Giuseppe Sandro Mela.
La lettura degli allegati è parte integrante per la comprensione dell’articolo.
Gli Occidentali stentano fortemente a comprendere la Cina: in effetti essa differisce sostanzialmente dall’Occidente.
Alcune difficoltà sono degne di menzione.
In primo luogo, con la caduta dell’Impero Romano l’Europa occidentale ha sviluppato un sistema statale coagulatosi nel tempo attorno ad un’enclave etnica e linguistica, evolutosi quindi una struttura fortemente accentrata, indipendentemente dalla modalità di organizzazione del potere. La Cina, al contrario, ha una storia di oltre quattromila anni di struttura imperale, ossia di un governo che avoca a sé politica estera e militare lasciando ampia autonomia gestionale ad una periferia che parla 292 differenti lingue tra esse mutuamente incomprensibili, comprendente cinquantasei differenti gruppi etnici maggiori. Il mandarino è nei fatti lingua di uso generalizzato, ma è nata come lingua artificiale. Lo stato centrale interviene, ed anche con mano pesante, quando paesi periferici tentano una via indipendentistica.
In secondo luogo, l’Occidente è interamente costruito attorno alle sue radici classiche e cristiane. Ha sviluppato in questo alveo una dottrina di vita basata sul trascendente, e quindi su tutto ciò che ne consegue, ed un sistema filosofico incentrato sulla messa a punto della logica non contraddittoria. Massima eredità medievale, la logica è alla base della così detta rivoluzione scientifica, da cui è scaturita quella tecnologica, con tutte le sue conseguenze. L’Occidente è la patria delle ideologie vicarianti o surroganti i principi religiosi. Di effimera durata: il comunismo è durato a mala pena settanta anni. Un battito di ciglia nel contesto della storia. Però soffre di queste derive.
La Cina, al contrario, non ha sviluppato una religione trascendente né una filosofia e tanto meno la logica. Il confucianesimo, molto diffuso, è un’etica. Non avendo ideologie da difendere visceralmente, la prassi cinese è eminentemente pratica: la Cina è Realpolitik da quattromila anni. Ottimo il giudizio sintetico del Deutsche Welle:
«China’s popularity …. is strong. Its policy of not linking aid and investments to human rights and good governance has made Beijing many friends on the continent, beyond its authoritarian governments».
La Cina è solo ed esclusivamente Realpolitik. Non capire questo equivale a non capire la Cina.
In terzo luogo, l’Occidente ha sviluppato sia nel corso della sua lunga storia, sia soprattutto negli ultimi due secoli, un modello organizzativo statale basato sul concetto di ‘democrazia‘, che è correntemente identificata come sinonimo di suffragio universale, cosa non vera. Il tragico è che si è messo in testa di volerlo esportare.
Al contrario, la Cina ha sviluppato nei millenni il concetto di scuola mandarinica. Ciò che è denominato”partito comunista cinese” altro non è che la scuola mandarinica, vecchia di quattromila anni, e della quale ha assunto statuti, organizzazione e finalità. Ciò che noi denominiamo “partiti” vivono e si confrontano all’interno della scuola mandarinica, secondo le loro, non le nostre regole. Loro prima sono “cinesi” e poi tutto il resto. E devo dire che il dibattito è vivacissimo. La carriera politica la si fa all’interno della scuola su base strettamente meritocratica. Chi supera gli esami di ingresso è messo gradualmente alla prova. La scuola mandarinica cura al massimo l’istruzione. Xi è laureato alla Università di Tsinghua sia in ingegneria chimica, sia in legge. Parla fluentemente undici lingue.
La differenza culturale e di autocontrollo è stridente tra governanti occidentali e cinesi.
In quarto luogo, mentre in Occidente è ad oggi di moda rinnegare o denigrare la propria Patria, i cinesi, pur appartenendo ad un Impero, sono grandemente patriottici. Gli occidentali non riescono proprio a capacitarsi di un simile sentimento, radicato e profondo. Non solo. Un europeo che emigrare negli Stati Uniti presto o tardi diverrebbe un perfetto americano. Un cinese che emigrasse fuori dai confini sarebbe soltanto uno dei cinesi che vivono in quel paese di arrivo in attesa che questo sia inglobato nell’Impero.
In quinto luogo, elemento questo forse più importante nel contesto odierno, la Cina considera l’uomo nel suo umanesimo integrale. L’Occidente, che pur dalle radici classiche e cristiane aveva distillato con grande fatica il concetto di ‘persona umana‘, negli ultimi due secoli si è ostinato a volerlo considerare esclusivamente una macchina economica. Di qui una serie di terrificanti facciate, dalle quali ovviamente non ha imparato un gran ché.
* * * * * * *
A differenze dell’Occidente, la Cina ha sia la propensione sia la struttura organizzativa dello stato per poter pensare in termini strategici. I suoi piani sono quasi invariabilmente articolati sull’arco dei decenni, la sua politica estera assomiglia ad un enorme puzzle ove solo lentamente si comprende che ogni tassello era stato inserito seguendo un ben preciso piano di azione.
Da questo punto di vista le azioni politiche cinesi non incutono rispetto per quello che sono, quanto piuttosto per quello che preannunciano.
– Cina. Consolida il suo impero in Africa. 2016-11-05
Ci si pensi bene.
Una volta che i paesi del Vinegrad avessero la garanzia cinese che la Russia non nutre atteggiamenti ostili e si defilassero dalla Nato, l’Unione Europea potrebbe perdere per essi ogni possibile attrattiva.
Si consideri anche come la crisi di denatalità tedesca la depauperi giorno dopo giorno del suo ceppo autoctono: ragionando in termini di lustri, ancora venti ani e questa Germania non esisterà più. E chi pensasse di poter rimpiazzare Heisenberg con Abdullah è semplicemente pazzo oppure in pessima fede. Nessun stratega potrebbe scotomizzare questo fenomeno, e la Cina si sta portando avanti con il lavoro.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-06. Premier Li: ’16+1′ cooperation benefits world peace, development
Furthering cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, also known as the “16+1” mechanism, will benefit not only the two sides, but also world peace and development, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said in Riga on Saturday.
Addressing the Fifth China-CEE Summit in Riga, Latvia, Li said nations worldwide are facing grave challenges and uncertainties in boosting development against a backdrop of lackluster global economic recovery, frequent regional conflicts and growing non-traditional security threats such as terrorism and refugee problems.
“Under the new circumstances, we have become more mutually dependent as our common interests are growing,” said the premier.
The “16+1” cooperation cannot fare well without a peaceful, stable and sustainable global environment, and meanwhile it has grown into a positive force propelling world peace and development, he said.
He called on the international community including the CEE countries to step up coordination to properly resolve hot issues and maintain world peace and regional stability.
Europe as an important polar of the world is highly complementary with China in terms of economy, and the “16+1” mechanism forms an integral part of China-Europe cooperation, which is conducive to the balanced development and integration of Europe, Li said.
The premier also urged the mechanism to stick to the direction of globalization against intensifying protectionism.
“We should actively promote free trade and facilitate investment, open markets wider to each other, deepen regional economic cooperation and oppose trade and investment protectionism to give ourselves growth impetus while contributing to world economic recovery,” Li said.
Established in 2012, the “16+1” mechanism of cooperation involving China and 16 CEE countries has seen constant expansion.
Li is currently in Latvia for an official visit and the “16+1” summit.
His trip marks the first time for a Chinese premier to visit the Baltic country since it gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
Latvia is the third stop of his ongoing eight-day Eurasia tour, which has already taken him to Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan and will conclude in Russia.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-06. China, Romania pledge to cooperate in nuclear energy, thermal power
China and Romania eyed further cooperation on nuclear energy and thermal power in a meeting between the prime ministers of the two countries in Riga, capital of Latvia, on Saturday evening.
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said China attaches high importance to the cooperation with Romania, and is ready to strengthen the integration of the two countries’ development strategies, enhance cooperation on nuclear energy, thermal power, deep processing of agricultural products, and promote a balanced growth of the bilateral trade.
He also called for stronger tourism cooperation between the two countries.
Romanian Prime Minister Dacian Ciolos said his country is committed to the friendly cooperation with China.
Romania welcomes Chinese firms to invest in local infrastructure like the ports, cooperate on agriculture and tourism, and promote major cooperation projects on nuclear energy and thermal power, he added.
The meeting was held on the sidelines of the Fifth Summit of China and Central and Eastern European Countries.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-06. Premier Li voices confidence in economic development
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said here Saturday that China will surmount all difficulties confronting the Chinese economy, maintain steady growth, and speed up economic transformation.
While addressing the Sixth China and Central and Eastern European (CEE) Countries Economic and Trade Forum in Riga, Latvia, Li updated his audience on the latest developments of the Chinese economy.
China’s confidence in its economic development comes from the country’s vigorous efforts to adapt to the economic new normal and pursue supply-side structural reform while appropriately expanding aggregate demand, he said, adding that this has bolstered the internal development momentum of the Chinese economy.
He said China has consistently followed proactive fiscal policy and prudent monetary policy, and adopted new ways of macroeconomic regulation.
The premier noted that his country has also endeavored to advance economic restructuring and foster new growth drivers through energetic reform, opening-up and innovation.
Moreover, he said, China sought to apply market-oriented and rules-based methods to forestall and defuse risks.
Li added that looking ahead, the Chinese economy enjoys great potential, solid strength and ample room for maneuver, saying it is well-positioned to sustain medium-high growth rate and move to medium-high level of development.
China has every confidence in achieving this goal, said the premier.
China’s development offers the world an opportunity thanks to the ever more open Chinese market, which will surely bring huge business opportunities to global companies including those from the CEE countries, he said, calling for concerted efforts from all sides to build a new type of partnership featuring inclusiveness and reciprocity for a bright future of China-CEE business cooperation.
Li is currently in the Baltic country for an official visit and a leaders’ meeting within what is known as the “16+1” framework, which groups China and 16 CEE nations.
His trip marks the first time for a Chinese premier to visit Latvia since it gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Baltic country is the third stop of his ongoing eight-day Eurasia tour, which has already taken him to Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan and will conclude in Russia.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-06. Li urges strategic view on China-Czech ties
China and Czech should view each other from a strategic and long-term point of view to ensure the smooth development of bilateral ties and pragmatic cooperation, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said here Saturday.
Li made the remarks while meeting with Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka on the sidelines of a meeting between the heads of the governments of China and 16 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, also known as the “16+1” summit.
Li also urged the Czech side to facilitate the setting up of the branches of Chinese financial institutes there.
Sobotka said Czech attaches high importance to its relations with China and respects China’s core interests and major concerns.
He expected the two nations to further expand reciprocal investment and promised to support and facilitate Chinese investment in his country.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-05. China-CEE cooperation booms during the past year
The cooperation between China and 16 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries boomed in the past year, experts and officials said days before the opening of an annual China-CEE summit.
The upcoming fifth summit of China and 16 CEE countries will be held in Riga, capital of Latvia.
The China-CEE summit, with a view to deepening traditional friendship and increasing mutual benefit, was initiated in Warsaw in 2012, and subsequently staged in Bucharest, Belgrade, and east China’s Suzhou city.
Dubbed as the 16+1 mechanism, the cooperation between China and CEE countries has yielded fruitful outcomes since Suzhou summit in November 2015, during which the two sides prioritized sectors for cooperation from 2015 to 2020, ranging from infrastructure, finance, agriculture to people-to-people exchange.
“By implementing the agenda set forth on the Suzhou Summit and linking 16+1 mechanism with the Belt and Road Initiative, China and CEE countries have seen fruitful outcomes during the past year, setting an example for regional cooperation,” said Professor Wang Yiwei, director of the Center for European Studies at Renmin University of China.
One example is the launch of a thermal power plant in Stanari, 180 km northwest of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina(BIH), in September.
The power plant is built by a Chinese company with the help of a 350-million-euro (386.94 million U.S. dollars) loan from China Development Bank.
It is the first project to utilize the 10-billion-U.S. dollar Special Credit Line under the 16+1 mechanism, Chinese Ambassador to BiH Chen Bo told Xinhua in an interview after the launching ceremony, adding its success represents a concrete result in the 16+1 format.
Another example is Romania’s announcement in May that the construction of Cernavoda nuclear power plant would be the country’s priority.
According to a Memorandum of Understanding signed by China General Nuclear and Romanian national nuclear company Nuclearelectrica in November last year, they will develop, construct, and operate unit three and four of the plant.
With an investment of more than 7 billion euros (7.74 billion U.S. dollars), it is the largest cooperation project in terms of the volume of capital between China and CEE countries.
The third example is the project for modernizing the Belgrade-Budapest railway. The construction work of the railway section in Serbia began late last year, and the section in Hungary was given go-ahead by the country’s parliament in April, paving the way for the flagship project under the 16+1 mechanism.
The 370 km railway will significantly improve the transportation between the two countries, as it will shorten the traveling time between the two countries from eight hours to less than three.
By promoting interconnectivity, China and CEE countries have reshaped their trade structure and scaled up their trade volume. Data show that the number of China-Europe freight train lines, since its inception in 2011, have amounted to 39.On a regular basis,16 Chinese cities operate the cargo trains to about a dozen European cities. The trade volume between China and CEE countries reached 56.2 billion U.S. dollars in 2015, an increase of 28 percent comparing to 2010.
Moreover, China-CEE countries have also deepened cooperation in the fields like traditional Chinese medicine, agricultural products and financial network during the past year, Wang noted.
“The 16+1 mechanism echoes the ‘Look East’ policy of EEC countries, deepens China’s cooperation with CEE and the Europe at large, setting examples for other regions to link their own development strategies with China’s Belt and Road Initiative,” said Wang, adding “the 16+1 mechanism itself becomes a highlight of regional cooperation.”
SOLID FOUNDATION FOR COOPERATION
Analysts noted China and CEE countries have solid foundation for collaboration, as CEE countries, which are eyeing better infrastructure and interconnectivity, want to use China’s strength in these fields.
CEE countries are attracted to 16+1 mechanism because they need more investment to improve their infrastructure and economy, according to Professor Men Jing, director of the center for EU-China study at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium.
“At the same time, China is promoting the Belt and Road Initiative. To see it on the map, although the initiative covers west Europe, the key points are CEE countries,” Men added.
The economies are complementary and thus have tremendous potential in cooperation, especially in the fields of industrial equipment and interconnectivity, professor Wang noted.
Taking interconnectivity as example, the professor said CEE countries had a plan of linking “Three Rivers” – namely the Elbe River, the Odra River, the Danube River – with “Three Seas” – namely the Baltic Sea, the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea, while China is working with parties involved to build the China-Europe Land-Sea Express Line, which connects CEE with south Europe.
“Under the 16+1 mechanism, the two ambitious plans have tremendous potential for China-CEE cooperation,” Wang said.
TIES WITH EU
When promoting the 16+1 cooperation, an unavoidable issue for China is its ties with the European Union(EU).
“Europe used to have a negative attitude towards the 16+1 mechanism, seeing it as China’s tactic to split the EU,” said Shada Islam, director of policy at Brussels-based think-tank Friends of Europe.
“In recent years, however, the EU gradually viewed it with understanding. But the EU must be assured that 16+1 mechanism is not a secret meeting,” said Islam.
As the EU realized that China-CEE cooperation help narrow the gap among its members, the bloc now is more positive towards 16+1 mechanism, Wang noted.
China is also paying attention to the EU’s concern about governance standards under the mechanism, he said.
“The 16+1 mechanism is an important part of China-EU relations; China is neither willing nor capable of splitting Europe,” said Ambassador Yang Yanyi, head of the Chinese Mission to the EU, in an exclusive interview with Xinhua.
“China definitely has no idea to split the EU,” Men echoed the ambassador. However, the professor added, “the result or effect of the 16+1 mechanism may unintentionally cause some misunderstanding on the EU side.”
“So China should make efforts to remove the EU’s suspicion on this issue, so as not to harm bilateral relations,” she said.
Since the very beginning of China-CEE summit in 2012, China has been willing to invite the EU to participate in the 16+1 mechanism, Yang noted.
“China-CEE cooperation, guided by the principle of openness and transparency, aims at strengthening China-EU relations in an all-around way,” said the ambassador.
“As always, China supports the integration of Europe and hopes that Europe is united, stable, and prosperous,” she said.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-05. China, Latvia agree to expand cooperation
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang met in Riga Friday with Latvia’s president and parliament speaker respectively, pledging to further promote bilateral cooperation in various areas.
Li is currently in the Baltic country for an official visit and a leaders’ meeting on Saturday within what is known as the 16+1 framework, which groups China and 16 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations.
While meeting with Latvian President Raimonds Vejonis, Li described Latvia as a good friend and partner in the Baltic region, and expressed the hope that the two sides will take the 25th anniversary of their diplomatic ties as an opportunity to further deepen bilateral cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and equality, so as to benefit both peoples.
China, he added, is willing to align its development strategies with Latvia’s, deepen bilateral cooperation in connectivity, trade and infrastructure construction, and enhance people-to-people exchanges in areas like tourism and education.
The Chinese premier also called for more cooperation within the 16+1 framework, so as to bring common development to both countries as well as other countries in the region.
Vejonis said that China is an important cooperation partner for his country, and that bilateral cooperation still harbors great potential on top of the already fruitful achievements.
Latvia looks forward to enhancing cooperation with China in transportation, innovation, logistics and agriculture, and welcomes more Chinese investment, he said, adding that his country expects the upcoming 16+1 meeting to be a success.
During the meeting with Latvian Parliament Speaker Inara Murniece, Li urged concerted efforts to promote exchanges between the two countries’ legislatures and political parties and enhance people-to-people exchanges through cultural and sports activities.
He expressed appreciation for Latvia’s positive role in China-CEE cooperation, saying China will work with all sides concerned to make good use of the 16+1 mechanism and tap cooperation potential for mutual benefits and win-win results.
Murniece said the Latvian parliament will expand exchanges with the Chinese side to contribute to bilateral political, economic and cultural relations as well as 16+1 cooperation.
Li’s trip marks the first time for a Chinese premier to visit Latvia since it gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Baltic country is the third leg of his ongoing eight-day Eurasia tour, which has already taken him to Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan and will conclude in Russia.
→ Xinhua. 2016-11-05. Chinese premier meets Albanian, Slovenian, Macedonian PMs to boost cooperation
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang met respectively with Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama, Slovenian Prime Minister Miro Cerar and Macedonian Prime Minister Emil Dimitriev in Riga, Latvia, on Friday, vowing to expand China’s cooperation with the three Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries.
The prime ministers are in the Latvian capital to attend a meeting of the heads of government of China and 16 CEE countries that is to be held on Saturday.
During the meeting with Rama, Li said China encourages Chinese enterprises to invest in Albania based on market-oriented principles and conduct cooperation on water conservancy, energy and infrastructure construction.
Hailing the progress made in major projects over recent years, Li called on the two countries to further enhance win-win cooperation within what is popularly known as the 16+1 framework.
Rama said Albania and China have carried out smooth cooperation in the areas of infrastructure construction, oil and gas, water resources and tourism, which has opened up new areas for future cooperation.
He said Albania is looking forward to good results from 16+1 cooperation and will continue to help push it forward.
During the meeting with Cerar, Li said China is willing to further promote China-Slovenia friendly ties and practical cooperation.
He called on the two countries to synergize their development strategies, and expand cooperation on civil aviation, sports and tourism.
Cerar spoke highly of the achievements scored in bilateral trade and cultural exchanges, adding that Slovenia is ready to work with China to maintain high-level exchanges, deepen bilateral and 16+1 cooperation, and further enhance people-to-people and sports exchanges.
During the meeting with Dimitriev, Li said Beijing encourages Chinese enterprises to participate in highway and railway construction in Macedonia.
He also called for more people-to-people exchanges and closer cooperation in such areas as the traditional Chinese medicine and finance so as to benefit the people of both countries.
Dimitriev said Macedonia-China trade cooperation has boosted his country’s economic development.
Macedonia would like to further step up mutually beneficial cooperation and cultural exchanges with China, said Dimitriev, adding that the Balkan country welcomes more investment from Chinese enterprises in its infrastructure construction.
Li arrived in the Baltic country of Latvia on Friday morning, continuing an eight-day Eurasia tour that has already taken him to Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
This is the first time for a Chinese premier to visit Latvia since it declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. It is also the first time for a Baltic country to host a 16+1 leaders’ meeting since the mechanism was initiated in 2012.
The trip will also take the Chinese premier to Russia.
→ Reuters. 2016-11-06. China launches $11 billion fund for Central, Eastern Europe
China has set up a 10 billion euro ($11.15 billion) investment fund to finance projects in Central and Eastern Europe, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (601398.SS) (1398.HK) said in a statement issued on Sunday.
The China-Central Eastern Europe fund will be run by Sino-CEE Financial Holdings Ltd, a company established by the bank earlier this year.
The company was formally launched by Premier Li Keqiang during his visit to Riga on Saturday.
The fund is aiming to raise 50 billion euros in project finance for sectors such as infrastructure, high-tech manufacturing and consumer goods, the bank said.
While targetting Central and Eastern Europe, it could extend to the rest of Europe and other regions if relevant to China-Central and Eastern Europe co-operation, it said.
The fund will be government-backed but will operate under business principles and be guided by the market, it added.
Central and Eastern Europe are part of China’s modern Silk Road where Beijing is hoping to carve out new export markets for its companies as the domestic economy slows.
China’s Vice Commerce Minister Gao Yan said last year that Chinese companies have already invested more than $5 billion in CEE countries.
But China’s push for more investment at the gateway to the European Union comes amid growing calls in top Eurozone economy Germany to restrict Chinese investment in some sectors.
Riga is hosting a summit of leaders from 16 central and eastern European countries and China, a group dubbed ’16+1′ by Beijing.
China Life Insurance and Fosun Group are also involved in managing the fund, added the statement.