Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Unione Europea

Eurostat. Spesa sociale nell’Unione Europea. 27.9% del pil.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-11-28.

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«Social protection expenditure in the European Union (EU) stood at 27.9% of GDP in 2017, slightly down compared with 28.7% in 2012»

«The two main sources of funding of social protection at EU level were social contributions, making up 55% of total receipts, and general government contributions from taxes at 40%.»

«The EU average continued to mask major disparities between Member States»

«In 2017, social protection expenditure represented over 30% of GDP in France (34%), Denmark (32%) and Finland (31%). They were followed by Germany (close to 30%), Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium and Sweden (all 29%).»

«In contrast, social protection expenditure stood below 20% of GDP in Romania (14%), Latvia, Ireland and Lithuania (all 15%), Estonia and Malta (both 16%), Bulgaria (17%), Slovakia and Hungary (both 18%), Cyprus and Czechia (both 19%).»

«In 2017, social protection expenditure per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards), which eliminates price level differences between countries, showed large differences between EU Member States»

«After Luxembourg (see country note), the highest expenditure per capita were recorded in Denmark (almost 12 thousand PPS), Germany, the Netherlands, Austria and France (all around 11 thousand PPS). In contrast, the lowest expenditure per capita were registered in Bulgaria, Romania and Latvia (3 thousand PPS or less)»

«On average in the EU, old age & survivors benefits accounted for nearly 46% of total social benefits in 2017 and made up the major part of social protection benefits in nearly all Member States»

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Nel ragionare su questi argomenti servirebbe bilanciare con serenità il giusto desiderio di andare incontro a quanti abbiano bisogno con una accurata gestione delle risorse disponibili.

Usualmente si fa più ciò che si può piuttosto che quello che si vorrebbe.

Avere il 27.9% del pil europeo bloccato per la protezione sociale diventa un onere difficilmente sostenibile in tempi di recessione. Esattamente come avere il 46% delle uscite dedicato agli anziani costituisce un altro fardello difficilmente sostenibile nel tempo. Se poi si pensa che in Grecia tale valore è dl 63%, ed in Portogallo ed in Italia è al 58% si constata quanto pesi sul sistema economico la gestione dell’allungamento della vita media.

Questi dati dovrebbero suggerire una maggiore attenzione da parte del’Unione Europea al contrasto della recessione economica in atto: un suo peggioramento potrebbe obbligare a ridurre anche drasticamente la spesa sociale.

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Eurostat ha rilasciato il report Share of EU GDP spent on social protection slightly down.

Social protection in 2017

Share of EU GDP spent on social protection slightly down

Highest ratios in France, Denmark and Finland

Social protection expenditure in the European Union (EU) stood at 27.9% of GDP in 2017, slightly down compared with 28.7% in 2012, according to data from Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The two main sources of funding of social protection at EU level were social contributions, making up 55% of total receipts, and general government contributions from taxes at 40%.

The EU average continued to mask major disparities between Member States. In 2017, social protection expenditure represented over 30% of GDP in France (34%), Denmark (32%) and Finland (31%). They were followed by Germany (close to 30%), Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium and Sweden (all 29%). In contrast, social protection expenditure stood below 20% of GDP in Romania (14%), Latvia, Ireland and Lithuania (all 15%), Estonia and Malta (both 16%), Bulgaria (17%), Slovakia and Hungary (both 18%), Cyprus and Czechia (both 19%).

Social protection expenditure per capita varies substantially across Member States

In 2017, social protection expenditure per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards), which eliminates price level differences between countries, showed large differences between EU Member States. After Luxembourg (see country note), the highest expenditure per capita were recorded in Denmark (almost 12 thousand PPS), Germany, the Netherlands, Austria and France (all around 11 thousand PPS). In contrast, the lowest expenditure per capita were registered in Bulgaria, Romania and Latvia (3 thousand PPS or less).

Highest share for old age and survivors benefits in Greece, Portugal and Italy

On average in the EU, old age & survivors benefits accounted for nearly 46% of total social benefits in 2017 and made up the major part of social protection benefits in nearly all Member States. The share of old age and survivors benefits in the total was highest in Greece (63%), Portugal and Italy (both 58%), Romania and Cyprus (both 56%), while it was lowest in Ireland (34%), Germany and Denmark (39%) and Luxembourg (40%).

Sickness/health care and disability benefits accounted for 37% of total social benefits on average in the EU in 2017. Amongst Member States, the share of these benefits ranged from 23% in Cyprus and 26% in Greece to 45% in Ireland, 44% in Croatia and Germany, 43% in the Netherlands and 42% in Estonia.

Family and children benefits accounted for slightly less than 9% of total social benefits on average in the EU in 2017, unemployment benefits for 4%, and housing and social exclusion benefits also for 4%. The share of family benefits in the total ranged from 4% in the Netherlands and 5% in Portugal and Spain to over 15% in Luxembourg and 13% in Poland and Estonia. Unemployment benefits varied between less than 1% in Romania and 1% in the United Kingdom to 9% in Ireland and 8% in Spain. Housing and social exclusion benefits ranged from 1% or less in Poland, Portugal and Estonia to 9% in Cyprus and 7% in Denmark, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.


Geographical information

The European Union (EU) includes Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Methods and definitions

Social protection expenditure and receipts are calculated in line with the ESSPROS (European System of Integrated Social Protection Statistics) methodology. Expenditure includes social benefits, administration costs and other expenditure linked to social protection schemes. Social benefits are “gross”: their value represents what resident social protection schemes disburse, before any deduction of taxes on income or other obligatory levies payable on benefits by recipients. Further detail is available in the ESSPROS Manual and user guidelines, available from the Eurostat website. Data on expenditure (gross) and receipts are in nominal terms, i.e. at current prices and current exchange rates. Data are provisional for a number of Member States.

The Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is an artificial reference currency unit that eliminates price level differences between countries. Thus one PPS buys the same volume of goods and services in all countries. This unit allows meaningful volume comparisons of economic indicators across countries. The PPSs used are those corresponding to the national accounts aggregate “actual individual consumption”..