Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Avevamo già fornito questa notizia il 17 marzo di questo anno:
Bene. Adesso la Russia li ha forniti e sono in corso trattative per forniture anche di sistemi S-500.
«L’S-400 Triumph (in cirillico С-400 Триумф, nome in codice NATO SA-21 Growler) e precedentemente identificato come s-300-PMU 3, è un sistema d’arma antiaereo di nuova generazione sviluppato dall’azienda del settore difesa russa NPO Almaz, prodotto da MKB Fakel, azienda di stato russa con sede a Khimki e esportato da Rosoboronexport.
Sarebbe un sistema d’arma molto superiore alla precedente serie S-300 ed in sue versioni per l’export è stato esportato in Cina; nel novembre 2014 Mosca e Pechino hanno firmato un accordo da 3 miliardi di dollari per la fornitura di sei battaglioni del sistema antiaereo/antimissile S-400 che permetteranno di rafforzare in modo significativo la difesa aerea della Cina. Inoltre in India è stato formalizzato l’interessamento che dovrebbe portare all’ordine di acquisto ufficiale di 12 sistemi durante una visita del primo ministro indiano in Russia nel dicembre 2015
L’S-400 è stato progettato come sistema d’arma capace di intercettare e colpire aerei da guerra e missili da crociera e balistici che volano ad una velocità da 0 a 4,8 km/s (17.000 km/h). Il sistema può individuare fino a 36 (80 nelle nuove versioni) obiettivi contemporaneamente in un raggio che va da 30 a 400 km (quest’ultima distanza con il missile 40N6 con compiti ABM e anti AWACS) in base al tipo di missile utilizzato.
Il sistema è composto nella sua versione per l’esercito russo (almeno fino al 2010) dal posto comando 55K6E e dal radar 91N6E di acquisizione, gestiti con il sistema di gestione del combattimento 30K6E. Il posto comando è affiancato in genere da 6 complessi 98Zh6E ognuno comprendente un radar 92N6E di ingaggio e da un numero variante di TEL 5P85SE2/5P85TE2, armati con 4 missili 48N6E2/E3; a complemento di tutto ciò un sistema di supporto logistico 30Ts6E comprendente stivaggio dei missili ed equipaggiamenti di manutenzione.» [Fonte]
«The new weapon—which will form the upper tier of Russia’s layered integrated air defense system—is expected to be able to engage targets at altitudes of about 125 miles—or 660,000 feet. That means that S-500 will be able to engage targets such as incoming ballistic missiles in space at ranges as great as 400 miles. The first regiment of S-500 will be deployed to protect Moscow and central Russia.
The S-500 is expected to able to detect and simultaneously attack up to ten ballistic missile warheads flying at speeds of twenty-three thousand feet per second. It is also reportedly being designed to use hit-to-kill interceptors—a design with similarities to Lockheed Martin’s Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system.
Like all modern Russian air defense systems, the S-500 is expected to be highly mobile and will use a network of radars for targeting over vast distances. The missile system is expected to use the 91N6A(M) battle management radar, a modified 96L6-TsP acquisition radar, as well as the new 76T6 multi mode engagement and 77T6 ABM engagement radars»
Ragionando in estrema sintesi.
– La Turkia occupa il fronte europeo meridionale del continente e dello schieramento Nato.
– La Turkia governa lo Stretto dei Dardanelli, tramite il quale passa anche il traffico marittimo diretto non solo in Russia, ma anche in Ukraina, Romania e Bulgaria.
– «La Turchia è uno dei cinque stati membri della NATO che fanno parte della politica di condivisione nucleare dell’alleanza, assieme a Belgio, Germania, Italia e Paesi Bassi. Un totale di 90 bombe nucleari B61 sono ospitate presso la base aerea di Adana, di cui 40 sono assegnate per l’uso da parte dell’aviazione turca.» [Fonte]
In altri termini, la Turkia non è uno stato qualunque all’interno della Nato.
Negli ultimi due anni la Turkia ha subito severi sommovimenti che hanno esitato in posizioni robuste del governo centrale. Una cosa è quanto riportano i media liberal occidentali ed una ben differente è la realtà dei fatti.
La Germania, guidata dalla Bundeskanzlerin Frau Merkel, ha raffreddato i rapporto con la Turkia fino a quasi annullarli, in nome dei principi valoriali che essa Cancelliera nutre e del così detto ‘buon governo’. La Germania ha coinvolto nel suo modo di vedere e sentire tutta l’Unione Europea, annullando così l’iter di adesione della Turkia all’Unione Europea.
Le conseguenze si sono immediatamente riflesse su posizione e ruolo della Turkia nella Nato. Al momento sarebbe lecito domandarsi se la Nato esista ancora.
«Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that the agreements involving the sale of Almaz-Antey S-400 surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems have been “inked.”»
«Earlier in July, Bloomberg reported that Ankara agreed to a $2.5 billion U.S. deal with Moscow for four S-400 systems, of which two would be produced in Turkey»
«The Almaz-Antey S-400 Triumf utilizes four anti-air missiles: 40N6 (400 km), 48N6 (250 km), 9M96E2 (120 km) and 9M96E (40 km). Collectively, these missiles position the S-400 as a multi-layered system capable of engaging targets at long-range and short-range as well as high-altitude and low-altitude»
«the agreement has deepened concern that Turkey is drifting away from its longstanding alliance in NATO, which it joined during the security bloc’s first enlargement in 1952»
«The S-400 deal “is a clear sign that Turkey is disappointed in the US and Europe,”»
«But it is not compatible with NATO systems, nor would it be subject to the same NATO limits on deployment, meaning that Ankara could set it up in places like the Armenian border or Aegean coast»
«Turkey’s relationship with other NATO members has been strained, in part because of the ongoing war in neighboring Syria — sentiment that appears to have intensified after the attempted coup against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan in July 2016»
«On Sunday, Erdogan accused the EU of “messing us about,” citing the bloc’s broken promises over issues like visa deals and Syrian migrants. “We will sort things out for ourselves,” he said. “There’s no other option.”»
«The S-400 system would “close Turkish skies,” to Western aircraft»
* * * * * * *
La politica estera perseguita da Frau Merkel nei confronti dei paesi del Visegrad, del Medio Oriente ed adesso della Turkia resta semplicemente inspiegabile.
L’unica spiegazione che renderebbe plausibili i suoi comportamenti sarebbe al limite della fantapolitica: Frau Merkel ci ricorda sempre di più Kim Philby.
«Angela crebbe in campagna, a 80 km a nord di Berlino, nella Repubblica Democratica Tedesca socialista. Winifred Engelhardt, ex membro anziano dell’Unione Cristiano Democratica asserisce in un libro che la capacità della famiglia di viaggiare tranquillamente dalla Germania Est alla Germania Ovest, come anche il loro possesso di due automobili, porta alla conclusione che il padre di Merkel avesse relazioni con il regime comunista, in quanto tali libertà per un pastore cristiano e la sua famiglia sarebbero state impossibili nella RDT.
Come molti giovani, Angela Merkel fu membro del movimento giovanile socialista Libera Gioventù Tedesca. In seguito, divenne membro dell’amministrazione del distretto e segretaria dell'”Agitprop” (agitazione e propaganda) presso l’Accademia delle Scienze di tale organizzazione.
Angela Merkel compì gli studi a Templin e all’Università di Lipsia, dove studiò fisica dal 1973 al 1978. Operò e studiò in seguito all’Istituto Centrale per la Chimica fisica dell’Accademia delle Scienze a Berlino-Adlershof dal 1978 al 1990. Angela Merkel parla correttamente il russo.» [Fonte]
Agitprop è l’acronimo di отдел агитации и пропаганды (otdel agitatsii i propagandy), ossia Dipartimento per l’agitazione e la propaganda, organo del comitato centrale e regionale del Partito comunista dell’Unione sovietica il quale fu in seguito rinominato «Dipartimento ideologico». Per esservi ammesso si doveva essere comunisti di fede comprovata, vagliati a dovere dall’allora Kgb.
→ Quwa. 2017-07-25. Erdogan announces that S-400 deal is “inked”
Speaking to fellow Justice and Development Party (AKP) lawmakers on July 25, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that the agreements involving the sale of Almaz-Antey S-400 surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems have been “inked.”
“We have now taken steps with Russia about this issue. Deals have been inked. In God’s will, we will see S-400 missiles in our country and precede the process with joint production,” Erdogan said to the AKP.
Earlier in July, Bloomberg reported that Ankara agreed to a $2.5 billion U.S. deal with Moscow for four S-400 systems, of which two would be produced in Turkey. Prior to that Russian officials stated that the deal was nearing completion, with the two sides still negotiating on financing.
On July 14, Aselsan, Roketsan and Eurosam – a French-Italian consortium responsible for developing and producing the MBDA S-400 SAMP/T (Surface-to-Air Missile Platform/Terrain) SAM system – signed a deal to collaborate to develop Turkey’s homegrown long-range SAM system.
Erdogan’s recent statements confirm that the S-400 and Turkey-Eurosam programs are parallel initiatives, with the S-400 being sought for near-term procurement.
Following the collapse of its deal with Beijing for HQ-9s, the Turkish Undersecretariat of Defence Industries (SSM) commissioned Aselsan and Roketsan to manage the development of a domestic long-range SAM while the SSK and Turkish Ministry of Defence began talks with overseas vendors.
In November, the head of the SSM Dr. İsmail Demir stated (via the Daily Sabah) that it would “take five to seven years to conclude the [domestic SAM] project.”
The Almaz-Antey S-400 Triumf utilizes four anti-air missiles: 40N6 (400 km), 48N6 (250 km), 9M96E2 (120 km) and 9M96E (40 km). Collectively, these missiles position the S-400 as a multi-layered system capable of engaging targets at long-range and short-range as well as high-altitude and low-altitude.
Turkey is poised to be the third S-400 customer following China and India, which have ordered their S-400 systems in 2015 and 2016, respectively.
→ Business Insider. 2017-07-17. Turkey has agreed to buy Russia’s advanced missile-defense system, leaving NATO wondering what’s next
Turkey reached an agreement with Russia to purchase the latter’s most sophisticated missile-defense system, the S-400, a senior Turkish military official told Bloomberg last week.
Under the $2.5 billion agreement Ankara would receive two batteries of the antiaircraft missile from Moscow within the coming year and then produce two more batteries in Turkey.
At the beginning of June, Russian President Vladimir Putin said Moscow was ready to deliver the missile system, and a Russian military-industry official said an agreement on technical details had been reached in mid-June.
Turkey stepped up efforts to acquire its own missile-defense system after the US, Germany, and the Netherlands — all NATO members — decided at the end of 2015 not to renew their Patriot-missile deployments in southern Turkey. Spanish and Italian missile batteries remain in the country, but those systems are linked to the NATO air-defense system.
The deal has not been finalized and could still fall through, as has happened before — under pressure from the US, Turkey scrapped plans to buy missiles from a Chinese state-run company that had been sanctioned for allegedly selling missiles to Iran. (Ankara has also sought out alternative missile systems from the US and France.)
But the agreement has deepened concern that Turkey is drifting away from its longstanding alliance in NATO, which it joined during the security bloc’s first enlargement in 1952.
The S-400 deal “is a clear sign that Turkey is disappointed in the US and Europe,” Konstantin Makienko, an analyst at Moscow-based think tank the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, told Bloomberg. “But until the advance is paid and the assembly begins, we can’t be sure of anything.”
“The problem is, how do you interoperate in the NATO system with Russians? They’ll never interoperate,” US Defense Secretary James Mattis told reporters on Friday. “We’ll have to see — does it go through? Do they actually employ it? Do they employ it only in one area? All that kind of stuff. But you know, we’ll have to take a look at it.”
The S-400 system can detect and target manned and unmanned aircraft and missiles and hit targets up to 250 miles away. But it is not compatible with NATO systems, nor would it be subject to the same NATO limits on deployment, meaning that Ankara could set it up in places like the Armenian border or Aegean coast.
A Turkish official also told Bloomberg that the S-400s delivered to the country would not have friend-or-foe identification systems, making them deployable against any target.
While Russia is unlikely to supply Turkey with its most up-to-date missile system, the deal would give Ankara a leg up on its goal to build defense-industry capacity — which may stem in part from Western reticence to exchange advanced technology with Turkey.
The licensing agreement allowing Turkey to produce S-400 batteries domestically would save it some of the billions needed to create a new industry, Makienko told Bloomberg.
“Either way, this is in line with Turkey’s massive weapons modernization drive that saw the emergence of new land, air and sea-based systems for domestic use and export,” Center for Naval Analyses researcher Sam Bendett told The National Interest.
Turkey has also discussed a missile-system purchase with a Italian-French joint venture, and agreements with Russia may be a means to gain leverage in those negotiations.
The deal may also serve political purposes.
Turkey’s relationship with other NATO members has been strained, in part because of the ongoing war in neighboring Syria — sentiment that appears to have intensified after the attempted coup against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan in July 2016.
Turkish officials were reportedly disappointed in NATO countries’ response to the coup, and Erdogan’s crackdown in the months since has been criticized by members of the security bloc. Ties with Germany are especially strained, and Berlin is currently redeploying its troops and equipment from a base in southern Turkey to positions elsewhere.
It may also be Turkey’s way of spurning the EU, the political and economic bloc that has in the past recognized Ankara as a candidate for membership. Foundering accession talks were scrapped by the EU in late 2016, amid Erdogan’s post-coup-attempt crackdown.
On Sunday, Erdogan accused the EU of “messing us about,” citing the bloc’s broken promises over issues like visa deals and Syrian migrants. “We will sort things out for ourselves,” he said. “There’s no other option.”
Turkish officials have said more than once that dealings with Russia shouldn’t be seen as a search for an alternative to either the EU or NATO. But observers in Russia described it as a significant development
The S-400 system would “close Turkish skies,” to Western aircraft in particular, Makienko, the Moscow-based analyst, told Russian news site Vzglyad, according to Russian state-owned outlet Sputnik. “If the Turks really purchase Russia’s missile defense systems, it will be a tectonic shift, a game-changer in the arms market,” he said.
→ The National Interest. 2017-07-13. This NATO Member Might Purchase Russia’s Mighty S-400 Air Defense System
NATO member Turkey has reportedly reached a preliminary agreement with Moscow to purchase Russia’s fearsome S-400 air and missile defense system.
The agreement is not final, but the deal—if it goes through—could be yet another indication that Ankara is starting to shift its alignment towards the Kremlin.
Further, the agreement might also be a signal from Ankara aimed at the European Union. The EU, in previous years, had recognized Turkey as a candidate for membership into that bloc, but the 28-member union voted to suspend already moribund accession talks with Turkey on Nov. 24, 2016, in the wake of a series of purges that followed a July 15, 2016 coup attempt to overthrow Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
“Politically, Turkey may be sending a strong message to the EU,” Center for Naval Analyses researcher Sam Bendett told The National Interest.
However, while the deal would be significant if it were finalized, Turkey had previously reached a preliminary deal with China to purchase Beijing’s potent HQ-9 air defense system in September 2013. However, Ankara scrapped the deal in November 2015 under pressure from Washington and other NATO allies.
“I think it is too early to say anything. In 2013 there was a similar preliminary decision by Turkey to buy Chinese HQ-9 systems but that failed to materialize,” Vasily Kashin, a senior fellow at the Center for Comprehensive European and International Studies at Moscow’s Higher School of Economics, told The National Interest.
However, this time around, given the tensions between Ankara and Washington over the later’s support for Kurdish rebels in Syria combined with the Europeans’ distaste for Erdoğan’s increasingly autocratic rule, the chances of a deal being finalized are looking more promising.
“The deal may still fall through at the very end, but it’s starting to look like it may actually go through,” Bendett said.
Ankara certainly needs modern air defense systems and hopes to gain the technology to build its own similar systems. Thus, a final deal will likely hinge on the degree of technology transfer Moscow is willing to afford Turkey.
According to Bloomberg—which broke the story—the Russians will supply two S-400 batteries and allow Ankara to license build two additional systems, but the exact details have yet to be worked out. Thus far, the Russians have not offered official comment on reports of the deal, which could be worth more than $2.5 billion.
But while the Russians seem willing to sell Turkey some of their most advanced air defense weapons, Moscow is not likely to part with all of its secrets. Turkey will likely receive a less capable export version of the S-400.
“The S-400 comes in a number of configurations, and besides, we expect to have the S-500 in the coming years,” Kashin said.
“Turkey is an increasingly important partner, although a difficult one.”
Bendett agreed that Turkey is not likely to receive the most capable version of the S-400.
“A modern military should have modern air defenses – that is what Turkey is striving for as it fields new systems,” Bendett said.
“But it’s likely that the Russians will not sell the latest S-400 version to the Turks, or sell it with certain caveats. Either way, this is in line with Turkey’s massive weapons modernization drive that saw the emergence of new land, air and sea-based systems for domestic use and export.”
The Turkish purchase could be beneficial for the United States and its NATO allies if the deal is finalized and Ankara remains oriented towards the West. Turkey’s acquisition of the S-400 would afford NATO a valuable up close look at the system’s operational capabilities and limitations—and devise a means to neutralize it. Even a degraded export version of the S-400 would provide the West with insights on how to defeat Russia’s latest air defenses.
But a finalized deal might also mean that Turkey meant to forge its own path, one that is more oriented towards the Kremlin. And that is not likely to be received as good news here in Washington.