Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
Deportazione degli Armeni. 1915
Sarebbe molto utile non confondere i termini usati, perché non sono sinonimi.
– Migrante è il nome generico attribuito ad una persona che si sposti dal logo di usuale residenza, con l’intento di stabilirsi altrove.
– Migrante economico è la denominazione di un migrante in cerca di migliori condizioni di lavoro oppure di welfare state.
– Profugo indica in modo generico quanti si siano allontanati dal logo di origine a causa del deterioramento politico, economico, sociale.
– Rifugiato è un ben preciso stato giuridico che denomina chi sia fuggito o sia stato espulso dal suo paese originario a causa di pesanti discriminazioni politiche, religiose, razziali o di status nazionale. Per ottenere lo status di “rifugiato” è necessario che sia evidente al di là di ogni possibile dubbio che il profugo sia stato oggetto di una persecuzione attiva che ne abbia severamente limitato la libertà politica, sociale ed economica.
– Asylum-seeker è la persona che ha chiesto lo stato giuridico di ‘rifugiato‘ ed è in attesa del completamento della pratica.
«Some 12,500 Afghans whose asylum applications have been rejected will be deported from Germany»
«Interior Ministry estimates that 5 percent of the almost 247,000 Afghans who had reached Germany by the end of September will probably have to leave»
«the rate of acceptance of Afghan asylum applications fell in 2016 to 52.4 percent as compared with 77.6 percent the year before»
«The German interior minister has said the decision to deport a group of rejected Afghan asylum-seekers was “necessary.”»
«Some 2,300 Afghans returned to their home country this year»
* * * * * * *
Il problema esiste ed è reale.
Una gran parte dei migranti lo sono per motivi economici. Nulla da ridire, tranne il fatto che hanno migrato illegalmente. È la illegalità lo scoglio maggiore, non la migrazione in sé.
Un grande numero di migranti fa richiesta per ottenere lo status giuridico di “rifugiato“, ma pochi di essi possono addurre prove oggettive di averne i requisiti.
Il conto non sembrerebbe tornare per gli afgani.
Il Ministro degli Interni Thomas de Maiziere dice che sono entrati in Germania 247,000 miranti.
Ma se le richieste di asilo che sono state accolte ammontano al 52.4%, si potrebbe calcolare che quelle non accolte dovrebbero essere il 47.60%, ossia 117,572.
Questa cifra è nove volte superiore ai 12,500 riportati dal Ministro.
E di questi, solo 2,300 sono stati rimpatriati.
Questa, a nostro sommesso parere, non sembrerebbe essere una “deportazione di massa“.
→ Deutsche Welle. 2016-11-17. Germany to repatriate about 12,000 Afghans: report
Some 12,500 Afghans whose asylum applications have been rejected will be deported from Germany, a report says. Repatriations to Afghanistan are a controversial issue owing to the fragile state of security in the country.
Around 12,500 Afghan migrants to Germany are to be repatriated despite the civil war still raging in parts of their home country, a newspaper report said on Thursday.
According to the report in the “Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung,” which cited a German government document, the Interior Ministry estimates that 5 percent of the almost 247,000 Afghans who had reached Germany by the end of September will probably have to leave.
The government statement justifies the planned move by saying that security was guaranteed in Afghanistan’s larger cities. “A worsening of the security situation in the entire country cannot be confirmed,” the newspaper cited the document as saying.
The document said the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) would, however, handle applications for asylum by Afghans on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the risks faced by each applicant.
Some migrants were expected to return of their own accord, it said, but noted that other removals might be by force.
The document is the response by the government to a question posed by the hard-left Left party.
Forced repatriations to Afghanistan are a controversial issue in Germany, with many doubts still remaining as to how safe the country is. Attacks by the Taliban are still occurring regularly across the country, including one last week on the German consulate in Mazar-e-Sharif in which four people died.
At the start of October, the EU and Afghanistan signed a much-criticized agreement that would make the deportation of rejected asylum-seekers easier.
In the past few years, there have been few Afghan deportations owing to the civil war there.
The “Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung” reported in its article that just 27 rejected Afghan asylum-seekers had been deported so far this year, and only nine in 2015.
However, the rate of acceptance of Afghan asylum applications fell in 2016 to 52.4 percent as compared with 77.6 percent the year before.
→ Deutsche Welle. 2016-12-15. De Maiziere defends deporting planeload of rejected Afghan asylum-seekers
The German interior minister has said the decision to deport a group of rejected Afghan asylum-seekers was “necessary.” But not everyone agrees with that assessment.
German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere on Thursday stood by the decision to carry out the deportation of rejected Afghan asylum-seekers.
“Such repatriation measures are correct and necessary in order to keep our asylum system functioning,” de Maiziere said at a press conference. No voluntary returnees were on board the flight that left Germany on Wednesday evening.
He confirmed that 34 men were on board the plane, a third of whom had criminal records in Germany. Convictions against some of the men included theft, robbery, drug violations, manslaughter and rape.
Some deportees expressed their disappointment with being sent to Afghanistan.
“I am not happy, everything is different for me here,” Sidiq Kuchai, a 23-year-old from northern Baghlan province who was in Germany for seven years, told the AP news agency. “I had a good job and was working in a restaurant in Cologne. But in Afghanistan, I have no job and no security.”
Ali Madad Nasiri, who had lived in Germany for three years, told Reuters news agency of his rude awakening. “It was early morning and I was sleeping when four policemen came to my home and arrested me. I didn’t have a chance to take my clothes, cellphone and laptop – all left behind,” said Masiri.
De Maiziere said 50 people were supposed to be on board, but some disappeared before departure. The deportation of a 29-year-old Afghan man was stopped by Germany’s Constitutional Court until his follow-up asylum application could be processed.
In its ruling, the court left open the question of whether deportations to Afghanistan are constitutionally justifiable and instead addressed only the one applicant’s case.
Not safe in Afghanistan
Not all in Germany are happy with the deportations. Bärbel Kofler, the human rights commissioner for the German government, warned those being deported were not safe in Afghanistan.
“I have yet to see a report that indicated to me there were safe regions in Afghanistan,” Kofler told the “Augsburger Allgemeine” newspaper.
Prelate Martin Dutzmann, a representative for the Protestant Church in Germany and the European Union, also disagreed with the decision. “We all know the human rights and security situation in Afghanistan is highly questionable,” said Dutzmann.
Afghan security situation ‘not easy’
The plane took off from Frankfurt on Wednesday and arrived “safely and as planned in Kabul,” de Maiziere said. The returnees were met by Refugee Ministry officials, representatives of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and a non-governmental organization for psychological aid.
The German interior minister added that that the security situation in Afghanistan is “generally not easy.” He added that in many areas in Afghanistan it is “sufficiently safe,” which made Wednesday’s group deportation a “reasonable” action. De Maiziere also pointed out that Sweden, another major refugee host, also organized a similar flight for Afghans on Tuesday.
Some 500 people gathered at Frankfurt Airport on Wednesday to protest the planned deportations.
Those deported were living in the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hamburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland.
Some 890,000 people, mostly fleeing conflict and poverty in the Middle East and Africa, entered Germany in 2015. In 2016, Afghans were the second biggest group of asylum-seekers in Germany after Syrians.
Germany and Afghanistan signed a repatriation deal in October to speed up the deportation of Afghan citizens who do not qualify for asylum. The German government has set aside some 40 million euro ($41.7 million) for Afghan migrants who voluntarily opt to return.
Some 2,300 Afghans returned to their home country this year, de Maiziere said. The Interior Ministry previously estimated around 12,500 Afghans in Germany have had their asylum applications rejected and will be repatriated.