Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Il Bureau of Labor Statistics ha rilasciato il Report Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.
The number of job openings increased to a series high of 10.1 million on the last business day of June, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires rose to 6.7 million and total separations edged up to 5.6 million. Within separations, the quits rate increased to 2.7 percent. The layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 0.9 percent, matching the series low reached last month. This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm sector, by industry, by four geographic regions, and by establishment size class.
In the last business day of June, the job openings level increased to a series high of 10.1 million (+590,000). The job openings rate rose to 6.5 percent. Job openings increased in several industries, with the largest increases in professional and business services (+227,000); retail trade (+133,000); and accommodation and food services (+121,000). The number of job openings increased in the South region. (See table 1.)
In June, the number and rate of hires increased to 6.7 million (+697,000) and 4.6 percent, respectively. Hires increased in retail trade (+291,000); state and local government education (+94,000); and durable goods manufacturing (+36,000). The number of hires increased in the South and Midwest regions. (See table 2.)
Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.
In June, the number of total separations edged up to 5.6 million (+254,000). The rate was little changed at 3.8 percent. The total separations level increased in professional and business services (+124,000); durable goods manufacturing (+48,000); and state and local government, excluding education (+30,000).
Total separations decreased in state and local government education (-43,000). Total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)
In June, the quits level and rate increased to 3.9 million (+239,000) and 2.7 percent, respectively. Quits increased in professional and business services (+72,000); durable goods manufacturing (+47,000); and state and local government, excluding education (+33,000). Quits decreased in state and local government education (-26,000). The number of quits increased in the South region. (See table 4.)
In June, the number of layoffs and discharges was little changed at 1.3 million, a series low. The rate was unchanged at 0.9 percent, matching last month’s series low. Layoffs and discharges were little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)
The number of other separations increased in June to 405,000 (+58,000). Other separations increased in professional and business services (+43,000) and in durable goods manufacturing (+6,000). Other separations decreased in arts, entertainment, and recreation (-4,000). The other separations level was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)
Net Change in Employment.
Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining.
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even if the hires level is steady or rising.
Over the 12 months ending in June, hires totaled 72.1 million and separations totaled 65.2 million, yielding a net employment gain of 6.9 million. These totals include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
Establishment Size Class.
In June, the job openings rate increased in large establishments with 250-999 employees, 1,000-4,999 employees, and 5,000 or more employees. The hires rate increased in medium establishments with 50-249 employees and in large establishments with 250-999 employees and 5,000 or more employees. The quits rate and the layoffs and discharges rate for large establishments with 250-999 employees increased in June. The other separations rate increased in large establishments with 1,000-4,999 employees. For a more in-depth description of the JOLTS establishment size class estimates, please visit http://www.bls.gov/jlt/sizeclassmethodology.htm.
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Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where they are working.
Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month.
A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions:
– A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal.
– The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time.
– The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on television, or on the radio; posting Internet notices, posting “help wanted” signs, networking or making “word-of-mouth” announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.
Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future, positions for which employees have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work, and positions to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.
Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is reported by type of separation: quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who left voluntarily with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes involuntary separations initiated by the employer including layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed similarly.