Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Per un diplomatico e per un politico occidentale la politica estera cinese resta solitamente ai limiti della comprensibilità: è l’esatto opposto di quanto e come perseguito dall’Occidente negli ultimi settanta anni.
L’argomento sta diventando delicato considerando il ritorno della Russia nell’agone politico internazionale, che si associa alla sempre maggiore ininfluenza dell’Unione Europa ed alla svolta “America First” voluta dal Presidente Trump.
Stanno emergendo realtà semplici ma nuove, e quindi di non facile comprensione.
«La Cina è la Cina: non rientra nelle categorie mentali occidentali.»
«international relations centered on win-win cooperation»
«With the core concepts of “respect for justice,” “adherence to principles,” and “striving for win-win results,” this partnership embodies China’s millennia-old philosophical ideals and core values.»
«They include searching for common ground while reserving differences, harmony in diversity, and the vision of harmony and peaceful co-existence. It is therefore both viable and appealing »
«We in China think that all countries have the right to determine their own foreign policy»
«China is not meddling in political debates»
L’attuale politica estera cinese altro non è che la prosecuzione di quella condotta per svariati millenni dall’Impero Cinese.
Essa è la diretta conseguenza della struttura imperiale della Cina. Un governo centrale molto forte e meritocratico che avoca a sé interni, esteri e difesa, parzialmente finanze e giustizia, lasciando le realtà periferiche a gestirsi come meglio credano. In questo la Cina ricorda l’impero romano e quello di Carlo Magno, un po’ meno il Sacro Romano Impero.
La Cina non tende a conglobare, ad assimilare: al contrario dell’occidente che vive la mentalità statale, vede i rapporti internazionali principalmente come rapporti di natura economica.
Questa visione consente di intrattenere scambi proficui anche con paesi che abbiano politiche estere fortemente discordanti, oppure situazioni interne del tutto differenti.
Totalmente alieno dalla mentalità cinese il concetto di voler imporre costumi politici, etici e morali a coloro con i quali collaborare: “China is not meddling in political debates“.
Significativo come il cinese classico non abbia un termine equivalente a quello occidentale di “compromesso“: la Cina desidera e vuole accordi, non compromessi. Ambedue i contraenti devono trarne il giusto e lecito ritorno.
Su queste basi diventa immediatamente possibile per la Cina garantire e richiede un rapporto paritetico.
Questa sembrerebbe essere la carta vincente: una grande lezione per l’Occidente.
→ China Org. 2018-02-05. China continues to pursue major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics: FM
China will continue to break new ground in pursuing major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era, said an article under the byline of Foreign Minister Wang Yi.
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a developing country, China needs to consider and contribute to global wellbeing, shoulder its due international responsibilities and play its role as a major country in promoting common development, according to the article carried by the China International Studies, a bi-monthly periodical.
“We will take a longer and broader perspective, and be even more open-minded and resourceful in our diplomacy,” Wang said. “We will give more consideration to the overall interests of the world and humanity, and work in a proactive manner.”
China will continue to hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, and strengthen friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, Wang said.
“We will firmly uphold the existing international system with the UN at the core, and protect and expand the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries,” he said.
China will follow the principle of achieving shared benefits through consultation and collaboration in engaging in global governance, and strive for a more equitable and fairer international political and economic order, according to Wang.
China will continue to treat all countries as equals, address international disputes through peaceful means, and work for greater democracy and rule of law in international relations, he said.
“We will continue to act as a responsible major country to contribute to world peace, promote global development, and uphold the international order,” Wang said.
→ China Org. 2016-03-23. China’s major-country diplomacy progresses on all fronts
Replete with its own unique features, China’s major-country diplomacy has made comprehensive progress in recent years. Upholding a new model of international relations centered on win-win cooperation, China has actively built up a global partnership network. It has expanded its relations with other major countries, forged closer ties and deepened its collaboration with other developing countries, and become ever more involved in global governance even as it broadens its scope. It has also promoted reforms to governance mechanisms and systems by contributing China’s views and plans thereto. Chinese-style major-country diplomacy has thus delivered remarkable results over past years.
Extended Global Partnership
China’s foreign policy of establishing open and inclusive global partnerships based on win-win cooperation is welcomed by other countries. China’s partners are now to be found everywhere in the world. An innovation of China’s independent foreign policy of peace, the global partnership network transcends the simplistic “non-aligned” or the U.S.-led “military alliance” models of inter-country relations. With the core concepts of “respect for justice,” “adherence to principles,” and “striving for win-win results,” this partnership embodies China’s millennia-old philosophical ideals and core values. They include searching for common ground while reserving differences, harmony in diversity, and the vision of harmony and peaceful co-existence. It is therefore both viable and appealing.
China deplores the mindset and rules of the zero-sum game, and deprecates any exclusive alliance. Rather, it upholds an open and inclusive world order that supports diversity and reciprocal learning and an international relationship that allows for peaceful coexistence, equality and win-win cooperation. A manifestation of China’s global partnership concept is its diplomacy toward its neighbors. It features amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness: thus far, China has established various forms of strategic partnership with 67 countries and five international organizations, signifying that its view of global partnership finds endorsement and support worldwide.
Chinese President Xi Jinping has elevated the ideal of global partnership to new levels with his proposal to jointly build a community of shared future with international society. The global partnership network China advocates is inherently different from the U.S.-led military alliance spawned in the Cold War period, which is closed, exclusive, and whose primary aim is confrontation, even military confrontation. The relationship between the U.S. and its allies rests not on an equal footing, but is rather U.S.-centric. Its allies depend on the U.S. to varying degrees for their security.
In contrast, the network of global partnership China anticipates, with or without the “strategic” prefix, is open and inclusive, and targets win-win cooperation. Not intended to counter a third country, it comports with the “Bandung spirit” and the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and serves the goal of world peace and stability and common economic development.
The partnership China proposes is not discriminatory or divisive. It sets up no “us” and “them” camps, as it aims to achieve cosmopolitism and build a community of shared future, which both demands and facilitates collaboration.
This global partnership network is moreover not China-dominated. It is a set of multi-centric, multi-layered and multi-pivotal sub-networks of regional and international cooperation that are interconnected and interwoven. It covers interstate cooperation in the southern hemisphere, and that between the northern and southern hemispheres, as well as those defying such geographical pigeonholes. Given the rich diversity of the world and the disparity in the development levels and models of different nations, this global partnership network pioneers a new relationship paradigm in which countries learn from, unite and cooperate with one other in the Internet Plus era, yielding a “one plus one equals more than two” effect.