Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Non si venga a dire che i turki non sono islamici. Ecco qui le loro femmine scosciate e con i capelli bene agghindati ed in vista. Islam bigotto? Non diciamo bubbole.
Dopo Francia, Belgio, Paesi Bassi e Bulgaria adesso anche Germania, Baviera ed Austria hanno messo al bando il burqa ed ogni altro copricapo muliebre islamico che impedisca la chiara visione del volto.
Il burqa non è di per sé stesso un indumento mandatorio per le donne islamiche, né, di conseguenza, è un simbolo religioso islamico.
A molti sembrerebbe infatti sfuggire il fatto che fu il re dell’Afganistan Habibullah Kalakānī ad introdurre l’uso del burqa nel 1880, facendolo indossare alle proprie concubine. In un lampo la moda si propagò in tutti i ceti abbienti del regno, e fu lestamente imitata dalle donne della gente comune.
Caduto quasi completamente in disuso a partire dagli anni cinquanta, il regime telebano ne impose l’uso, considerandolo simbolo di appartenenza a quella corrente religiosa e politica.
All’interno del mondo islamico la foggia del velo varia da zona a zona, ed in talune nazioni è anche caduto in disuso. Potremmo, grosso modo, distinguere alcune tipologie.
– Khimar: termine coranico. Usualmente indica un mantello che copra dalla testa in giù: alcuni modelli arrivano fino a sotto i fianchi, altri fino alle caviglie. Può o meno avere un velo che copra anche il viso.
– Jilbab: termine coranico. Denomina un abito che copra completamente il corpo della donna. “Abaya” è sinonimo di uso corrente. È usato prevalentemente nei paesi del Golfo Persico.
– Niqab: Velo di tradizione preislamica. Copre l’intero corpo della donna, lasciando solo una fessura per gli occhi. usualmente è composto di un pezzo superiore, che avvolge il capo, e di uno inferiore per il corpo.
È l’abito indossato tipicamente in Arabia Saudita ed è altrettanto usualmente associato alla corrente wahhabita. Ha come variante l’uso del solo pezzo superiore, specialmente in Egitto e nell’Africa settentrionale in genere: prende anche nome di hijab.
– Chador: Abito che copre da capo a piedi, lasciando però libero tutto il viso. È il tipico indumento muliebre iraniano e, solitamente, è di colore nero.
– Burqa: Di colore azzurro, è simile al niqab ma presenta all’altezza degli occhi una griglia per la visione. Il burqa è tipico dell’Afganistan e del Pakistan.
Una cosa è la pratica religiosa, da rispettarsi, ed una totalmente differente è l’uso di simbologie politiche, specie poi se fondamentaliste.
→ Deutsche Welle. 2017-05-17. Austrian parliament passes burqa ban as part of new migrant law
The measure was backed by both of the ruling parties, the SPÖ and ÖVP, on Tuesday, in spite of political turbulence that has divided the governing coalition in recent days.
Starting in October, police will be charging fines from people who wear clothes that obstruct their facial features. The 150-euro ($166) fine would also apply to women wearing burqas and niqabs at universities, courts, or in public transport.
It was not immediately clear how many people would be affected by the ban.
Austrian mainstream parties have come under pressure from a rise in popularity for the far-right FPÖ faction, which criticized the law adopted on Tuesday by saying it did not go far enough.
School of life skills and ethics
Other measures in the legislation included setting up a 12-month integration school for migrants who are deemed to have good chances of staying in Austria. The schools would offer German courses, but also teach the asylum seekers about ethics and values considered customary in the country. Other skills, like applying for a job, would also be included.
The programs would aim to provide migrants with better prospects in society, said State Secretary Muna Duzdar.
“However, it is also clear that people need to take us up on the offers we create,” she was cited by the daily Wiener Zeitung as saying.
Migrants who refuse to take part in the courses would see their social welfare benefits cut.
Additionally, the law also sees asylum seekers expected to perform unpaid public work, as part of efforts to prepare them for the Austrian job market.
→ Deutsche Welle. 2017-02-22. Bavaria approves ban on full-face veil
The government of Bavaria has agreed to a new law which will ban certain Muslim religious clothing from public spaces. The decision came as German conservatives try to win back voters from the anti-immigration AfD party.
Germany’s southeastern state of Bavaria announced late on Tuesday that it had approved a ban on face veils in certain public spaces. Women wearing a niqab or burqa are hindering communication and public safety, Bavarian Interior Minister Joachim Herrmann said following a cabinet meeting.
“A communicative exchange takes place not only through speech, but also through looks, expressions and gestures,” Hermann told the press. “It forms the foundation of our interpersonal relationships and is the basis of our society and free and democratic order.”
According to the new draft legislation, a full-face veil is to be prohibited “in the fields of civil service, universities, schools, kindergartens, in the fields of public general safety and order, and at elections.”
Bavaria is governed by the right-leaning conservative Christian Social Union (CSU), the smaller sister party of Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democrats (CDU). The CSU has an absolute majority in Bavaria’s state parliament, which Herrmann said is expected to pass the law by the summer break.
The move is a timely one. As Germany prepares for federal elections in September, there are fears of losing votes to the anti-immigrant Alternative for Germany (AfD) party and worries that Merkel has moved her party so far to the center that it is not longer recognizable.
The chancellor expressed her support for such a ban in December, saying it should be implemented “wherever legally possible.” As the front line of the influx of more than a million often Muslim refugees and migrants into Germany over the past two years, Bavaria has also had to deal with increasing concerns about domestic security and the integration of migrants into mainstream culture.
However, many have criticized the move not only as contrary to religious freedom but also a distracting non-issue being exploited for political purposes. The German government does not have official statistics on how many women wear a full-face veil. Multiple German media reports have estimated that fewer than 300 women wear a niqab regularly, and that extremely few, if any, wore a burqa.
→ Deutsche Welle. 2017-04-28. Bundestag bans face veils for civil servants amid security measures
In a late night sitting, the lower house of parliament has approved a raft of security measures and a draft ban on face veils. The ban would only apply to civil servants in Germany.
Germany’s lower house of parliament, the Bundestag, on Thursday approved a draft law that would prevent civil servants, judges and soldiers from wearing Islamic full-face veils at work.
Germany’s ruling coalition said in a statement said that a “religious or ideological covering of the face contradicts the neutrality required of state functionaries.”
The law would also require women to show their face during identity checks.
The law still has to be approved by the upper house, the Bundesrat, before coming into effect.
“Integration also means that we should make clear and impart our values and where the boundaries lie of our tolerance towards other cultures,” German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere said. “The draft law we have agreed on makes an important contribution to that.”
Fifth country to ban
If the law is passed, Germany would become the fifth European country to ban or partially ban the wearing of the burqa and niqab, after France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Bulgaria.
Austria and Norway are also working towards a ban.
The approval came after Chancellor Angela Merkel’s December call for a ban on full-face Muslim veils “wherever legally possible”. The new law fell short of demands by right-wing parties for a total ban in public places, as in France.
Merkel is facing a federal election in five months, with her Christian Democratic Union (CDU) losing some support to the anti-immigrant Alternative for Germany (AfD).
In February, Merkel’s Bavarian CSU sister party said it would ban the full-face veil in schools, universities, government workplaces and polling stations.
Package of security measures
During the same late night session, the Bundestag approved a package of security measures aimed at preventing extremist attacks.
New security measures includes the court-approved use of electronic ankle bracelets for people deemed a security threat. Another law is aimed at helping national and state police forces pool their data in a new integrated IT system.
A separate measure implemented European Union rules on the mandatory sharing and retention of data on flight passengers.
Another measure meant physical attacks on police, emergency services and military personnel on duty would be punished with up to five years’ jail.