Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Il titolo è eloquente e non lascia dubbi:
«I dati della polizia: il 12% delle indagini è contro i magistrati.
La corruzione non è un’esclusiva italiana. Anche la Germania, considerata la patria delle virtù civili, ha il suo daffare per combatterla, soprattutto, come da noi, nella amministrazione pubblica.
Le indagini per corruzione in Germania
Cominciamo a vedere i dati ufficiali della Polizia tedesca, in cifre assolute. Il grafico sopra mostra il numero di indagini per corruzione condotte in Germania tra il 2011 e il 2016. Il picco di indagini si è avuto nel 2014 con quasi 13.800 casi. I sospetti corrotti (o corruttori) di nazionalità tedesca sono l’82% del totale, mentre del restante 18% la maggior parte sono di nazionalità turca.
Sono corrotti anche i giudici
Ma più interessante è vedere in quali ambiti della vita pubblica i magistrati, che sono sotto il controllo dell’esecutivo, hanno scoperto la maggior parte di casi di corruzione in Germania. Lo mostra i grafico sotto (i dati sono in percentuale).
Come si può immaginare, la maggior parte di casi di corruzione “sospetti”, ovvero, per i quali sono partite le indagini, hanno riguardato la pubblica amministrazione nel suo complesso. I casi di corruzione di politici riguardano appena l’1% del totale in tutti gli anni considerati. Piuttosto ciò che è curioso è stato notare come la corruzione in Germania abbia toccato anche l’apparato giudiziario. Nel 2015 il 12% di tutti i casi di corruzione ha riguardato magistrati o giudici.»
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Tuttavia la più evidente corruzione dei tribunali tedeschi è la loro politicizzazione. La quasi totalità dei giudici nutrono ideologia liberal oppure socialista ed applicano più questa che le leggi.
Un esempio per tutti la Sentenza della Corte Costituzionale del 10 ottobre 2017, Prima Sezione, BverG 2019/16.
I Tribunali tedeschi nella prassi ordinaria vicariano il potere politico, pur essendo composti da funzionari statali nominati e non eletti.
Poi venne il 24 settembre.
I giudici ne presero immediatamente atto: non si potrebbe dire che abbiano cambiato padrone, ma almeno sono più attenti a ciò che fanno, ed arrivarono alla fine ad una sentenza che qualche anno prima sarebbe stata inaudita, impossibile.
Questa sentenza è l’incoronazione di AfD a partito di rilevanza nazionale.
«With thousands of “lay judge” positions needing to be filled by next year, far-right groups are calling on their members to apply and “ensure justice” is done. Despite concerns, officials say there’s no cause for alarm.»
«The populist Alternative for Germany (AfD), the anti-Muslim protest group PEGIDA, and the right-wing extremist National Democratic Party (NPD) have put out calls in recent weeks for their members and supporters to apply to be Schöffen, or volunteer lay judges, in Germany’s criminal courts.»
«Any German citizen aged 25 to 69 can apply to be one of Germany’s 60,000 “judges without robes” in criminal cases that carry a prison sentence of two to four years.»
«If selected, they serve a five-year-term starting in 2019 and sit on the bench alongside another volunteer judge and at least one other professional judge. For around 12 days a year, these lay judges help their professional counterparts hand down verdicts and sentences in criminal cases.»
«Their votes have the same weight as the professional judges’ vote and a two-thirds majority is needed to rule negatively against a defendant.»
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Lo Schöff, lay judge in inglese, è una sorta di giudice popolare oppure giudice di pace oppure giudice onorario. Non esiste una figura giuridica perfettamente equivalente nell’ordinamento giudiziario italiano.
«Except for most crimes for which the trier of fact is a single professional judge, and serious political crimes which are tried before a panel of professional judges, in the judiciary of Germany all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen; a kind of lay judge or alderman) sit side by side with professional judges. Section 263 of the German Code of Criminal Procedure requires a two-thirds majority for most decisions unfavorable to the defendant; denial of probation by simple majority is an important exception. In most cases lay judges do not directly examine documents before the court or have access to the case file»
«Applications can be made to become a lay judge by interested citizens, but this does not occur often, and welfare institutions, sports clubs, financial and health insurance institutions, trade unions, industrial companies and other public authorities are primarily called upon to nominate candidates, and it appears that motivation includes social responsibility, image cultivation, advertising, and participation in fine allocation.»
«Lay judges are selected by a selection committee from lists that are passed by the municipal councils (Gemeinderat) with a two-thirds majority of attending local councilors. The selection committee consists of a judge from the Amtsgericht, a representative of the state government, and ten “trusted citizens” (Vertrauenspersonen) who are also elected by two-thirds of the municipal legislature, and selects from the list of candidates the number needed to staff the various tribunals. The practice was similar in East Germany»
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Nelle ultime prospezioni AfD è proiettata al 14.5% in sede federale. Ma nei länder orientali supera il 25%.
Il suo elettorato è saldo e ben poco disponibile a cambiar casacca: è molto motivato.
È semplicemente evidente quanto importante sia che AfD riesca a piazzare suoi Schöffen nei tribunali, per garantire e ripristinare la legalità delle sentenze e contrastare lo strapotere liberal.
→ Deutsche Welle. 2018-03-11. The far-right’s push to enter the German judicial system
With thousands of “lay judge” positions needing to be filled by next year, far-right groups are calling on their members to apply and “ensure justice” is done. Despite concerns, officials say there’s no cause for alarm.
Long critical of Germany’s judicial system, far-right groups are eyeing their chance to enact change in what they view as a broken and lenient criminal court system.
The populist Alternative for Germany (AfD), the anti-Muslim protest group PEGIDA, and the right-wing extremist National Democratic Party (NPD) have put out calls in recent weeks for their members and supporters to apply to be Schöffen, or volunteer lay judges, in Germany’s criminal courts.
Any German citizen aged 25 to 69 can apply to be one of Germany’s 60,000 “judges without robes” in criminal cases that carry a prison sentence of two to four years.
If selected, they serve a five-year-term starting in 2019 and sit on the bench alongside another volunteer judge and at least one other professional judge. For around 12 days a year, these lay judges help their professional counterparts hand down verdicts and sentences in criminal cases.
Their votes have the same weight as the professional judges’ vote and a two-thirds majority is needed to rule negatively against a defendant.
In lieu of a jury system like the one in the United States, the lay judges in Germany are a way to involve ordinary citizens with diverse professional backgrounds and opinions to contribute to the judicial decision-making process — and to avoid the time-consuming process of forming a jury for every trial. This openness, however, is something far-right groups are hoping to capitalize on.
Taking on ‘migrant violence’ in courts
“Become lay judges and ensure justice in criminal cases!” wrote the AfD’s local chapter in Cologne on Twitter.
In mid-February, Dresden-based PEGIDA (“Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the West”) put out a call to its followers “to get involved” by applying for the volunteer judge posts. The protest group’s founder Lutz Bachmann doubled down on the push for applications.
Taking aim at Ursula Sens, the chairwoman for the North Rhine-Westphalia state branch of the German Association for Lay Judges (DVS) who spoke with German newspaper Rheinische Post about the far-right campaigns, Bachmann accused her of left-wing bias.
“Sens wants to sort out lay-judge applicants based on beliefs. Of course all those who have left-wing terrorist, leftist autonomous, or left-wing extremist beliefs are likely welcome to her. But for heaven’s sake, no conservatives, right?” he wrote on Facebook.
The NPD’s deputy leader Ronny Zasowk released a statement that circulated on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube urging for people to apply in order to combat “rising migrant violence.”
“In light of the rising crime rates, especially from young migrants in Cottbus, it is necessary that the lay judges make their decisions according to strict adherence to the current legal situation, but not for reasons of ‘political correctness,'” Zasowk wrote in a statement.
The eastern German city of Cottbus has seen dueling protests from pro- and anti-migrant demonstrators in recent weeks following a spate of violence between locals and refugees.
With far-right groups urging in veiled — and not-so-veiled terms — for its members to exact justice in line with right-wing beliefs, what are authorities doing?
“This is nothing spectacular,” DVS head Andreas Höhne told DW. Far right groups have carried out similar campaigns “for the last two terms,” but he doesn’t believe they’ve actually impacted the judicial system.
For Höhne, the safety in the system lies in its complexity — and multi-layered bureaucracy. On the road to appointment, municipalities first comb the individual applications and candidate suggestions gathered from local “trusted” organizations, businesses or unions.
If no candidate raises concerns — that they’re not the right age, have been previously convicted, or work in law enforcement — the list is then made available to the public for 10 days. Fellow citizens can then send in comments on candidates. Afterwards, the list moves on to a court committee who whittles it down and makes the final call.
Concerns about loopholes
Despite the multi-layered appointment process, many of the controls are only surface-level.
Municipal officials and the court committee do not invite the candidates for interviews. Candidates aren’t asked about their political leanings and their social media profiles aren’t checked either.
When asked whether changes to that effect would help close loopholes in the appointment system, Höhne told DW: “I don’t think that it would be right to do so.”
“The municipalities have to know who their lay judges are,” he emphasized.
There have been recent cases where lay judges have been found out to be NPD members or Reichsbürger, people who don’t believe in the legitimacy of the German state and reject the German constitution.
If all else fails, and someone who holds either left or right-wing extremist beliefs gets called to be a lay judge, the DVS says the legal system itself should be enough to make sure that person gets found out.
If a lay judge attempts to rule too leniently or inordinately advocates for the harshest possible punishment according to the law, “every professional judge, every prosecutor, they will notice,” Höhn said. “There’s no room for maneuver.”