Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Non si sta parlando dell’antibiotico.
Qui introduciamo alcuni elementi di base relativi ai radar di contro-batteria.
«A counter-battery radar (alternatively weapon tracking radar) is a radar system that detects artillery projectiles fired by one or more guns, howitzers, mortars or rocket launchers and, from their trajectories, locates the position on the ground of the weapon that fired it. Such radars are a subclass of the wider class of target acquisition radars.
Early counter-battery radars were generally used against mortars, who’s lofted trajectories were highly symmetrical and allowed easy calculation of the launcher’s location. Starting in the 1970s, digital computers with improved calculation capabilities allowed more complex trajectories of long-range artillery to also be determined. Normally these radars would be attached to friendly artillery units or their support units, allowing them to quickly arrange counter-battery fire.
With the aid of modern communications systems, the information from a single radar can be rapidly disseminated over long distances. This allows the radar to notify multiple batteries as well as provide early warning to the friendly targets.
Modern counter-battery radar can locate hostile batteries up to about 50 km away depending on the radar’s capabilities and the terrain and weather. Some counter-battery radars can also be used to track the fire of friendly artillery and calculate corrections to adjust its fire onto a particular place, but this is usually a secondary mission objective» [Fonte]
I russi avevano già in uso lo Zoopark-1M, ma questi aveva caratteristiche scarne, specie se comparato ad analoghi complessi occidentali.
«In 1986 France, Germany and UK agreed the ‘List of Military Requirements’ for a new counter-battery radar. The distinguishing feature was that instead of just locating individual guns, etc., the radar was able to locate many simultaneously and group them into batteries with a centre point, dimensions and attitude of the long axis of the battery. This radar eventually reached service as Euro-ART’s COunter Battery RAdar (COBRA) AESA system. 29 COBRA systems were produced and delivered in a roll-out which was completed in Aug. 2007 (12 to Germany – out of which two were re-sold to Turkey, 10 to France and 7 to the UK). Three additional systems were ordered in Feb. 2009 by the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces. Simultaneous with the development of COBRA, Norway and Sweden developed a smaller, more mobile counter-battery radar known as ARTHUR. It was taken into service in 1999 and is today used by 7 NATO countries and The Republic Of South Korea. New versions of ARTHUR have twice the accuracy of the original.
Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan led to a new need for a small counter-mortar radar for use in forward operating bases, providing 360 degree coverage and requiring a minimal crew. In another back to the future step it has also proved possible to add counter-battery software to battlefield airspace surveillance radars.» [Fonte]
Ma una cosa è combattere dei terroristi più o meno organizzati, ed una completamente differente affrontare un esercito più o meno equivalente.
Nel momento stesso in cui entri in funzione, il radar diventa immediatamente localizzabile e, di conseguenza, un bersaglio facilmente distruggibile.
Altrettanto ingenuo sarebbe pensare che il nemico non si ingegni di disturbare le comunicazioni, con ogni tipo di contromisura elettronica.
Infine, sarebbe davvero da sprovvidi intercettare un tiro civetta, sparato apposta per poter identificare le posizioni delle contro-batterie.
Un problema tecnico è infine costituito dal fatto che l’impulso radar è tipicamente conico con un’apertura attorno ai 25 gradi. Non facile individuare i proiettili.
A quanto sarebbe dato di sapere, il sistema ‘penicillin’ abbinerebbe radar e sistemi ottici, lavorando quindi con contro-batterie automatizzate, senza serventi.
«”Penicillin” is able to pinpoint the location of enemy artillery less than five seconds after firing.
The holding company “Ruselectronics” has announced that the advanced artillery reconnaissance system ‘Penicillin’ would go into production in less than two years’ time, with state trials expected to wrap up soon. The new system is able to pinpoint the location of enemy artillery less than five seconds after firing.
In a press release “Ruselectronics” confirmed that mass production of the new artillery reconnaissance system would begin in early 2019. The St. Petersburg-based Vector Research Institute, part of the company, is tasked with developing the system.
“Penicillin” can detect the firing positions of enemy artillery, mortars, MLRS (multiple launch rocket systems), anti-aircraft and tactical missiles, and adjust artillery fire.
During this “Penicillin” works at safe distances away from the enemy, and can operate in automatic mode, without a human operator. This allows for precise artillery reconnaissance without risking the lives of army personnel.
The mobile system is mounted aboard a Kamaz-6350 chassis. It operates in a combat radius up to 25 km wide. The system consists of the 1B75 electro-optical module, which works in the infrared and visible spectrum using imagining cameras placed on a telescopic boom, and several ground-installed 1B76 sound and seismic receivers. ‘Penicillin’ works at any time day or night. » [Defence Aerospace]
Ci si pone una semplicissima domanda.
I russi spendono circa 60 miliardi all’anno per le forze armate e sembrerebbero essere armati fino ai denti. Gli sttai afferenti l’Unione Europea ne spensono circa cinque volta tanto ed hanno eserciti molto carenti. Qulacosa non torna nei conti.
→ Pravda. 2017-05-23. Russia works on powerful ‘Penicillin’ pill for enemy guns.
Russia is working on the final stage of official tests for Penicillin complex. It does not go about medicine at all. Penicillin is a sound-thermal complex of artillery reconnaissance, capable of greatly reducing the time of detection and neutralization of enemy artillery weapons.
The serial production of the complex is scheduled for January 2019, a message from the press service of RosElectronica, the maker of the complex, said.
The complex operates at a safe distance from the enemy. This is a very significant factor under the conditions of military operations, because it allows to sharply reduce risks for servicemen on the front line. In addition, the Penicillin complex is capable of operating in a fully automatic mode. The complex is intended for reconnaissance of firing positions of artillery weapons, mortars, rocket launchers and launch positions of anti-aircraft and tactical missiles while making fire adjustments for artillery systems, developers note.
The complex performs combat missions on a strip of territory up to 25 kilometers wide. It consists of several sound receivers installed on the ground surface, as well as an optoelectronic unit. The system receives and processes acoustic signals from shots (explosions) and provides information about the site of the shell explosion, accuracy of the strike and coordinates of the weapon. The time for obtaining coordinates for a single target does not exceed five seconds. The range of radio communication with external communicants may reach 40 kilometers.
Presently, the Russian army uses Zoopark-1 radar reconnaissance system for firing control. The system was passed into service in 2007. In 2013, Almaz-Antei defense concern introduced the upgraded Zoopark-1M complex. The complex is capable of conducting reconnaissance activities and control mortar firing positions (up to 22 kilometers in control mode), guns (up to 20 kilometers), MLRS (up to 35 kilometers) and tactical missiles (up to 45 kilometers).
Of course, the name of the complex attracts attention. In catalogs of Russian weapons, one may come across most bizarre names for military equipment: stretcher “Inspiration”, sub-caliber projectile “Mummy,” six-grenade revolver grenade launcher “Gnome”, surface-launched torpedo “Racoon”, anti-tank mine “Tick”, tactical free-fall bomb with a special head unit of up to 40 Kilotons “Natasha”, silent automatic-grenade launcher complex “Canary,” complexes of artillery armament “Carnation”, “Acacia”, “Tulip”, “Hyacinth”, “Peony”, “Chrysanthemum” and so on.