Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Unione Europea

Germania. 10.1 milioni di lavoratori in Kurzarbeit.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2020-05-05.

Brügel Pieter. La parabola dei ciechi. Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte

Kurzarbeit è un sistema che vige in Austria ed in Germania in accordo al quale un’azienda in difficoltà non licenzia i dipendenti, ma riduce il loro orario di lavoro, e, di conseguenza, lo stipendio, a 30, 24 fino a 12 ore lavorative settimanali. La differenza tra lo stipendio pieno e quello ridotto è coperto in toto oppure in parte dallo stato.

La Germania ha 45.244 milioni di persone al lavoro, delle quali 10.1 milioni sono in regime di Kurzarbeit: questa categoria rende conto del 22.33% del totale dei lavoratori.

Si noti come, in accordo ai dati forniti da Destatis, solo 33.938 milioni di lavoratori sono assunti con contratti che prevedono il versamento di contributi sociali: costituiscono il 75.04% della forza lavoro.

Senza la figura del Kurzarbeit, i disoccupati tedeschi sarebbero 12.743 milioni, cifra che ben rappresenterebbe l’attuale situazione recessiva del sistema economico tedesco. Con questo computo, il numero dei disoccupati tedeschi sarebbe di poco inferiore a quello dei disoccupati americani, pur essendo gli USA quattro volte più popolati della Germania.

«The coronavirus pandemic has caused German firms to apply for a record 10.1 million workers on state-subsidised reduced hours terms»

«German companies have signed up a record 10.1 million workers for a state salary scheme to compensate cuts in working hours due to the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic»

«The previous record was in May 2009, when 1.44 million people were on reduced hours in the aftermath of the global financial crisis»

«Reduced work hours, known in Germany as Kurzarbeit, or “short-time” work, gives employers more options than the choice of keeping workers or firing them»

«You come 70% of the hours, or 50% or 30%.»

«Short-time work secures millions of jobs in Germany, …. We may not be able to guarantee every job in our country, but we will fight for every job»

«The number of people claiming unemployment benefits rose by 308,000 from March to April, 415,000 more than a year ago and taking the overall total to 2.644 million »

«The demand for new employees has literally collapsed»

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I tedeschi sono molto disinvolti nella definizione dei termini. Questo comporta che il termine ‘occupato’ abbia un contenuto differente in paesi diversi, e quindi i relativi numeri dovrebbero essere non comparabili.

Ma la frase più importante è l’ultima riportata:

«The demand for new employees has literally collapsed»

*

Germany: Record number of workers on reduced hours.

The coronavirus pandemic has caused German firms to apply for a record 10.1 million workers on state-subsidised reduced hours terms. At the same time, the unemployment rate soared in April.

German companies have signed up a record 10.1 million workers for a state salary scheme to compensate cuts in working hours due to the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic, according to new figures released by the Federal Employment Agency (BA).

The previous record was in May 2009, when 1.44 million people were on reduced hours in the aftermath of the global financial crisis.

“Short-time work secures millions of jobs in Germany,” said Labor Minister Hubertus Heil. “We may not be able to guarantee every job in our country, but we will fight for every job.”

The number of people claiming unemployment benefits rose by 308,000 from March to April, 415,000 more than a year ago and taking the overall total to 2.644 million.

The spike marks the first time ever that unemployment and underemployment has increased in the month of April. The unemployment rate rose by 0.7 percentage points to 5.8%.

“The demand for new employees has literally collapsed,” said BA chief Detlef Scheele. “The coronavirus pandemic will likely lead to the most serious recession in Germany of the post-World War II period … The labor market is also coming under pressure,” he added.

Slash in work hours

Reduced work hours, known in Germany as Kurzarbeit, or “short-time” work, gives employers more options than the choice of keeping workers or firing them, explained economist Holger Schäfer from the German Economic Institute in Cologne.

“I can say, ‘You come 70% of the hours, or 50% or 30%.’ One doesn’t have to say either all or nothing,” he said. “When the crisis is over and the demand for labor rises, then the business owner has exactly the right staff available right away and doesn’t have to find new people.”

Schäfer said the method also protects a country’s entire economy. “When someone is afraid that their job will be lost in the near future, that person limits their consumption, they don’t buy a new car and spend less money, and that has in turn an effect on the macro-economy.”

Germany’s Kurzarbeit system has been credited with saving hundreds of thousands of jobs during the 2009 financial crisis and has been adopted throughout the European Union.

The German government expanded the programme as the scale of the coronavirus threat increased.

Applications for the scheme do not mean that workers will in fact be placed on shorter hours.

“Nevertheless, this is a never-before-seen figure compared with recent decades, and a multiple of the notifications seen during the great recession in 2008-09,” the BA said.