scollegato dagli alterni ondeggiamenti dei prezzi dei minerali energetici e dalla loro sensibilità alle bufere politiche.

Poi, su di una solida base produttiva, allora anche un supporto di energie alternative potrebbe trovare ragionevole contesto.

I russi hanno un consolidato know-how nella progettazione e costruzione di impianti nucleari. Al momento, hanno in essere contratti per oltre trecento miliardi di Usd.

Al solito, il problema non è tecnico.

Il problema è strategico.

A parte il fatto che tra progetto e realizzazione intercorre circa una decina di anni, l’Egitto si sta legando alla Russia per quello che sarà manutenzione e smaltimento delle scorie.

Nel converso, emerge sempre più evidente come l’Occidente e l’Europa, una volta leader nel settore, ne sia virtualmente uscito. Non è solo un problema energetico geopolitico: è un problema industriale pesante. Il know-how non si improvvisa proprio per nulla.

Nota.

Sono debitore al sig. Luca Bertagnolio, che ringrazio di cuore, della segnalazione di questi link.

Egypt Independent. 2016-05-15. Nuclear power projects vital for meeting Egypt’s electricity needs: Sisi.

President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi has stressed the essential role that nuclear power will play in providing for Egypt’s future electricity needs, while helping to preserve sources of energy like oil and natural gas.

Sisi made the comments during a meeting with Prime Minister Sherif Ismail and Electricity Minister Mohamed Shaker, according to a statement from the presidential office.

Shaker reviewed the outcomes of his meeting with officials from Russia’s state-owned nuclear firm Rosatom concerning contracts for the Dabaa nuclear plant. Egypt and Russia earlier signed an agreement to build and operate the first nuclear plant in Egypt at Dabaa on Egypt’s north coast.

The agreement concerns the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant equipped with four NPP units with a capacity of 1200 MW each. Russia will offer a loan to Egypt to complete the project in seven years.

Shaker also announced that new standards have been adopted to fix the electricity meters in buildings that have obtained their electricity supply illegally. He also said there would be a review of the outcomes of the maintenance of electricity generation stations.

The government is seeking to increase electricity production in order maintain supplies and prevent outages, which caused serious problems for domestic consumers and industry up until last year.

Sisi stressed the need to install pre-paid meters in all new housing projects, not only for electricity usage, but also for water and natural gas.

The government should be paid whatever it is owned, he said, ordering strict measures against efforts to obtain electricity supplies by illegal means.

Shaker also said at the meeting that he is reviewing several proposals for linking the Egyptian power grid with those of other nations, allowing for the sharing and sale of electricity supplies in both directions.

 

Reuters. 2015-11-19. Egypt, Russia sign deal to build a nuclear power plant

Moscow and Cairo signed an agreement on Thursday for Russia to build a nuclear power plant in Egypt, with Russia extending a loan to Egypt to cover the cost of construction.

A spokesman for Russia’s state-owned nuclear firm Rosatom said the plant, Egypt’s first, would be built at Dabaa in the north of the country and was expected to be completed by 2022.

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, speaking on state TV, gave few details but said the project would involve the building of a ‘third-generation’ plant with four reactors.

It is not clear how much the deal is worth but Sisi said the loan from Russia would be paid off over 35 years.

“The country and the balance sheet will not bear the cost of building this plant. It will be paid back through the actual production of electricity that will be generated by this plant,” he said.

Rosatom said in October that it was in the final stages of negotiating the deal, which it expected to be completed by the end of the year. Egypt has been considering a nuclear plant at Dabaa on and off since the 1980s.

But Cairo froze its nuclear plans after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and only announced in 2006, under former President Hosni Mubarak, that it intended to revive them. Mubarak was then overthrown in a revolution in 2011.

Sisi, who came to power in 2014, said in February that he had signed a memorandum of understanding to go ahead with the nuclear project.

Egypt, with a population of 90 million and vast energy requirements, is seeking to diversify its energy sources. As well as a nuclear plant, Sisi has talked of building solar and wind energy facilities in the coming three years to generate around 4,300 megawatts of power.

The country also recently discovered a large reserve of natural gas off the Mediterranean coast.

“This was a long dream for Egypt, to have a peaceful nuclear program to produce electricity,” Sisi said. “This dream was there for many years and today, God willing, we are taking the first step to make it happen.”