Pubblicato in: Cina, Problemia Energetici

Cina. Centrali elettriche nucleari. 37 reattori attivi, 60 in costruzione, 179 programmati.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-09-24.

2017-09-01__Cina_Nucleare__001sites-of-npps-in-china

La World Nuclear Association ha pubblicato un estensivo lavoro sullo stato attuale e le prospettive future del nucleare in Cina: «Nuclear Power in China»

L’articolo è troppo lungo per essere riportato in toto, per cui ne citeremo solo qualche estratto significativo.

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«- Mainland China has 37 nuclear power reactors in operation, 20 under construction, and more about to start construction.

– The reactors under construction include some of the world’s most advanced, to give a 70% increase of nuclear capacity to 58 GWe by 2020-21. Plans are for up to 150 GWe by 2030, and much more by 2050.

– The impetus for nuclear power in China is increasingly due to air pollution from coal-fired plants.

– China’s policy is to have a closed nuclear fuel cycle.

– China has become largely self-sufficient in reactor design and construction, as well as other aspects of the fuel cycle, but is making full use of western technology while adapting and improving it.

– Relative to the rest of the world, a major strength is the nuclear supply chain.

– China’s policy is to ‘go global’ with exporting nuclear technology including heavy components in the supply chain.»

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«Most of mainland China’s electricity is produced from fossil fuels, predominantly from coal – 73% in 2015. Two large hydro projects are recent additions: Three Gorges of 18.2 GWe and Yellow River of 15.8 GWe. Wind capacity in 2015 was 8.6% of total, but delivering only 3.3% of the electricity.»

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«The IEA notes that since 2012, China has been the country with the largest installed power capacity, and it has increased this by 14% since then to reach 1,245 GWe in 2014, or 21% of global capacity, slightly ahead of the United States (20%). The age structures of the power plants in these two countries differ remarkably: in China almost 70% (865 GWe) was built within the last decade, whereas in the United States half of the fleet (580 GWe) was over 30 years old.»

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«Electricity demand has been slowing from over 14% pa in 2010, corresponding with a 10% growth in GDP, according to the China Electricity Council. Three-quarters of this was in industry. In 2015 electricity demand growth was only 0.5%, corresponding with a 6.9% growth in GDP, showing a marked decoupling of the two metrics, though this is partly due to subdued economic conditions. In the 13th Five-Year Plan, power demand growth is expected to be 3.8-4.6% pa to 2020. Residential consumption is about 13% of the total (compared with about 20% in Europe and 34% in the USA).

Per capita electricity consumption was 3510 kWh in 2012. By 2030 it is expected to be 5500 kWh/yr and by 2050 about 8500 kWh/yr.»

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«Nuclear generation was 24% up on 2015.»

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«it consumed about 4.3 billion tonnes of coal in 2013, more than half the world total, and coal peaked at more than 70% of China’s primary energy»

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«In March 2013 the NDRC announced new plans for seawater desalination.* China aims to produce 2.2 million m3/day of desal water by 2015, more than three times the 2011 level. More than half of the freshwater channelled to islands and more than 15% of water delivered to coastal factories will come from the sea by 2015»

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«In the 13th Five-Year Plan from 2016, six to eight nuclear reactors are to be approved each year.»

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«In December 2011 the National Energy Administration (NEA) said that China would make nuclear energy the foundation of its power-generation system in the next “10 to 20 years”, adding as much as 300 GWe of nuclear capacity over that period»

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«China General Nuclear Power (CGN) was expecting to have 34,000 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2020, providing 20% of the province’s power»

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«37 operating nuclear power reactors: 33,657 MWe»

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«60 nuclear reactors under construction: 68,7006 MWe»

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«179 nuclear reactors proposed: 205,000 MWe»

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In sintesi.

– Le centrali elettriche alimentate a carbone fossile contribuiscono al 73% della produzione elettrica.

– Le centrali atomiche contribuiscono al 24% della produzione elettrica.

– Il restante 3% proviene da fonti idroelettriche ed altre alternative.

– I tre quarti delle centrali elettriche cinesi è stato costruito negli ultimi dieci anni, contro i trenta degli Stati Uniti.

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– La Cina ha al momento in funzione 37 centrali atomiche, 60 sono in costruzione e 179 sono al momento proposte o in fase di progettazione.

Una decina di anni ed il suo fabbisogno energetico sarà supplito nella sua quasi totalità dal nucleare.

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