Pubblicato in: Devoluzione socialismo, Sistemi Politici, Unione Europea

Juncker. Gli Stati Uniti di Europa sono abortiti. La gente non li vuole.

Giuseppe Sandro Mela.

2016-10-09.

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Nei paesi ad ordinamento democratico sussiste una severa contraddizione. Se il popolo sovrano elegge tramite le elezioni i propri governanti, esso non ha tuttavia una strumento giuridico per revocarne il mandato. Come conseguenza, un governo eletto resta in carica fino alla prossima scadenza elettorale. Cosa che, come tutte, ha i suoi pro ed i suoi contro.

Questa discrepanza diventa ancora più stridente quando alcune alte cariche sono elette in modo indiretto, ossia non dal popolo direttamente, bensì dai parlamentari. Un esempio potrebbe essere il presidente della repubblica italiana.

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L’Unione Europea sta vivendo proprio questo periodo.

Molti governi attualmente in carica hanno vistosamente perso il consenso popolare. Nei dolorosi tempi nei quali si stava peggio questi governanti avrebbero dato le dimissioni ed indetto nuove elezioni, ma con i tempi correnti ci si dovrebbe accontentare che non si siano trasformati in dittatori perenni.

Restano in ogni caso sul tappeto molti problemi.

Le recenti esperienze francesi evidenziano come le folle inferocite possano riversarsi nelle strade. Ma due sono i grandi problemi.

Il primo è l’audience nulla che questi governanti hanno in sede internazionale: accolti con protocolli diplomaticamente corretti, politicamente non contano più nulla, e con loro le nazioni che rappresentano.

Non a caso Mrs May aspetta prudentemente che scadano di mandato molti governi per intavolare discussioni sul Brexit:

May says will trigger EU divorce by end of March

May reaffirms desire for controlled immigration, accused of nationalism

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Come contentino, l’insieme della elité sfiduciata oppure in scadenza si è riunita a Parigi, coprendosi di vicendevoli elogi, visto che fuori da questa ristretta cerchia raggranellano solo insulti ed inviti a dimettersi.

In uno dei suoi ben rari momenti di sobrietà, Mr Juncker ha detto una cosa che tutti potremmo condividere, anche se con dei distinguo di non poco peso:

«Bisogna smetterla di parlare

degli Stati Uniti d’Europa,

la gente non li vuole».

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Ci permettiamo si approvare in linea generale questa dichiarazione, con una importante precisazione.

In linea generale non abbiamo preclusione alcuna ad una eventuale futura approvazione degli Stati Uniti d’Europa, sotto la condizione che siano approvati in ogni singolo stato da referendum vincolanti a maggioranza qualificata.

Siamo invece del tutto contrari a degli Stati Uniti d’Europa concepiti così come avevano vagheggiato Mr Juncker, Herr Schulz, Mr Hollande e Frau Merkel.

Nessuno desidera instaurare la dittatura di codesto quadrunvirato.

Nessuno condivide la loro Weltanschauung, anzi, la si osteggia apertamente.


La Stampa. 2016-10-08. Juncker: “Basta parlare di Stati Uniti d’Europa, la gente non li vuole”

Il presidente della Commissione Ue a Parigi con Hollande, Valls, Mogherini e Letta per il ventennale dell’istituto Jacques Delors.

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«Bisogna smetterla di parlare degli Stati Uniti d’Europa, la gente non li vuole». Anche se già in passato aveva affrontato il tema in termini simili, questa volta Jean-Claude Juncker è stato più netto del solito. L’Unione Europea va rilanciata, ma non è il momento per tirare fuori dal cassetto i sogni federalisti messi nero su bianco da Altiero Spinelli nel suo Manifesto di Ventotene. Juncker è consapevole che questa è una fase delicata: c’è il rischio che dagli Stati arrivino reazioni in senso opposto. Da Parigi il capo della Commissione Ue ha dunque ridisegnato la sua idea di Europa dialogando con il premier francese Manuel Valls che, sul punto, si è mostrato d’accordo con Juncker, difendendo – in modo ancora più accentuato – la sovranità degli Stati nazionali. Anche se poi lo stesso Juncker ha fatto capire che la lentezza di alcune decisioni di Bruxelles è dovuta al Consiglio, dunque ai governi, e non alla Commissione: «Dopo gli attentati di Parigi del novembre scorso, abbiamo studiato e predisposto una direttiva sulla vendita delle armi in 15 giorni. Che poi è rimasta bloccata per otto mesi in Consiglio…». 

Presenti anche Mogherini e Letta.

L’occasione per la riflessione è stata offerta dalle celebrazioni per il ventennale dell’istituto Jacques Delors, di cui La Stampa era partner, che hanno visto la partecipazione – tra gli altri – del presidente francese François Hollande e dell’Alto Rappresentante per la politica estera Federica Mogherini. Sua è la Global Strategy presentata nelle scorse settimane, una mappa da cui partire per studiare una Difesa comune europea. Si tratta di un tema su cui c’è una vasta convergenza tra i 27 Paesi dell’Unione, ora che la Gran Bretagna è con un piede fuori dalla porta. “Serve una strategia comune – ha detto Juncker – non possiamo lasciare la Francia da sola in questo compito”. 

Il rischio stallo.

La giornata è stata aperta dall’intervento dell’ex premier italiano Enrico Letta, direttore dell’istituto Jacques Delors, che ha spronato l’Ue ad agire e a farlo in fretta. Nel 2017 – anno in cui partiranno i negoziati per la Brexit – si vota in Olanda, Francia e Germania: il rischio di un anno di stallo è fortissimo. “Ma non possiamo attendere le elezioni tedesche per rilanciare l’Ue” ha detto senza mezzi termini l’ex presidente del Consiglio italiano. Juncker ha assicurato che non sarà così e annunciato che “nei prossimi 12 mesi” verranno prese “decisioni importanti”. 

I flussi migratori.

Per l’Europa una delle sfide più grandi resta quella dell’immigrazione. Il presidente della Commissione ha colto l’occasione per richiamare di nuovo all’ordine gli Stati che non fanno il loro dovere e che si rifiutano di accogliere le quote di rifugiati decise a livello comunitario. “L’Europa si basa sul diritto. Abbiamo delle regole, ma gli Stati non le rispettano. Se ogni volta che prendiamo una decisione, uno Stato membro organizza un referendum, è la fine”. Mercoledì prossimo lo dirà anche al suo commissario Tibor Navracsics, ungherese, che in un’intervista ha detto di aver votato al referendum sui rifugiati contro il piano della Commissione. Per lui non si escludono conseguenze. 

Juncker ha poi elogiato la Francia perché su questo fronte si è da subito dimostrata molto collaborativa. Lo stesso non si potrebbe dire sulle attività di salvataggio dei migranti nel Mediterraneo: l’Italia denuncia di essere stata lasciata sola. Pungolato sul tema, il premier francese ha respinto le accuse di scarso impegno e ha rigirato la questione mettendo l’accento sul fronte militare, dove l’impegno francese, per esempio in Mali o in Medio Oriente, è più forte di quello di altri Paesi. Tradotto suona più o meno così: noi facciamo poco per salvare i migranti in mare, ma facciamo molto con i nostri eserciti nelle zone di conflitto.  

Sul fronte Brexit, la linea della Commissione è sempre quella di non voler cedere nulla alla Gran Bretagna. Juncker annuncia che “non ci saranno sconti sulle regole del mercato unico” e che non saranno tollerati tentativi di negoziati bilaterali con i singoli Paesi prima della notifica dell’articolo 50. Massima intransigenza anche sul Ttip, sul quale c’è stato un nuovo round di negoziati questa settimana: “Non ci inginocchieremo davanti agli Stati Uniti” ha detto Juncker. E Valls ha definito lo stato dell’accordo “inaccettabile”. Ma il vero problema, al di là delle divergenze con Washington, è che tutto resterà congelato fino alle elezioni in Francia e in Germania.


Euractiv. 2016-10-08. Hollande argues for ‘firm’ stance on Brexit

French President François Hollande warned last night (6 October) against the continued “ambiguity” surrounding Britain’s EU membership, arguing in favour of tough Brexit negotiations with the UK.

“Britain has decided to go for a Brexit, in fact I believe a hard Brexit. Well, we have to follow through with Britain’s wishes to leave the European Union and we need to be firm,” Hollande told a dinner hosted by the Jacques Delors Institute, a think tank.

“If not, we would jeopardise the fundamental principles of the EU,” he added, warning that other countries might be tempted to leave as well.

Hollande was speaking in Paris at a dinner to celebrate 20th anniversary of the Jacques Delors Institute. The dinner was attended also by European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker and the EU’s top Brexit negotiator, Michel Barnier.

And the French President apparently decided not to mince his words.

“Today the UK wants to leave but pay nothing. That is not possible,” he said, almost losing patience.

“It is neither in the interest of the EU, nor the UK to remain in a situation of ambiguity,” he stressed.

Hollande’s warning comes just days after the UK Prime minister Theresa May announced that the UK would trigger the process of leaving the EU by the end of March.

May also hinted that the UK might be heading for tough talks with the EU as she stressed that immigration controls will be prioritised over access to the single market.

Not another crisis, THE crisis

“Europe has always been in crisis,” Hollande said. “But this time, it is not a further crisis. This is THE crisis,” he added, citing, in particular, the situation of Italy and Spain in 2012, that of Greece in 2014, the current plight of refugees and the latest earthquake, Brexit. 

Britain’s decision to leave the EU on 23 June sparked turmoil in financial markets as investors tried to gauge its impact on both the world’s fifth largest economy and the 28-member bloc.

The country’s allies fear that its exit from the EU could mark a turning point in post-Cold War international affairs that will weaken the West in relation to China and Russia, undermine efforts toward European integration and hurt global free trade.

To face these challenges, Hollande urged the “architects” – the nations that make up the European Union – to “be concerned” and to make every effort to strengthen the  bloc’s “foundations”.

“Europe is our values, a culture, which deserve to be defended fiercely and everywhere. As Delors put it, this is our Europe,” he concluded.


Euractiv. 2016-10-08. Juncker rages against the UK and Hungary

The EU must be “unyielding” in the face of Britain’s demands on the terms for its divorce from the bloc, European Commission chief Jean-Claude Juncker said today (7 October). He also took aim at Hungary, following the Central European country’s recent referendum on migrant quotas.

“You can’t have one foot in and one foot out,” Juncker told a conference in Paris, warning that Britain risked “trampling everything that has been built” over six decades of European integration.

“We must be unyielding on this point. I see the manoeuvring (by Britain),” Juncker said.

His remarks were aimed at British Prime Minister Theresa May who said Wednesday (5 October) she wanted an exit deal that offered Britain “maximum freedom” to operate in Europe’s single market while also maintaining control over immigration.

May has said she will trigger negotiations with Brussels to leave the EU before the end of March.

Her remarks on immigration have sparked fears of a “hard Brexit”, sending the pound into a tailspin and setting the stage for a showdown with European leaders.

French President François Hollande warned yesterday (6 October) Britain would have to pay “a price” for its decision to leave the EU.

Juncker also lashed out at Hungary’s anti-migrant policy, accusing the country of rejecting European values.

If member states refuse to follow the EU plan for migrants, it would be “the beginning of the end” for the bloc, he warned at the same Paris conference.

“If every time a member state doesn’t agree with a decision, it organises a referendum to say the opposite of what the rule of law has said… we won’t be able to manage and to govern the European Union,” he said.

Juncker’s comments come days after Hungarian President Viktor Orbán proposed changing the constitution to ban the large-scale resettlement of migrants.

The proposal came after voters in Hungary overwhelmingly backed Orbán’s rejection of an EU refugee quota plan in a referendum on 2 October. The vote, however, was declared invalid because of low turnout.

“Certain members are not applying it,” said Juncker of the EU resettlement plan.

“It’s the beginning of the end if the fixed rule, democratically worked out, is no longer respected by the member states,” he said, adding that the EU “is founded on the law”.

“It saddens me greatly to see today certain member states setting themselves apart by no longer respecting the European norm,” he added.

Jucker has however a bigger issue to solve in his own courtyard. Reportedly, the Hungarian Commissioner, Tibor Navracsics, said ithat he had voted ‘no’ in last weekend’s referendum, which means, he opposed Juncker’s policies.

A Commission spokesperson said today the EU executive was trying to clarify what exactly Navracscics had said, and that Juncker would speak to his commissioner in the margins of the next College meeting.

Last year, most EU states approved the redistribution of 160,000 migrants among member states.

The deal is aimed at easing pressure on Italy and Greece, where most of the migrants fleeing war and poverty have landed in the bloc’s worst migration crisis since 1945.

But progress has been slow, with eastern and central European countries vehemently opposed.


Financial Times. 2016-10-08. Juncker tells EU leaders to be ‘intransigent’ with Britain

President of EU commission demands business leaders refrain from secret negotiations with the UK.

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Jean-Claude Juncker has called for EU leaders to be “intransigent” with Britain when holding talks over the country’s departure from the bloc to prevent the unravelling of the six-decade old institution.

Speaking in Paris on Friday, the president of the EU commission also demanded continental business leaders refrain from engaging in secret negotiations with the UK if they did not want to undermine the single market.

“One cannot be one foot out and one foot in and with the foot out destroying what we’ve built,” Mr Juncker told students and reporters during a debate hosted by the pro-EU think-tank Institut Delors, which was attended by socialist prime minister Manuel Valls and Michel Barnier, the EU’s Brexit chief negotiator. “On this point, we have to be intransigent. I see the manoeuvring.”

Echoing comments from François Hollande, French president, and from Angela Merkel, German chancellor, the day before, Mr Juncker reminded the audience that once out of the EU, the UK could not win back access to the single market without embracing the same principles imposed on all members, including freedom of movement.

The uncompromising message from Paris, Berlin and Brussels is a response to a hardening of the UK position, diplomats say. Last Sunday, British prime minister Theresa May hinted that she might engage in “hard Brexit” talks by vowing to regain control over immigration, in a challenge to the single market’s principle of free movement of labour. A subsequent plan, outlined by home secretary Amber Rudd, to request companies operating in the UK draw up lists of foreign workers created outrage in European capitals.

At a gala dinner this week marking the 20th anniversary of the think-tank created by Jacques Delors, a former EU commission president, Mr Hollande demanded “firmness” from the commission and its chief Brexit negotiator, the Frenchman Mr Barnier. Mr Hollande said that a softer stance would encourage other countries to negotiate better terms for them and fuel populism.

“The UK wants to leave and pay nothing. It’s not possible,” the Socialist president said. “There must be a threat, there must be a risk, there must be a price. Otherwise we will be in a negotiation that cannot end well.”

Mr Juncker on Friday extended the warning to European business leaders, some of whom might be tempted to seek arrangements or lobby EU governments in favour of a compromise to keep exporting their products to the UK.

“I hope entire chunks of European industry won’t engage in secret discussions, in dark rooms, curtains drawn, with British government envoys,” Mr Juncker warned.


Sputnik. 2016-10-08. Juncker Proposes to Place EU Operations Command Headquarters in Brussels.

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker proposed to place the central headquarters of the European Union’s civil and military operations in Brussels.

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BRUSSELS (Sputnik) — European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker proposed no Friday to set up in Brussels the central command headquarters of the European Union’s civil and military operations. “I proposed to place the central headquarters in Brussels,” Juncker said, delivering a speech at the Jacques Delors Institute in Paris.

BRUSSELS (Sputnik) — European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker proposed no Friday to set up in Brussels the central command headquarters of the European Union’s civil and military operations.

“I proposed to place the central headquarters in Brussels,” Juncker said, delivering a speech at the Jacques Delors Institute in Paris. British soldiers © Flickr/ UK Ministry of Defence One NATO, One Love: UK to Continue Blocking Single EU Army Project In September, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini proposed to establish a joint staff command of civilian-military EU operations. The head of the EU diplomacy said that the creation of the united armed forces of the European Union was not a case of near future, though some proposals for the European defense and security strategy were expected by the end of the year. According to Juncker, placing command headquarters in Brussels would be the first step toward strengthening the military component of the European security and defense policy.


World Bulletin. 2016-10-08. France’s Hollande warns Britain must pay the price for Brexit.

French President Francois Hollande has sent one of the strongest warnings yet that Britain will have to pay a heavy price for leaving the European Union, adding to deep concern in financial markets.

He called for “firmness” by the EU powers in Brexit negotiations to avoid the risk that other countries might seek to follow Britain’s lead and leave the bloc.

The comments added to jitters on financial markets, where the pound Friday morning suffered its biggest drop since Britain voted in a June referendum to leave the EU.

“There must be a threat, there must be a risk, there must be a price, otherwise we will be in negotiations that will not end well and, inevitably, will have economic and human consequences,” he said in a speech Thursday evening.

“Britain has decided on a Brexit, I believe even a hard Brexit. Well, we must go all the way with Britain’s will to leave the European Union.

“We have to have this firmness” otherwise “the principles of the European Union will be questioned” and “other countries or other parties will be minded to leave the European Union in order to have the supposed benefits and no downsides or rules.”

Hollande made the speech to mark the 20th anniversary of the creation of the Institut Jacques Delors, a think tank founded by the former president of the European Commission.

He said Delors “had also faced crises provoked by the United Kingdom”, noting that the late British prime minister Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s obtained a rebate on its EU contributions worth billions of pounds every year.

Thatcher “wanted to remain in Europe, but receive a cheque in return,” he said.

“Today, Britain wants to leave, but does not want to pay anything. That is not possible”.

British Prime Minister Theresa May announced on Sunday that her government will trigger Brexit negotiations by the end of March, putting the country on course to leave the European Union by early 2019.

European powers keen to dampen rising euroscepticism in their own backyards have taken a hard line with Britain, warning that informal negotiations cannot start before the two-year notification process is triggered.

May’s government and party is divided over whether to go for a “hard” or “soft” withdrawal from the EU.

“Hard” Brexit would mean quickly severing all links with EU institutions and pulling out of the single market, relying instead on World Trade Organization rules to trade overseas.

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