Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Economia e Produzione Industriale, Unione Europea

Unione europea. Società a controllo straniero.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2019-10-07.

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«In 2016, the headquarters of approximately 33,000 enterprises, that is no more than roughly 1% of all enterprises in Germany, were located abroad»

«As, however, these are often large enterprises that act on a global level, their importance for the economy and the domestic labour market is disproportionately high»

«In 2016, foreign-controlled enterprises accounted for roughly 25% of gross value added in Germany»

«They achieved approximately 24% of total turnover end employed 3.3 million people. These were 11% of all employees in this country»

«In most EU countries, foreign-controlled enterprises are even of much greater importance for the economy and the labour market than in Germany»

«Their impact is especially strong in Hungary and Slovakia where these enterprises contributed 51% and 48% to gross value added in 2016.»

«In Luxembourg, the relevant proportion amounted to 45%.»

«In most of the former socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, their contribution to gross value added was above average, too. Examples are Romania (44%) and Czechia (43%).»

«On average, foreign-controlled enterprises accounted for 15% of all employees and 28% of total turnover in the EU. These enterprises contributed an average of roughly 25% to gross value added»

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In termini medi, l’Unione Europea dipende per il 25% del valore aggiunto lordo e per il 15% degli occupati dalla presenza di società a controllo estero. Tuttavia queste quote sono ben più elevate in paesi quali l’Ungheria (51%), il Lussemburgo (51%), la Slovakia (48%), la Romania (44%) e la Repubblica Ceka (43%).

Sono quote molto al di sopra dei limiti fisiologici che un sistema economico può tollerare senza essere di fatto obbligato, sia pure discretamente, ad interferire con la politica industriale dei paesi ospiti. Ma il vero probema non è quando vi siano le multinazionali: diventa problema serio quando non vogliono venire.

Il problema non sarebbe cogente se nel contempo vi fosse un adeguato numero di società europee che agissero in stati stranieri per un equivalente controvalore: ciò che non è per un ordine di grandezza.

L’Unione Europea non ha mai permesso che le sue società potessero crescere fino a raggiungere dimensioni internazionali solide delle quali fosse impossibile non tenerne conto. Se sicuramente ha qualche realtà produttiva di grandi dimensioni, in termini medi sono piccoli nanetti in un mondo di giganti.

Un esempio per tutti. In Europa operano un gran numero di banche piccole e sottocapitalizzate: nessuno ha mai permesso la formazione di una grossa banca a dimensioni europee, in grado di fronteggiare i colossi stranieri.

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Destatis. 2019-09-30. Foreign-controlled enterprises

In 2016, the headquarters of approximately 33,000 enterprises, that is no more than roughly 1% of all enterprises in Germany, were located abroad. As, however, these are often large enterprises that act on a global level, their importance for the economy and the domestic labour market is disproportionately high. In 2016, foreign-controlled enterprises accounted for roughly 25% of gross value added in Germany. They achieved approximately 24% of total turnover end employed 3.3 million people. These were 11% of all employees in this country.

In most EU countries, foreign-controlled enterprises are even of much greater importance for the economy and the labour market than in Germany. Their impact is especially strong in Hungary and Slovakia where these enterprises contributed 51% and 48% to gross value added in 2016. In Luxembourg, the relevant proportion amounted to 45%. In most of the former socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, their contribution to gross value added was above average, too. Examples are Romania (44%) and Czechia (43%). On average, foreign-controlled enterprises accounted for 15% of all employees and 28% of total turnover in the EU. These enterprises contributed an average of roughly 25% to gross value added.

Enterprises are regarded as foreign-controlled if the following criteria apply:

– The parent company has its headquarters in a foreign country.

– Direct or indirect control by the parent company must be based on more than 50% of the voting rights of stakeholders or of partners’ shares.

– The foreign-controlled enterprise must be active in the non-financial business economy. This includes the following sections of economic activity: manufacturing, other industry, distributive trade, accommodation and food service activities, and the service sector not including financial and insurance activities.