Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
La Nigeria è un paese con 191 milioni di abitanti disposti su 923,768 km2. Il pil ppa procapite è di poco superiore ai seimila dollari americani all’anno, ed il tasso di fertilità vale 5.5.
L’economia nigeriana è la ventiseiesima a livello mondiale, è produttrice di petrolio, che però rappresenta solo il 14.4% del pil. Se il comparto agricolo appare in regresso, quello estrattivo ed industriale evidenzia segni di crescita.
Il problema energetico è pressante, sia per la diversificazione delle fonti sia per l’orografia.
In un paese sostanzialmente povero di infrastrutture questo problema è acuito in modo severo.
Infatti, indipendentemente dal tipo di alimentazione, numero e dislocazione delle centrali elettriche è fortemente condizionato dai problemi del trasferimento dell’energia prodotta dalla centrale al consumatore finale.
Gli elettrodotti presentano infatti una dissipazione anche molto severa, così che le centrali elettriche dovrebbero essere locate abbastanza vicine, per ridurre la distanza della trasmissione.
Ma per un paese non ancora intensamente industrializzato questo aspetto implica la costruzione di numerose centrali elettriche, ma di piccole – medie dimensioni, per evitare lo spreco della sovrapproduzione, collocate abbastanza ravvicinate.
Come si vede, è un equilibrio molto delicato, plurifattoriale, che può essere mantenuto e fatto crescere solo avendo una visione globale della intera problematica.
«Russia and Nigeria signed agreements on construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant and a Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor on the territory of Federal Republic of Nigeria»
«According to the latest information provided by Bloomberg, Nigeria is in talks with Russia’s Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $80 billion as Africa’s biggest economy seeks to add 1,200 megawatts of capacity by the end of the decade»
«A further three nuclear plants are planned, taking total capacity to 4,800 megawatts by 2035, with each facility costing $20 billion»
«The first Nigerian plant will be operational in 2025»
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Tutto il mondo in crescita economica sta indirizzandosi verso il nucleare.
Al momento, Cina, Russia e South Korea sono le principali esportatrici di impianti nucleari: i paesi occidentali si sono da tempo autoesclusi da questo mercato ed al momento attuale non avrebbero nemmeno il know-how sufficiente per entrare in una ragionevole concorrenza.
Scelta questa che travalica l’aspetto meramente tecnico.
Costruire una centrale atomica lega il paese a quello produttore dell’impianto per un lungo lasso di tempo. Diventa la espressione visibile di un accordo diplomatico e strategico sul lungo termine.
Sotto questo punto di vista, la rinuncia al nucleare dell’Occidente diventa elemento di peso ben maggiore di quello energetico puro. Un pesante scotto pagato ad una visione ideologica.
«Since 2004 Nigeria has a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University, and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2027 according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity. Nigeria hoped to begin construction in 2011 and start nuclear power production in 2017-2020. On 27 July 2007 Nigeria’s President Umaru Yar’Adua has urged the country to embrace nuclear power in order to meet its growing energy needs. Construction has not begun but plans have not been canceled by 2016.
More recently, in April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia’s state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State, in South-South Nigeria, and Kogi State, in the central northern part of the country. Both sites are planned to house two plants each.» [Fonte]
→ Daily Trust. 2016-12-21. Nigeria, Russia sign nuclear power plants pact – Osaisai
→ Rosatom. 2017-10-31. Russia and Nigeria signed nuclear project development agreements
October 30, Abu-Dhabi – Russia and Nigeria signed agreements on construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant and a Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor on the territory of Federal Republic of Nigeria. The parties also signed a roadmap for cooperation in the field of peaceful usage of nuclear technologies.
On behalf of ROSATOM the documents were signed by Anton Moskvin, Vice president for Marketing and Business Development of Rusatom Overseas (a part of ROSATOM). The signer on behalf of Nigeria was Simon Pesco Mallam, Chairman of the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission.
The Signing Ceremony was attended by Director General of ROSATOM Mr. Alexey Likhachev and Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the international organizations in Vienna Ms. Vivian Nwunaku Rose Okeke.
“The development of nuclear technologies will allow Nigeria to strengthen its position as one of the leading countries of the African continent. These are the projects of a large scale and strategic importance, that will determine the relationship between our two countries in the long term”, emphasized Anton Moskvin.
The feasibility studies for the Nuclear Power Plant project and the Research Center construction will include site screening, as well as the determination of key parameters of implementation, including; capacity, equipment lists, time frames and stages of implementation, as well as financing schemes.
The two countries started their partnership in 2009 by executing an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful usage of nuclear technologies. Further on, intergovernmental agreements on cooperation in design, construction, operation and decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plant and the Nuclear Research Center housing a multi-purpose nuclear research reactor were signed.
→ Naij. 2017-10-31. Nigeria To Sign $80billion Nuclear Pact With Russia
According to the latest information provided by Bloomberg, Nigeria is in talks with Russia’s Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $80 billion as Africa’s biggest economy seeks to add 1,200 megawatts of capacity by the end of the decade. Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Franklin Erepamo Osaisai said that a joint coordination committee is in place and negotiations are ongoing for financing and contracting. Osaisai announced that Nigeria signed an agreement with Rosatom to cooperate on the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a facility in 2012. A further three nuclear plants are planned, taking total capacity to 4,800 megawatts by 2035, with each facility costing $20 billion. The first Nigerian plant will be operational in 2025. The source noted that peak electricity output of Africa’s biggest economy is about 3,800 megawatts, with a further 1,500 megawatts unavailable because of gas shortages. It added that South Africa, with a third of Nigeria’s population yet eight times more installed capacity, has also signed an agreement with Rosatom as the nation looks to add 9,600 megawatts of atomic power to its strained grid.
→ Bloomberg. 2017-10-31. Russia Signs Agreement With Nigeria for Nuclear Power Plant
– Study for plant and research center to include cost, capacity
– Rosatom seeking to build plants in other African nations
Russia has signed agreements with Nigeria to build and operate a nuclear power plant in the oil-rich West African nation that has a deficit of reliable power and faces security challenges by Islamist militants in the far northeast.
Feasibility studies for the plant and a research center construction will include site screening, capacity, financing, and time frames of the projects, state-owned Russian nuclear company Rosatom said in an emailed statement. Representatives from the firm and the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission signed the deal.
The nations in 2009 signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of the peaceful usage of nuclear technologies. Nigeria in 2015 was in talks with Rosatom to build as many as four nuclear power plants costing about $20 billion, the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission said at the time.
Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, distributes an average of 4,500 megawatts of electricity. Half the output of the Egbin power plant, the nation’s biggest, is lost because of inadequate transmission infrastructure, its chief officer said last month.
Rosatom is seeking to build nuclear power plants in other countries on the continent including South Africa.