La situazione politica slovacca è di grande interesse per l’Europa e per l’Italia sia perché essa ha un voto in sede del Consiglio Europeo, sia perché al momento è travagliata da una severa crisi politica, accentuata da una legge elettorale proporzionale. Ma il quadro politico è fortemente frammentato: si presentano infatti ben venticinque partiti politici. Tutto potrebbe essere possibile.
Alle elezioni presidenziali del 30 marzo 2019:
«Zuzana Caputova ha vinto al ballottaggio le elezioni presidenziali in Slovacchia con il 58,27 per cento dei voti. Caputova si impone sul suo rivale, il socialista Maros Sefcovic, che ha ottenuto il 41,73% dei voti. Paladina di ecologisti e minoranze e prima donna capo di Stato del Paese ha incentrato la sua campagna elettorale sull’anti-corruzione, e con un approccio più vicino all’Unione europea.» [Fonte]
Zuzana Čaputová era la leader di Progressive Slovakia, e fu appoggiata dal SaS e dallo SPOLU.
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Per migliorare la comprensione di questo quadro chaotico, riportiamo le definizioni delle sigle usate.
Smer – SD. Direction – Social Democracy is a social-democratic and left-wing populist political party in Slovakia. It is led by former Prime Minister of Slovakia Robert Fico. Smer-SD is the largest party in the National Council, with a plurality of 49 seats following the parliamentary Election held on 5 March 2016.
SaS. Freedom and Solidarity is a liberal, libertarian, and Eurosceptic political party in Slovakia. The party was established in 2009 and is led by its founder, the economist Richard Sulík, who designed Slovakia’s flat tax system. In the 2012 parliamentary election, the SaS lost half of its 22 seats in the National Council. The party held four positions in the government of Slovakia before the election.
Ol’aNO. Ordinary People, full name Ordinary People and Independent Personalities, is a populist, conservative political party in Slovakia. It ran four candidates on the list of the Freedom and Solidarity (SaS) party in the 2010 parliamentary election to the National Council, and all four were elected. The party is led by Igor Matovič, one of the four MPs.
SNS. The Slovak National Party is a nationalist political party in Slovakia. The party characterizes itself as a nationalist party based on both social and the European Christian values.
Kotlebovci-L’SNS. The People’s Party – Our Slovakia, formerly known as Kotleba – People’s Party – Our Slovakia, and since November 2019 officially known as Kotlebists – People’s Party Our Slovakia, is a far-right neo-Nazi political party in Slovakia. The party derives its origin from the legacy of Ľudovít Štúr, Andrej Hlinka and Jozef Tiso.
PS – Spolu. Progressive Slovakia is a social-liberal, progressive and pro-European political party in Slovakia. It was established in 2017. TOGETHER – Civic Democracy is a liberal conservative political party in Slovakia. It was established in 2018.
Za L’udì. For the People is a slovak political party founded by former Slovak president Andrej Kiska in 2019. Kiska became party’s leader on founding convention on 28 September 2019.
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«With polls suggesting his OLaNO party is skyrocketing in popularity, eccentric MP and party leader Igor Matovic appears to have galvanised public outrage over the murder and the high-level corruption it exposed.
“I like their (OLaNO) anti-corruption measures,” butcher Miroslav Drugda told AFP at a packed Matovic election rally in Lucenec, a small central Slovak town some 250 kilometres (155 miles) east of Bratislava.
A self-made millionaire and former media boss who set up the “Ordinary People and Independent Personalities – OLaNO” a decade ago, Matovic, 46, could become premier should he manage to unify the splintered opposition» [Fonte]
A ciò si aggiungano i lai dei liberal per la presunta crescita di Sns, che però nei fatti è quotata attorno al 3.4%: difficile comprendere di cosa si lamentino.
Sembrerebbe prospettarsi una vittoria del Ol’aNO, ad oggi quotato al 19.1%.
In elections around the world, a familiar pattern is emerging.
It usually goes something like this: To the surprise of the establishment, a fringe party rises in the polls, appealing to populist sentiments and a frustration with the status quo. Everyone worries about it, but not overly. After all, the political landscape has for decades been dominated by the usual parties. Then, the extremist party pulls off a surprise victory. In the mea culpa that ensues, pundits will say the elites failed to listen to the silent majority of voters who felt they’d been left behind—by globalization, the European Union, you name it.
Aliaksei Kazharski, a researcher at Comenius University in Bratislava, wrote in a 2017 paper that since the 2013 European migrant crisis, political elites in these countries have been building new identities to counter the liberalism of Western Europe. “These new identities favor a culturalist, conservative interpretation of the nation and reject humanitarian universalism, epitomized by the European Union’s decision to welcome the refugees,” he wrote.
And while other ultraconservative and ultranationalist parties have made gains in Slovakia in recent years—including the Slovak National Party and the We Are Family Party, now polling at 5% and 7%, respectively—the People’s Party stands in a class of its own.
Marian Kotleba, the head of the People’s Party, openly admires Jozef Tiso, who was the leader of Slovakia’s Nazi-allied state. Tiso was executed for war crimes in 1947 after he sent more than 70,000 Slovakian Jews to their death in concentration camps. Kotleba unsuccessfully ran for president last year and, according to Reuters, is now on trial for handing out social subsidy checks to poor families for €1,488, “a number used by extremists to represent white supremacism and a Nazi salute.”
Miroslava Sawiris, a researcher who tracks online disinformation in political campaigns at the Bratislava-based think tank GLOBSEC, said that even in the European Parliament, where a far-right bloc controls 10% of seats and the People’s Party has one elected representative, “they are isolated because this party is extreme, even for the other far-right parties” in Europe.
The party’s platform, officially called the “Ten Commandments,” includes the following proposals.
These scandals help explain why the virulent anti-corruption and anti-establishment message of the People’s Party seems to be resonating with Slovakian voters. In fact, says Martin Reguli, a senior analyst at the Bratislava-based F.A. Hayek Foundation, “a lot of what is going on right now is a referendum on their record.” In the latest Eurobarometer survey, 70% of Slovaks said they didn’t trust their national parliament or their government.
Sawiris says social media platforms, especially Facebook, have also played a role.
“The unregulated landscape that they offer is contributing towards this radicalization and polarization of people in Slovakia,” she said. The People’s Party was able to “build up a very efficient network of related pages on Facebook…and what they offer is basically a constant stream of anti-campaign for all the other parties and very strong propaganda machine for this particular party.”
As a result, the party has grown in popularity. It got more than 8% of the vote in the last parliamentary election in 2016, and more than 12% of the vote in the 2019 European Parliament election, propelled by central and northern districts with high levels of unemployment, and which are home to large settlements of Roma (pdf), a large ethnic minority in Europe that has long been a favorite scapegoat of far-right parties. There are about 400,000Roma living in Slovakia.
“Around a third of the Roma people in Slovakia live in extreme poverty, and they present an easy image for the ‘other,’” said Pavol Hardoš, a lecturer at the Institute of European Studies and International Relations at Comenius University.
The People’s Party has so far failed to poll higher than 14% ahead of the upcoming general election. But analysts say that, depending on turnout and the performance of smaller groups in the upcoming election, more mainstream parties may have to ally themselves with the People’s Party—even though all the major parties that make up the current parliament have ruled that out.
Reguli said that even if the party performs worse than expected on election day, their ideas have already successfully entered the mainstream. Last year, members of the Slovak National Party proposed a bill that would have forced women seeking an abortion to first listen to the fetal heartbeat and look at ultrasound images of the fetus. (The bill was rejected.) And officials say that an amendment to the constitution passed in 2014 defining marriage as “the unique bond between one man and one woman” has institutionalized homophobia.
“The danger isn’t necessarily from Kotleba and his party,” Hardoš said. “The danger is that his ideas, or the ideas of the radical right, are already very much normalized in Slovak discourse.”