Pubblicato in: Cina, Commercio, Senza categoria

Belt and Road Forum. L’alternativa a Davos ed al G20.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2017-05-16.

2017-05-14__Obor__170514164356-xi-jinping-vladimir-putin-belt-and-road-forum-0514-exlarge-169

Se ne è accorta persino la Cnn, ed è tutto dire.

Non è la Cina che deve integrarsi con l’Occidente, bensì questo con la Cina.

Non a caso Bloomberg ha pubblicato un allarmaato ed allarmante editoriale su questo argomento:

One Belt, One Road, One Man

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Cosa è il progetto One Belt, One Road (Obor)?

«La Nuova via della seta è un’iniziativa strategica della Cina per il miglioramento dei collegamenti e della cooperazione tra paesi nell’Eurasia. Comprende le direttrici terrestri della “zona economica della via della seta” e la “via della seta marittima del XXI secolo” (in cinese: 丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路S, Sīchóu zhī lù jīngjìdài hé èrshíyī shìjì hǎishàng sīchóu zhī lùP), ed è conosciuta anche come “iniziativa della zona e della via” o “una zona, una via” e col corrispondente acronimo inglese OBOR (one belt, one road).

Partendo dallo sviluppo delle infrastrutture di trasporto e logistica, la strategia mira a promuovere il ruolo della Cina nelle relazioni globali, favorendo i flussi di investimenti internazionali e gli sbocchi commerciali per le produzioni cinesi. L’iniziativa di un piano organico per i collegamenti terrestri (la cintura) è stata annunciata pubblicamente dal presidente cinese Xi Jinping a settembre del 2013, e la via marittima ad ottobre dello stesso anno, contestualmente alla proposta di costituire la Banca asiatica d’investimento per le infrastrutture (AIIB), dotata di un capitale di 100 miliardi di dollari USA, di cui la Cina stessa sarebbe il principale socio, con un impegno pari a 29,8 miliardi e gli altri paesi asiatici (tra cui l’India e la Russia) e dell’Oceania avrebbero altri 45 miliardi (l’Italia si è impegnata a sottoscrivere una quota di 2,5 miliardi).

La Via della Seta Terrestre attraversa tutta l’Asia Centrale e arriva dalla Cina fino alla Spagna: con le infrastrutture esistenti sono già stati simbolicamente inaugurati i collegamenti merci diretti fino a Berlino e Madrid, ma è allo studio anche la possibilità di una linea passeggeri ad alta velocità. La Via Marittima costeggia tutta l’Asia Orientale e Meridionale, arrivando fino al Mar Mediterraneo attraverso il canale di Suez. La AIIB è un veicolo per catalizzare gli investimenti necessari al miglioramento delle infrastrutture ferroviarie e portuali, complessivamente stimati in 1800 miliardi di dollari in dieci anni. Nel quadro dell’iniziativa della Nuova via della seta la Cina sta promuovendo anche investimenti diretti, anche in ambiti anche non direttamente collegati alla logistica. A questo scopo, nel novembre 2014 ha creato anche un Fondo per la Via della Seta, dotandolo di 40 miliardi di dollari USA.» [Fonte]

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Cosa è la Banca asiatica d’investimento per le infrastrutture (Aiib)?

«La Banca Asiatica d’Investimento per le infrastrutture (AIIB), fondata a Pechino nell’ottobre 2014, è un’istituzione finanziaria internazionale proposta dalla Repubblica Popolare Cinese. Si contrappone al Fondo Monetario Internazionale, alla Banca Mondiale e all’Asian Development Bank, queste ultime, secondo molti osservatori, sarebbero sotto il controllo del capitale e delle scelte strategiche dei paesi sviluppati come gli Stati Uniti d’America. Scopo della Banca è fornire e sviluppare progetti di infrastrutture nella regione Asia-Pacifico attraverso la promozione dello sviluppo economico-sociale della regione e contribuendo alla crescita mondiale.

I paesi fondatori dell’AIIB sono 57. Secondo la Cina, sono considerati fondatori gli stati che aderiscono alla banca entro il 31-03-2015, dopo tale data, ogni ulteriore adesione comporta per lo stato che aderirà all’AIIB lo status di semplice “componente”» [Fonte]

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Lingue ufficiali dell’Obor e dell’Aiib sono il cinese ed il russo. Talora, per pura cortesia orientale, è fornita una traduzione simultanea in inglese, ma non è la norma e non è considerata essere fonte ufficiale. Questo problema costituisce un severo ostacolo per gli osservatori occidentali.

L’Aiib è un contraltare molto efficiente dell’Imf, ad attuale direzione francese, ed alla Wb, ad attuale direzione americana. Gli occidentali non hanno mai lasciato spazio alle realtà emergenti, e solo lo scorso anno lo yuan è stato ammesso come valuta di riferimento per i diritti speciali di prelievo.

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Una caratteristica specifica dell’Obor e dell’Aiib è che tutti gli stati sono trattati su base paritetica sulla base di criteri di mero scambio economico, senza ingerenza alcuna nella gestione interna. Questo approccio le rende totalmente differenti dalle analoghe strutture occidentali che, almeno durante la Amministrazione Obama, vincolavano la concessione di fondi ed il finanziamento di progetti alla condivisione della Weltanschauung liberal. Ostacolo questo non da poco.

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Obor ed Aiib sono finalizzate alla realizzazione di infrastrutture strategiche.

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«Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged $124 billion on Sunday for his new Silk Road plan to forge a path of peace, inclusiveness and free trade, and called for the abandonment of old models based on rivalry and diplomatic power games.»

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«Xi used a summit on the initiative, attended by leaders and top officials from around the world, to bolster China’s global leadership ambitions as U.S. President Donald Trump promotes “America First” and questions existing global free trade deals.»

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«”We should build an open platform of cooperation and uphold and grow an open world economy,” Xi told the opening of the two-day gathering in Beijing.»

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«China has touted what it formally calls the Belt and Road initiative as a new way to boost global development since Xi unveiled the plan in 2013, aiming to expand links between Asia, Africa, Europe and beyond underpinned by billions of dollars in infrastructure investment.»

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In sintesi: questo è uno sforzo finanziario che l’Occidente non potrebbe al momento permettersi e dal quale è rimasto tagliato fuori. Le infrastrutture patrocinate rendono agevoli gli scambi commerciali e concorrono in modo potente a fare emergere economie e sistemi economici al momento ancora in via di sviluppo o di emersione.

E di questo sono in molti ad essere riconoscenti alla Cina: è un modo efficiente per procurarsi degli amici.


Cnn. 2017-05-14. China’s new world order: Xi, Putin and others meet for Belt and Road Forum

Belt and Road Forum, Beijing (CNN)China’s leaders are ringing in what they hope is a new world order at a major international conference in Beijing Sunday.

The Belt and Road Forum is China’s answer to Davos or the G20, centered around the colossal One Belt, One Road (OBOR) trade initiative, which takes its inspiration from the ancient Silk Road trading route.

Speaking at the opening ceremony, Chinese President Xi Jinping emphasized OBOR’s international credentials in the face of criticism that the project will be dominated by Beijing.

“What we hope to create is a big family of harmonious co-existence,” Xi said, adding that all countries were welcome to take part in the project.

Xi also announced China will contribute an additional $14.5 billion to the Silk Road Fund, which provides support for OBOR projects, and $8.7 billion in assistance to developing countries.

Addressing the forum after Xi, Russian President Vladimir Putin appeared to take aim at the US, which is not involved in the OBOR initiative.

“Protectionism is becoming the new normal,” Putin warned, adding that the “ideas of openness and free trade are increasingly often being rejected (even) by those who until very recently expounded them.”

OBOR, which has been in the works for four years, spans more than 68 countries and up to 40% of global GDP. It is China’s push to put it in a position of world leadership as the US under President Donald Trump takes a more protectionist approach and gives up the mantle of globalization.

Sunday’s forum is being held near Beijing’s Olympic Park — the site of the 2008 games — as the city enjoys the type of splendid weather China’s leaders have shown themselves adept at creating on demand when needed for political events. Roads around the venue have been closed down amid a heavy security operation.

Political push

In attendance Sunday were Chinese President Xi Jinping — whose personal project the OBOR initiative is — Russian President Vladimir Putin, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte, alongside a host of other world leaders and top ranking officials.

Joining them was a small delegation from North Korea, despite recent strained ties between Beijing and Pyongyang over the latter’s nuclear program.

Early Sunday, North Korea launched a ballistic missile, emphasizing how high tensions in the region are at the moment and stealing focus from the OBOR forum in what could be seen as a deliberate insult to Xi.

The leaders of the US and most European economies were notably absent Sunday. While the US sent Matt Pottinger, special assistant to the President, no cabinet or elected officials were in attendance.

In a communique announcing a new trade deal with China Thursday, the US said it “recognizes the importance of China’s One Belt and One Road initiative,” but Washington is largely uninvolved in OBOR or connected projects like the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

Speaking to CNN Saturday, AIIB President Jin Liqun was positive that the US could still play a role in China’s projects, saying that “regardless of the membership of the US … we can work together.”

“The door is open, any member is welcome to join,” he added.

While OBOR has been hailed within China as something that can benefit the whole world and lift millions out of poverty, further afield its reception has been more mixed.

Jörg Wuttke, outgoing president of the EU Chamber of Commerce in China, warned last week that the initiative has increasingly “been hijacked by Chinese companies, which have used it as an excuse to evade capital controls, smuggling money out of the country by disguising it as international investments and partnerships.”

He and other critics have pointed to restrictions on and obstacles to foreign firms doing business in China as evident of the hypocrisy behind Beijing’s grand unifying vision.

Even neighboring India has been skeptical. The country’s finance and defense minister Arun Jaitley told reporters this month Delhi has “serious reservations” about the project, particularly regarding China-funded development in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.

US pulls back

While many countries may have gone into OBOR with a “more rosy tinted view of what China’s intent was,” the scales are increasingly falling from their eyes, said Christopher Balding, a professor of economics at Peking University.

Of particular concern for many is what happens if Chinese-funded projects fail. In the past, this has meant Chinese firms or banks “essentially taking over,” Balding said, giving them complete control over very strategic projects in foreign countries. Some have also warned of projects becoming expensive white elephants with little payoff for backers or locals.

Jin said such warnings are “necessary,” adding that in the past “there were white elephants, there were mistakes.”

“It’s very important that the resources put into (OBOR) projects must be producing tangible results for the people” of the countries they are in, he told CNN.

Max Baucus, a former US ambassador to China, said OBOR has “if not frightened, then at least concerned, a lot of countries along the way.”

Prior to Donald Trump’s election as US President, it could be expected that Washington’s Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) — a free-trade alliance of 12 Asian and Pacific economies — would act as something of a counterbalance to rising Chinese power.

Trump however, pulled the US out of the deal a day after taking office. While it still includes Australia and Japan, both major economies, without Washington’s backing the TPP will be far smaller if it manages to nevertheless go ahead.

The US has also reduced activity in the hotly contested South China Sea, in what has been seen as another concession to China by the new US president who hopes for a solution in North Korea.

Baucus said the country’s withdrawal from the region risked creating “a vacuum.”

“(TPP was) an economic complement to military planning in the South China Sea,” he said, while OBOR puts China “in the driving seat.”


Reuters. 2017-05-14. China pledges $124 billion for new Silk Road as champion of globalization

Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged $124 billion on Sunday for his new Silk Road plan to forge a path of peace, inclusiveness and free trade, and called for the abandonment of old models based on rivalry and diplomatic power games.

Xi used a summit on the initiative, attended by leaders and top officials from around the world, to bolster China’s global leadership ambitions as U.S. President Donald Trump promotes “America First” and questions existing global free trade deals.

“We should build an open platform of cooperation and uphold and grow an open world economy,” Xi told the opening of the two-day gathering in Beijing.

China has touted what it formally calls the Belt and Road initiative as a new way to boost global development since Xi unveiled the plan in 2013, aiming to expand links between Asia, Africa, Europe and beyond underpinned by billions of dollars in infrastructure investment.

Xi said the world must create conditions that promote open development and encourage the building of systems of “fair, reasonable and transparent global trade and investment rules”.

Hours before the summit opened, North Korea launched another ballistic missile, further testing the patience of China, its chief ally. The United States had complained to China on Friday over the inclusion of a North Korean delegation at the event.

MASSIVE FUNDING BOOST

Xi pledged a major funding boost to the new Silk Road, including an extra 100 billion yuan ($14.50 billion) into the existing Silk Road Fund, 380 billion yuan in loans from two policy banks and 60 billion yuan in aid to developing countries and international bodies in countries along the new trade routes.

In addition, Xi said China would encourage financial institutions to expand their overseas yuan fund businesses to the tune of 300 billion yuan.

Xi did not give a time frame for the new loans, aid and funding pledged on Sunday.

Leaders from 29 countries attended the forum, as well as the heads of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

Britain’s finance minister told the summit his country was a “natural partner” in the new Silk Road, while the prime minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, a close Chinese ally, praised China’s “vision and ingenuity”.

“Such a broad sweep and scale of interlocking economic partnerships and investments is unprecedented in history,” Sharif said.

White House adviser Matt Pottinger said the United States welcomed efforts by China to promote infrastructure connectivity as part of its Belt and Road initiative, and U.S. companies could offer top value services.

India refused to send an official delegation to Beijing, reflecting displeasure with China for developing a $57 billion trade corridor through Pakistan that also crosses the disputed territory of Kashmir.

“No country can accept a project that ignores its core concerns on sovereignty and territorial integrity,” said Indian foreign ministry spokesman Gopal Baglay, adding that there were concerns about host countries taking on “unsustainable debt.”

China plans to import $2 trillion of products from countries participating in its Belt and Road initiative over the next five years, Commerce Minister Zhong Shan said.

UNEASE OVER SUMMIT

But some Western diplomats have expressed unease about both the summit and the plan as a whole, seeing it as an attempt to promote Chinese influence globally. They are also concerned about transparency and access for foreign firms to the scheme.

Australian Trade Minister Steven Ciobo said Canberra was receptive to exploring commercial opportunities China’s new Silk Road presented, but any decisions would remain incumbent on national interest.

“China is willing to share its development experience with all countries,” Xi said. “We will not interfere in other countries’ internal affairs. We will not export our system of society and development model, and even more will not impose our views on others.”

“In advancing the Belt and Road, we will not re-tread the old path of games between foes. Instead we will create a new model of cooperation and mutual benefit,” Xi said.

North Korea, which considers China its sole major diplomatic ally and economic benefactor, raised eyebrows when it decided to send a delegation to the summit.

The North Korean delegation largely kept a low profile at the summit, and there was no evidence that its presence had affected participation despite U.S. misgivings.

FINANCIAL INCLUSIVENESS

Xi said the new Silk Road would be open to all, including Africa and the Americas, which are not situated on the traditional Silk Road.

“No matter if they are from Asia and Europe, or Africa or the Americas, they are all cooperative partners in building the Belt and Road.”

The idea of cooperation and inclusiveness extends to funding projects and investments along the new trade routes, which are being developed both on land and at sea.

“We need joint effort among Belt and Road countries to boost financing cooperation,” Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of China’s central bank, said.

To sustain the projects, Belt and Road nations should allow companies to play a key role, as government resources are limited, Zhou said.

The active use of local currencies will also help to mobilize local savings, lower remittance and exchange costs, and safeguard financial stability, he said.

At the forum, finance ministries from 27 countries, including China, approved a set of principles that will guide project financing along the new Silk Road.

Germany, which was not among the countries that approved the financing guidelines, said its firms were willing to support the Belt and Road initiative, but more transparency was needed.

Some of China’s close allies and partners were at the forum, including Russian President Vladimir Putin, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen and Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

There were also several European leaders attending, including the prime ministers of Spain, Italy, Greece and Hungary.

Chinese state-run media has spared no effort in its coverage of the summit, including broadcasting an awkwardly-named English-language music video “The Belt and Road is How” sung by children from countries on the new Silk Road.

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